In this article information about Vegetarianism – diet Benefits, risks, and tips. Vegetarians are people who don’t consume meat, fish, and poultry. Vegetarians (Vegetarianism) who forgo from eating or using animal products (milk, eggs, cheese, other dairy products, silk, leather, and wool) are called vegans. Some of the various reasons for being a vegetarian:
- weight loss and improved health
- practicing Hinduism, Taoism, the Bahá’í Faith, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism
- ecological reasons since all modern farming practices use large quantities of fossil fuel and water resources and lead to emissions of harmful chemicals and gases
- dislike of meat
- a belief in animal rights, or revulsion for inflicting pain or harm on other living creatures
- animal food safety issues including foot-and-mouth disease in sheep, mad cow disease in cows, PCBs in farmed salmon and high dioxin levels in animal products
Types of vegetarianism
There are various types of vegetarianism. Here’s a list of types along with the food that the diet permits:
|Foods allowed in||the main vegetarian||diets|
The Vegetarian Nutrition – Vegetarianism
- dried fruits
- dried beans
- tofu and tempeh
- baked potatoes
- cereals and instant oatmeal
- veggie “meats”
- tofu and tempeh
- whole-grain bread
- turnip greens
- collard greens
- fortified soymilk
- fortified orange juice
Vitamin B12 sources:
Some Issues About Vegetarianism
Is vegetarianism safe for children and teenagers?
The American Dietetic Association affirms that a vegetarian diet fills the needs of infants, children, and adolescents and foster normal growth. Weight should be placed on foods rich in iron, calcium, and zinc.
Aren’t vegetarians fragile and weak?
Olympic gold medallist, Edwin Moses and 6-time Ironman Triathlon winner, Dave Scott, just to name a few are vegetarians. Strong vegetarians from the animal kingdom include elephants, bulls, gorillas, and rhinos!
Is it hard to eat in a restaurant when you’re a vegetarian?
It’s in fact surprisingly simple. One can always order rice, beans, and tortillas at, for example, a Mexican restaurant. Chinese restaurants have all kinds of rice, vegetable, and tofu fares. Italian diners serve veggie courses like ravioli, spaghetti, minestrone soup, and vegetable lasagna. Even a steak restaurant is sure to have baked potatoes, bread, and salads.
Fast-food chains are especially helpful as well. Delis offer a range of vegetables and cheeses on a bun with mayo, mustard, or whatever you fancy. Burger joints are willing to leave the meat off the sandwich upon customer request. Numerous fast-food venues now offer baked potatoes, salads, or meatless pita sandwiches. The popular pizza delivery companies have all sorts of appetizing vegetable toppings and will even leave the cheese off if you ask.
Who are the world’s vegetarians?
In the West, the status of vegetarianism progressively grew over the 20th century as a product of nutritional, ethical, and of late, environmental and economic affairs.
These days, Indian vegetarians, mainly Lacto-Ovo vegetarians, are projected to make up more than 70% of the world’s vegetarians. They make up 20 to 30% of the population in India, while semioccasional meat-eaters make up another 30%. Most Asian countries had a primarily vegetarian diet until the past few decades when mounting industrialization and westernization altered that.
Some famous vegetarians:
- Alicia Silverstone
- Bob Dylan
- Alyssa Milano
- Eddie Vedder
- Carrie Underwood
- H.G. Wells
- Chelsea Clinton
- Lenny Kravitz
- Henry David Thoreau
Fruits and vegetables – Vegetarianism
The four most important nutrients in fruits are vitamin C, fiber, phytonutrients or health-building substances and carotenoids (e.g. beta carotene).
These top ten fruits are high in vitamin C, carotenoids, fiber, folic acid, and calcium. They’re also widely available, safe and versatile.
