One way of approaching the most Common Public Health Issues we may encounter in our life is to keep informed. When we understand the causes and complications of our condition. Once we have them – we can deal with them in the most effective way without panicking.
The following are some of these Common Public Health Issues and what they are about – definition, causes, and treatment.
- Bad Breath
- Canker Sores
- Cold Sores
- Common Cold
- Yeast Infections
- Cuts and Wounds
- Foot Problem
Bad Breath – Public Health Issues
The Bad breath or halitosis is a condition wherein your mouth emits a foul smell either out of a serious mouth problem. Or more commonly when there is not enough saliva circulating in the mouth.
Some people develop bad breath out of having serious diseases such as diabetes or digestive system disorders; or infections around the gums, mouth, throat or nose. In any of these situations, going to a specialist. Such as an otolaryngologist is the best response. So you can be prescribed with proper medication or remedy.
More people, however, suffer from bad breath when they engage in activities. That allows the decrease of salivary production in the mouth, saliva is a natural cleansing agent. These include sleeping, missing meals, taking certain medicines, drinking alcoholic beverages, smoking, chewing tobacco, using dental appliances. And getting dehydrated.
To avoid bad breath. You must keep proper oral hygiene. Brush your teeth, gums, the roof of mouth and tongue twice a day. Floss, keep your dental appliances clean and gargle with a mouthwash. You must also observe a healthy diet. Eat more fruits and vegetables, and less meat, keep away from food and drinks. That cause bad breath, refrain from smoking and drink lots of fluids. Having regular dental check-ups is also a relevant factor in keeping your breath smelling fresh.
Canker Sores – Public Health Issues
The Canker sores are non-contagious sores which appear on and around your tongue and gums. As well as on the inside of your lips and cheeks. They are round, shallow sores with a red border and white or yellow center. They usually appear in groups and are accompanied by swelling and stinging pain. 4They last until about a week before healing.
Leading causes include injury to your mouth. Such as by biting your tongue or lip and bruising. it with dental appliances. As a reaction to acidic foods or drinks you take; being emotionally or physically stressed and fatigued; not getting enough vitamins and minerals; skipping meals; not getting enough sleep; or as an accompaniment to a woman’s menstrual cycle.
In order to avoid caner sores, you must first identify what is causing them, and address that cause. To be safe, however, it is best to keep proper oral hygiene, to adopt healthy eating and sleeping habits; and to take vitamin and mineral supplements. In unavoidable circumstances. You may at least relieve the pain by avoiding acidic foods and drinks, eating soft and bland foods. Using a straw for drinking, putting ice against the sores to numb out the pain. Never touching the sores, rinsing your mouth with a salt solution, and taking over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drugs.
Cold Sores – Public Health Issues
The Cold sores are blisters that appear on the lips and edges of the mouth. In earlier stages, the blisters are swollen and inflamed, with red color. It later erupts thus letting out the contained fluid, and eventually dries up. Cold sores appear in groups or clusters, taking over a week to completely heal and dry up.
The Herpes Simplex Virus is the only cause of cold sores. It can be spread from one infected person to another by coughing, sneezing, and kissing. Or other ways by which the infected saliva is released and comes within the contact. Once you acquire the virus It cannot be cured. You ill have to contend with the cold sores. And all its accompanying symptoms of fever, sore throat, or the swelling of the whole mouth or the lymph glands. You may lessen the pain and prevent cold sores from reappearing by using medicated ointments. Or other forms of antiviral drugs. Once you are infected. It is also best to keep your sores to yourself and prevent its spread to other people
Common Cold – Public Health Issues
The common cold is an infection of the nose and throat. Caused by viruses that spread thru contact with an infected person’s saliva, The cold is manifested; by a clogged and runny nose, sneezing and cough weakened to numb senses of taste and smell, and an abrasive throat.
Treating colds entail remedying these symptoms. There are over-the-counter drugs that serve this purpose, from the anti-inflammatory to the antiviral, and from the decongestant to the antihistamine. Some drugs are designed to accomplish a combination. Or all of these. Checking with your doctor will be most helpful, as will taking special care when following prescription instructions. You must also stay away from what might agitate your condition, such as taking drinks with caffeine and smoking cigarette or tobacco. On the other hand, drinking lots of water. Or juice (which shouldn’t be too cold) and getting fresh air is recommended.
Constipation – Public Health Issues
Constipation is the recurrent condition in which you find it difficult or painful to pass stool. This stool is also characterized by dryness and only comes a couple of times a week at most. This is the result of the little water the stool was able to mix with while it stayed in the colon.
You may get constipated for reasons you may or may not have control over. Factors which you may control include your eating and drinking habits, physical stimulation and activities, and bowel movement habits. To avoid constipation, you must eat fibrous foods, drink lots of fluids, eat regularly, engage in regular physical exercise, and try to move your bowel daily or regularly.