6. Apricots (dried, unsulfured)
8. Strawberries (organic)
10. Grapefruit (pink or red)
Top Vitamin C Fruit Sources
|Fruit||Calories||Milligrams of Vitamin C|
|Guava, 1 medium||46||165|
|Papaya, 1 cup, cubed||55||87|
|Strawberries, 1 cup||45||84|
|Kiwi, 1 medium||46||74|
|Cantaloupe, 1 cup||56||68|
|Orange, 1 medium||60||75|
Top Fiber-Rich Fruits
|Fruit||Calories||Grams of Fiber per 100 calories|
|Raspberries, 1 c.||60||8|
|Blackberries, 1 c.||74||7.6|
|Strawberries, 1 c.||45||3.4|
|Prunes, 1/2 c., cooked||113||7.0|
|Papaya, 1 medium||118||5.5|
|Orange, 1 medium||50||3.0|
|Apple, 1 medium||81||3.7|
|#Pears, 1 medium||98||4.0|
|Figs, dried, 5||237||8.5|
Allergies or sickness can cause the intestines to be more sensitive. Some fruits have sugars that are easily absorbed into the bloodstream, whereas the sugar in other fruits may ferment and cause gas to develop in the intestines.
|Most Kind to the Intestines||Least Kind to the Intestines|
Vegetables – Vegetarianism
#Vegetables can be quite a versatile food that easily fits into any healthy diet. Whether served raw or cooked, as the main meal or side dish, veggies are nutritional powerhouses:
- packed with vitamins and minerals
- good source of fiber
- low in fat, sodium, and calories
- no cholesterol
- have phytochemicals (that may help stop chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and some cancers)
- good sources of antioxidants
To get the nutritional benefits of veggies, try different types:
High in vitamin A
- kale, collards
- leaf lettuce
- mustard greens
- romaine lettuce
- sweet potato
- winter squash (acorn, Hubbard)
High in fiber or good source of fiber
- brussels sprouts
- cooked beans and peas (kidney, navy, lima, and pinto beans, black-eyed peas, lentils)
High in vitamin C
- brussels sprouts
- chili peppers
- mustard greens
- bell peppers
Cruciferous (a vegetable of the mustard family) vegetables
- bok choy
- brussels sprouts
Food as Medicine – Vegetarianism
Nearly 2,500 years ago Hippocrates is supposed to have said, “Let food be thy medicine, and medicine be thy food.”
Beyond basic nutrition, food also provides important medical benefits. Hence, food is also medicine. The food we eat can stop and in some cases fight disease. If you find yourself chronically suffering from depression, constipation, headaches or hypertension, make the food you eat the solution to these problems.
Some of these whole, nutritious foods include:
$Whole grains contain different phytonutrients (A phytonutrient is a term given to the parts of plants with health benefits) that are performing as good as fruits and vegetables, according to the American Dietetic Association. #Whole grains include whole wheat, oats, bulgur, brown rice, and bran.
Researchers at the University of Minnesota states that eating three daily servings of whole grains can cut the risk of
- heart disease by 25 to 36 percent
- stroke by 37 percent, and
- type 2 diabetes by 21 to 27 percent
Among the food containing probiotics (the “friendly” bacteria that when ingested helps fight diseases), yogurt is the most popular and beneficial. According to two recent studies, eating yogurt considerably improved a person’s capacity to fight off pneumonia. Eating yogurt is a recommended daily habit; just make sure that you buy yogurt brands with “live” or “active” cultures, as the probiotics can’t give any benefit if they’re already dead before you eat them.
A study presented at the November 2005 meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research established that Polish women who take cabbage and sauerkraut (fermented cabbage) four or more times a week were 74 percent less prone to develop breast cancer. The mighty cabbage may also protect against cancers of the stomach, lungs, and colon.
The super component in cabbage seems to be sulforaphane, a phytochemical that works by inciting cells to eradicate cancerous substances. Eating cabbage four times a week maybe a la lot for most people, but putting it to soups and salads once or twice a week is a good idea,
Researchers at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University promote the benefits of blueberries. Taking one serving of wild blueberries are equal to eating two to three servings of some other fruits and vegetables, including broccoli, apples, and even spinach.
Studies published in the past year also illustrate that eating ample servings of blueberries may help reduce brain damage from strokes and may lessen the effects of Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.
Scientists have been aware for years that habitual eating of tomato-based foods can shrink a man’s risk of prostate cancer by up to 35 percent. Of late, studies have revealed that men who already have prostate cancer may profit as well. The levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the patients’ blood plunged by nearly 20 percent.