On the other hand, some factors which you will not be able to control are age and having certain medical conditions of which constipation is an accompanying symptom. You may, however, consult your doctor for options which will help you remove bowel at least less painfully.
Diarrhea – Public Health Issues
Diarrhea is a condition in which your intestines don’t hold enough fluids, causing the whole process of digestion and bowel formation. To be interrupted and become irregular, This can be caused; by the infection of a virus which damages the lining of the small intestines; excessive intake of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages which stimulates the frequent passage of stool thus staining the functions of the intestines and colon; a reaction to certain medicines; or as related to an intestinal disorder.
While diarrhea due to viral and bacterial infection passes after a couple of days by itself as the body fights the infection, diarrhea due to the other causes must be treated by avoiding the causes themselves – avoiding caffeine and alcohol and asking for alternative medicines without the side effects of this digestive problem. If diarrhea is due to another disorder, you must seek consultation with your doctor right away.
Flu – Public Health Issues
The flu is an infection that occurs in the respiratory system, affecting the nose, throat, and mouth, by the influenza virus. It is acquired by exposure to the virus that is airborne. Usually, due to changing environmental conditions as well as reactions to these changes, different viruses are born in different parts of the world so rapidly that the human body cannot keep up with defending itself. The flu virus comes from and circulates from around the world, and no one is able to know exactly what triggers it unless. It had already been contracted by a number of people.
Flu is accompanied by high fever, chills, headaches, sneezing and cough, sore throat, and pains in different parts of the body. This implies that the condition is sure to disrupt your everyday activities at home, school or work, thus immobilizing you for the duration of the condition, as well as eventually developing to more serious conditions such as pneumonia. It can be fatal, to some people with weak immune systems, such as the elderly and those who already have some sort of illness, to begin with.
Once you catch the flu, you must see you, doctor, immediately to receive proper medication.
Gas – Public Health Issues
Your body chemistry determines your vulnerability/susceptibility to developing gas. People who are predisposed to produce a lot of gas, absorb a lot of fatty acids. A.nd are most sensitive to gas in the large intestines are also the most prone to developing the digestive problem of gas. Frequent belching, flatulence, abdominal bloating, and abdominal discomfort are the key indicators of gas.
Belching is characterized by releasing too much air through the mouth. And not only after meals but habitually and sometimes even discomfortingly; while flatulence is the passage of gas through the rectum, usually uncontrollably and abruptly. Although not a leading symptom, abdominal bloating may be due to having too much gas or the sensitivity to it; on the other hand, abdominal pain. Which might be attributed to other conditions. Such as heart disease of appendicitis may actually be due to gas.
Gas usually passes by itself after a couple or more days; however, adopting healthy eating habits is recommended to avoid it. In cases where having gas seems to be a constant condition of your body, you must consult your doctor for proper diagnosis and medication.
Headaches are pains and discomfort experienced around the head and neck areas. As a result of either the contraction of muscles in each of these parts; or the constriction of the blood vessels in each. The first situation results in tension headache and is usually due to emotional and physical stress, poor posture, eye strain, smoking, and drinking alcohol. The second situation results in migraine headache and is caused; by prolonged muscle tension, stress, lack of sleep, smoking, drinking alcohol. As well as simply inheriting the tendency to develop migraines. Headaches of either type may also be due to the use of certain medication, or exposure to environmental elements such as radiation or pollution.
Headaches may heal or pass by itself with rest and relaxation even without medication. But they may also be treated with over-the-counter drugs, Or be consulted to the doctor for examination and medication.
Heartburn is the sudden pain felt right behind the heart bone and near the heart, though not from the heart exactly. It results from a digestive problem also called reflux. Which occurs when the acid present in the stomach and used in digestion rises into the esophagus. This happens when the small muscle which protects the esophagus or keeps it away from getting into contact with this acid does not work.
This reflux is associated with factors. Such as wearing tight-fitting clothes around the waist, bending over a lot, eating excessively large meals, being overweight, and pregnancy. Which put pressure on the digestive tract and smoking. Which relaxes the muscle around the esophagus.
Heartburn usually goes as quickly as it comes; however, caution should be taken especially; since what you think may be simple heartburn may actually be as heart pain.
Right before the menstrual period, a woman’s body adjusts itself according to the upcoming change in hormonal activity. In effect, a group of symptoms manifests a week before the menstrual period which stops only after the period starts.
The most common symptoms include the swelling of the breasts, pain in several muscle areas, headaches, upset stomach, bloating, constipation or diarrhea, and significant changes in body temperature, appetite, moods, and emotions.