(PSA is a gauge of prostate-cancer-cell activity, so the lower the level, the less active the cancer cells.) The probable active component in tomatoes is lycopene, a powerful antioxidant that is considered to also shield the body against stomach and lung cancers. Men with prostate cancer are advised to eat cooked tomatoes daily, in chilies, soups, spaghetti sauces, or other dishes.
An all-natural pain reliever, cherries can benefit sufferers of arthritis by reducing the pain in the joints. Joseph Pizzorno, a doctor of naturopathic medicine and co-author of The Encyclopedia of Healing Foods said, “One of the old-time therapies for gout [a very painful form of arthritis] was black cherries.” “Until just recently, nobody really knew why it worked out; they just knew that it did.” If you suffer from arthritis, you should integrate this antioxidant-rich fruit into your diet a number of times a week.
Beans are one of the most underrated nutritional sources today. $Not only are beans a fine source of protein and antioxidants, but they’re also rich in fiber which has been proven in some studies to help prevent colon cancer. Two to four servings a week of beans will prove to be beneficial.
Nutritional info & food labels – Vegetarianism
The nutritional facts label is a label required on nearly all pre-packaged foods in North America, the United Kingdom, and other countries. It is also known as a nutrition information panel and various other minor variations.
In the U.S., the nutritional facts label registers the percentage of supplied nutrients needed in one day. In particular cases this label is not yet required by law, so a list of ingredients should be submitted instead. Ingredients are listed from the most common to least common.
The label lists in this order:
- A standard serving measurement
- A break down of the constituent elements—Constantly listed are carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Typically, sodium and cholesterol, are also listed, sometimes vitamins and minerals too.
Products that claim to be graded as low fat and high-fiber must reach identical definitions between products of like labels.
Under policies from the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services (and the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture), the food label submits more comprehensive, helpful and accurate nutrition information than ever before.
With food labels, consumers get:
- A distinctive, easy-to-read layout that enables them to quickly locate the info they need to make healthy food selections
- Information on the quantity per serving of saturated fat, dietary fiber, cholesterol, and other nutrients
- Nutrient reference values depicted as % Daily Values which helps consumers see how a food matches into a general daily diet
- Uniform descriptions for terms that express a food’s nutrient content (“light,” “low-fat,” and “high-fiber”) to guarantee that such terminologies mean the same for any product on which they come out
- Statements on the connection between a nutrient/food and a disease or health-related condition (fat and cancer, calcium and osteoporosis). These are useful for people who are health-conscious
- Standardized serving sizes that facilitate the nutritional evaluation of similar products
The Labels on Cereals
Standards for a healthy cereal:
- Protein content should be at least three grams per serving
- The grains should be whole (e.g. “whole wheat” or “wheat bran,” not only “wheat”).
- #The zinc content should be 25 to 40 percent of the recommended daily allowance.
- The total carbohydrate-to-sugar ratio should not be lesser than four to one. This indicates that if the “Total Carbohydrate” line displays 24 grams, the “sugars” should have a value of 6 grams or less.
- Iron content should be 25 to 40 percent of the RDA.
- Content of other vitamins and minerals should be 25 to 40 percent of the RDA.
The Labels on Fruit Juices
Standards for a healthy fruit juice:
- Get juice labeled “100 percent fruit juice.”
- Be wary of words like “drink,” “cocktail,” “beverage” “punch,” and “ade” as these are not 100 percent juice. They are junk fruit beverages with little or no nutritional value.
- Check the ingredients. Steer clear of fruit-flavored beverages that have extra fructose corn syrup as they shape a child’s inclination towards sweet cravings.
- Confirm if the juice is pasteurized. Commercial juices now are expected to state if it is pasteurized on the label as non-pasteurized juice carry bacteria that are particularly damaging to people with weakened immune systems (children, pregnant women, the elderly).
The FDA also imparts guidelines about the claims and descriptions used in food labeling:
|CLAIM||Requirements that must be met before using the claim in food labeling|
3 grams or less of fat per serving
Less than 2 mg cholesterol per serving, and 2 grams or less saturated fat per serving
40 calories or less per serving
Less than 0.5 grams of sugar per serving
140 mg or less per serving
“Less”, “Fewer” or “Reduced”
At least 25% less of a given nutrient or calories than the comparison food
50% or less of the fat than in the comparison food
Nutritional needs of children, women and the elderly – Vegetarianism
Nutritional Needs of Children
Nutrition and health professionals have long acknowledged the value of setting up healthy nutrition habits during childhood and early adolescence.
This is significant because diet and exercise patterns taken up during these major developmental years lay down the life-long habits that can stand for the difference between health and frailty in later years.
Majority of children grow about two inches and put on about four to seven pounds for every year. Between the ages of six to 12, youngsters will shoot up an average of one to two feet and nearly double in weight. Nutrition recommendations for children are planned to encourage top growth and development
A wide selection of foods loaded in essential nutrients is important for growing bodies and shape the basis of these recommendations. As pointed out in the Food Guide Pyramid, these foods include carbohydrate-rich grains and fruits and vegetables needed to provide minerals, vitamins, fiber and energy fundamental to good health. Sufficient quantities of dairy products, fish, lean meats, eggs, poultry, nuts, and dry beans also offer nutrients that add to proper growth and development.
While children often have specific food likes and dislikes, nutritionists and dietitians advice that parents make accessible a broad variety of foods and support sampling new foods in small amounts without pushing the issue. In this way, children will often come to accept and enjoy new foods.
Shifting Nutritional Needs of Women
Taking a multivitamin supplement is a must for women. This supplement should have folic acid that is required primarily during a woman’s reproductive years. In addition, women should take 1,200 milligrams of calcium per day.
A woman who is planning on having a family must make sure that her body is prepared for a healthy pregnancy. Research recommends that folic acid supplementation in the weeks leading to and following conception may help avert neural tube defects.
Folic acid-rich foods include oranges, green leafy vegetables, liver, whole grain bread, and cereals. Women who are somewhat anemic should fortify their iron levels even before planning pregnancy with foods such as lean meats, raisins, and beans. During pregnancy, the daily requirement of iron multiplies from 15 milligrams to 30 milligrams. Potatoes, citrus fruits, and broccoli are also suggested to enhance iron absorption.
Mid-life nutrition for women requires them to reduce their daily calories by 100-200 calories. Calcium intake should be higher—1,000 mg/day for adults ages 19-50. After 51, it’s 1,200 mg/day. And, postmenopausal women who opt for not taking estrogen to require 1,500 mg/day.
Eating whole grains, fruits and vegetables also give older women the fiber needed to avoid constipation and diverticulosis in their later years. Here you know about the smart and final weekly ad.
Special Nutritional Needs of the Elderly
The young elderly (65-74) and the older elderly (75 and over) may have 10-20 active years ahead of them. The main goal for these years is to promote health in nutrition. Since the elderly are more likely to have chronic illnesses, their nutritional requirements must be jam-packed with vitamins, proteins, and minerals distributed in small volumes.
- Fiber – Constipation and bowel problems in the elderly are largely due to decreased gut activity. To aid this, the consumption of fruits, cereal foods, and vegetables should be promoted.
- Fat – Saturated fat (animal fats) intake must be lessened if not totally eliminated for cardiovascular health. This is also advised even for elderly people who are fit and well.
- Zinc – A must for a healthy immune system and to facilitate wound healing (as in pressure ulcers). Rich sources of zinc: meat, shellfish, and wholemeal bread.
- Calcium – Sufficient intakes of calcium help to slow down calcium loss from bones, which begins at the age of 30 and speeds up significantly in later years. Calcium-rich foods (milk, dairy foods) should be taken daily.
- Iron – The use of certain drugs and loss of blood may cause anemia in this age group. Iron intake must be met by eating red meat as well as non-meat sources (dried fruit, fortified cereals, and green leafy vegetables)
Vegetarianism Special diets
Diet for Diabetics
The two primary concerns of diabetics are to pay close attention to their diet and to watch their weight. Watching one’s sugar levels is a diabetic’s fixation. Hence, the importance placed on learning about proper nutrition to manage diabetes.