However related to the menstrual period, keeping healthy habits in eating, sleeping, and physical activity will greatly help your body to deal with hormonal changes. You may also deal with the symptoms as they occur by avoiding what may aggravate them, such as taking caffeinated and alcoholic drinks, smoking, and eating foods with either too much salt or too much sugar. Over-the-counter drugs may also be used to relieve pain and discomfort.
Sunburn is the reddening, swelling, heating up, or peeling of the skin due to exposure to the sun or other forms of ultraviolet light. While developing sunburn may seem harmless and temporary – which it is – it is also a gateway to developing more serious skin problems such as skin cancer or melanoma and may cause death. Even the short-lived sunburn causes pain and discomfort, and thus implies immobility.
Keeping away from what causes sunburn is the primary solution to it. If unavoidable, however, you should put sunscreen on your exposed skin. And wear protective clothing, including caps or hats and umbrella. You may treat sunburn by keeping your skin cool – either by showering or placing clean, wet cloth on top of the affected area, applying over-the-counter ointments and creams and of course, keeping away from further exposure to ultraviolet light. Blisters which may appear with the sunburn should be left to dry and peel by themselves. Or, if painful, may be relieved of the burning sensation by applying proper medication.
The Urinary Tract Infection or UTI is an infection by bacteria which originates from the digestive tract, and which, during the body’s excretion of wastes, cling to the urethra and multiply. Although the urinary tract is actually arranged in such a way. That it washes away body wastes without the threat of infection. It can still contract infections especially when a foreign bacteria enter the body. When the bacteria infect the urethra. The infection is called urethritis, once they get into the bladder, it is called cystitis, and when they reach the kidney and there multiply, the infection is called pyelonephritis.
People who have UTI usually feel the need to urinate often although in small amounts, and experience pain in the urethra or bladder whether or not they are urinating. The urine itself looks cloudy, and in some cases have traces of blood in it. In some extreme cases, usually, when the infection is in the kidney, it is accompanied by fever, pain in the ribs, nausea, and vomiting.
A doctor needs to examine you for proper diagnosis and medication. Usually, UTI is treated with anti-bacterial drugs as long as the infection stops. The treatment process may also include further check-ups and in extreme cases, hospitalization.
Yeast infection occurs in the vagina when the yeast called Candida Albicans, which normally resides in the body, multiplies due to hormonal changes and imbalance. It is characterized by an itching and burning feeling in the genital area, accompanied; by a vaginal discharge of thick, white and odorless fluid.
This hormonal imbalance may be the result of various conditions – having diabetes, being pregnant, taking birth control pills, or taking certain medication. Body chemistry also plays a role, as some women, regardless of the abovementioned causes, can develop a yeast infection. A doctor will have to examine you for proper identification of cause and for medication, which usually comes in forms of creams, and may involve the stop of whatever is causing the infection, such as using other brands of birth control pills. Treatment may start only after certain conditions. Such as not having douched or used spermicides for a given period of time are met.
Cuts and Wounds
#Cuts vary from damages on the skin tissues to damages on the muscles and nerves. While wounds may be punctured holes from as small as a pin to as big as an animal fang, Small cuts and wounds may be remedied at home by cleaning the area, stopping the bleeding, disinfecting the cut or wound, and bandaging.
First, the area has to be cleansed by running it through the water. Or washing it with a clean piece of cloth. Then, pressure must be applied to the cut or wound with the use of clean cloth in order to stop the flow of blood, Afterward, the cut or wound must be disinfected by washing it once again with water. And optional use of soap, more carefully and thoroughly. Finally, a fresh bandage would do just right to help the cut or wounded skin to repair its damaged tissues or muscles, while also protecting it from elements that may aggravate it if it was exposed.
If it doesn’t heal after a couple of weeks, this would mean an infection has occurred, and it would be best to ask for the doctor’s help before it becomes worse. Such an action is also recommended if the cut or wound is deep and/or large and bleeds a lot in the first place.
The following are the most common problems we encounter with or feet:
Corns and calluses are the hardened top layer of skin, which are the result of continuous pressure on the feet either due to walking or wearing tight-fitting shoes. In earlier stages, corns and calluses are sore and painful; over time, however, they become hard and numb. Corns appear on the big toe ad the fifth toes, while calluses appear right underfoot bones. Here you know about Becks triad.
Blisters occur in the feet usually as a result of wearing tight-fitting shoes. The top layer of the skin becomes scratched from its place, causing it to become loosened. The space between that top layer and those under it is filled with a fluid which may either flow when the blister is punctured or popped or dry up when the blister is left to heal on its own.
Fungi can also grow on the feet when these are exposed to warm and moist conditions. Fungal infections usually thrive in between toes and emit an awful odor.
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