The best type of diet for diabetics is low-fat with complex carbohydrates. This consists of:
- brown rice
- vegetables and fruits
- whole wheat pasta
- whole wheat or whole grain bread
- nuts and seed
Complex carbohydrates will be more gradually absorbed and digested and will then help to keep the patient’s sugar levels steady.
Aside from achieving near-normal blood glucose levels, diabetics also strive to protect their heart and cholesterol levels.
Fat intake is limited by avoiding saturated fats and trans-fatty acids found in hard margarine and fast food. Monounsaturated fat is favored such as canola oil or virgin olive oil. Polyunsaturated oils (sunflower oil) are also excellent. Diabetics are likewise advised to consume lots of fiber-rich foods such as whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables.
Doctors usually recommend that proteins cover 12% to 20% of the daily calories in the diabetic’s diet Fish that are high in omega-3 fatty acids (tuna, salmon, and halibut) are especially good.
The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet
For people with hypertension, there is a natural and easy-on-the-pocket alternative to medication. The DASH strategy, developed by a top-notch team of doctors and nutrition experts is clinically proven to reduce blood pressure levels and thus lessen the risk of stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease.
DASH Diet for Control of High Blood Pressure
Low-fat or fat-free dairy
Calcium, potassium, magnesium and protein
Potassium, magnesium, and fiber
Potassium, magnesium, and fiber
Grains and grain products
Carbohydrates and fiber
Meat, Poultry, and fish
2 or fewer
Protein and magnesium
Nuts, seeds, and beans
4-5 per week
Magnesium, potassium, protein, and fiber
Fats and oils*
This applies to added fat all other food choices should be low-fat
5 per week
Make these treats low-fat whenever possible
* When choosing oils, select heart-healthy monounsaturated ones like olive, canola and peanut oils. Choose natural peanut butter over the processed kind.
Vegetarianism Diets for Weight Loss
Some popular diet programs:
The Atkins Diet limits the intake of processed and refined carbohydrates and promotes eating of nutrient-rich unprocessed foods such as meat while endorsing the use of “vita-nutrient” supplements. There is a series of dietary stages, which most people go through one after the other.
South Beach Diet
This immensely popular diet assures dutiful followers a weight loss of 8 to 13 pounds in the first two weeks. The weight is on shunning highly processed carbohydrates (found in baked goods, snacks, bread, and soft drinks). Separated into three phases, the diet steadily reintroduces some initially banned foods. One idea of the diet is that low-fat prepared foods can be a bad idea except for milk, low-fat cheese, and yogurt. Exercise is not given emphasis in this diet.
Bill Philips Eating for Life
Eating for Life advocates a diet low in fat that includes 40%-50% protein and 40%-50% carbohydrates. These quantities are eaten in six small meals, each one consisting of protein in the form of lean meat, vegetables, fish, poultry, egg whites, or cottage cheese, carbohydrates in potatoes or brown rice.
The Mayo Clinic Diet
The experts at the prominent Mayo Clinic have come up with a successful approach to weight loss that’s rational, enjoyable and doctor-approved. The diet is for the management of weight and overall health. The Mayo Clinic Diet also reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and other chronic diseases.
The plan allows practically unlimited beans, vegetables and fruits, fish, lean protein, whole-grain carbohydrates, low-fat dairy, and unsaturated fats, mainly olive oil, canola oil, and nuts. It also stresses the consumption of grapefruit to help start and speed up the fat-burning process.
Whole grains and carbohydrates – Vegetarianism
#Whole grains are foods prepared from the whole grain seed, typically called the kernel, which is made up of the bran, germ, and endosperm. If the kernel has been broken, crushed, or flaked, it must preserve just about the same relative proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the initial grain to be called whole grain
Whole grain products include oatmeal, brown rice, popcorn, whole wheat flour, sprouted grains, and whole wheat bread. Whole-grain pasta is also available in some stores’ natural-food section.
Oatmeal – Vegetarianism
A product made by processing oats. In North America, oatmeal denotes any crushed oats, cut oats, or rolled oats included in recipes such as oatmeal cookies. The porridge prepared from this is also called oatmeal or oatmeal cereal. On the other hand, in other parts of the world, oatmeal means coarsely ground oats. There has been growing interest in oatmeal in recent years owing to its health benefits. Daily consumption of oatmeal lowers blood cholesterol.
Brown Rice – Vegetarianism
Brown rice is unmilled or partially milled rice, a type of whole grain. It has a slightly nutty flavor, is chewier than white rice, becomes stale more quickly, but is far healthier. Any rice—sticky rice, long-grain rice, or short-grain rice, may be eaten as brown rice.
Popcorn – Vegetarianism
Popcorn, like all six kinds of corn, is a cereal grain and comes from a wild grass. Its scientific name is Zea mays everta—the only kind of corn to actually pop. Popcorn is a favorite snack, be it both sweet and salty by fans around the globe. One reason for its popularity is its nutritional value.
One cup of air-popped popcorn includes 31 calories, one gram of protein, six grams of carbohydrate, one gram of fiber and just a smidgen of fat. Americans chomp through more than 18 billion quarts of popped popcorn every year, which equals more or less 56 quarts per man, woman, and child. satta king
Whole Wheat Flour – Vegetarianism
Whole wheat flour is made from the whole kernel, together with the germ and bran. #Whole wheat flour thus has more fiber, more nutrients, and a more complex flavor compared to white flour. There are two classes of whole wheat flour. Pastry flour comes from low-gluten soft wheat, while bread flour, comes from hard wheat and has the firmness and elasticity that benefit bread.
Carbohydrates in nutrition – Vegetarianism
Complex carbohydrates are mainly those foods in wholegrain forms such as oats, wholegrain bread, brown rice, and muesli. Complex carbs are broken down into glucose more gradually than simple carbohydrates and therefore give a slow, steady flow of energy during the day
Simple carbohydrates are those foods that have been processed and broken down prior to being put back together again in an artificial way such as to produce chocolate. Natural simple carbohydrates are the healthier carbs to include in the diet, particularly for those who are trying to lose weight.
Natural foods made up of mostly simple carbohydrates:
Processed foods that have a large proportion of simple carbohydrates.
- Table sugar
- Boiled sweets
- Mint sweets
- Tinned fruits
- Soft drinks
- some puddings
Oils and fats – Vegetarianism
Types of Edible Oils
Canola is the market name for oil that is acquired from rapeseeds. It is also known as LEAR (Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed) oil.
- has lowest level of saturated fat of any edible oil
- has one of the highest levels of heart-healthy monounsaturated fat
- contains a high level of omega-3 fatty acids that helps to reduce the risk of heart disease and brings down blood pressure.
- mildly flavored and reasonably priced
- a superb choice for frying, cooking or baking, or as an ingredient for salad dressings.
Coconut oil is extracted from dried coconut meat. It is extremely popular in India and Southeast Asia. In the U.S., it is most frequently used in commercially prepared products such as candies, cookies, whipped toppings, ice cream, and nondairy coffee creamers.
Though high in saturated fat (92%), some studies indicate that adding coconut oil to the diet may play a part in weight loss because it fills hunger and diminishes the appetite.
Corn oil is produced from the germ of corn kernels. It is very high in polyunsaturated fat. One of the best oils for frying is refined corn oil because it has a high smoke point. Corn oil is often used in the production of margarine. Other common uses: salad dressings, frying, baking, and shortening production.
Vegetable oil is typically made up of a highly refined mix of various oils such as corn, soybean, and sunflower or it may consist of only one kind of oil. #Vegetable oil is a fine all-purpose oil for frying, sautéing, and baking.
Choosing Healthy Fats
Fats don’t have to be completely eliminated from one’s diet. Fats are also essential nutrients that the body needs to function well. It is a source of energy and utilized in cell membrane production. Still, it is important to pick the best kinds of fat and enjoy them in moderation.
Healthy fats include polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. These can actually lower the risk of heart disease by decreasing the total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood. Omega-3 fatty acids, a type of polyunsaturated fat may be particularly beneficial to the heart. Omega-3s seem to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease, protect against irregular heartbeats and help lower blood pressure levels.
- canola oils
- most nuts
- vegetable oil
- safflower oil
- corn oil
- sunflower oil
- soy oil
- cottonseed oil
Omega-3 fatty acids
- flax oil
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