Vitamins: Their Functions and Sources

One vitamin is one of the groups of organic substances that is present in natural quantities in minute quantities. Vitamins are essential for normal metabolism. If we do not take enough amounts of vitamins, then there may be a result of some medical conditions.

One vitamin is both:

  • An organic compound, which means carbon in it
  • An essential nutrient that the body can not produce in sufficient quantities and which it needs to get from food

There are currently 13 recognized vitamins.

Water-soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins do not stay in the body for long periods of time. The body can not store them, and they are soon emitted in the urine.

Because of this, water-soluble vitamins need to be changed more frequently than fat-soluble.

Vitamin C and all B vitamins are soluble in water.null

Here are various types of vitamins

Vitamin A deficiency – How to avoid it?

vitamins: Vitamin A

Vitamin A is very important for skin elasticity, bones, teeth, and normal sexual functions. The same as vitamin C and vitamin E, vitamin A acts as an antioxidant (destroys harmful free radicals). Vitamin A has a preventive role against cancer and atherosclerosis. It promotes rhodopsin formation.

Which is a very important substance for the good vision, especially for the so-called “night vision”. Vitamin A strengthens the immune system and protects all the tissues from different infections. Ninety present of it deposits in the liver. It is a fat-soluble vitamin important for our body.

Type of Vitamin A

Vitamin A has two forms: retinol and retinoid (beta-carotene). Beta-carotene promotes the formation of vitamin A in our body (precursor of vitamin A) and contains in yellow vegetables such as pumpkin and carrots. The active type of vitamin A is found in fish oil, in eggs, liver, and milk.

Also, you can find it in every drug store as a preparation. Vitamin A is found in every multivitamin preparations (MultiTabs, Supradin /Supradyn, Supravit, etc.), and also like a single preparation in a tablet form. For body-builders especially is produced a unique preparation containing vitamins and minerals.

On the contrary, the beta-carotene is not toxic in any doses, because the body uses it to produce vitamin A only when it needs it. So you can accentuate to beta-carotene consumption.

Vitamins B group

vitamins: Vitamin B

“B” group vitamins help to maintain the normal function of veins, skin, eyes, hair, liver, and mouth. In addition, it help the muscular tone of the normal digestive system and proper brain function. B-complex vitamins are co-enzyme.

Which supports the chemical reactions of enzymes with other substances. Participate in energy production and may be useful in relieving the state of depression and inconvenience. These vitamins are very important for older people.

Because according to recent research, Alzheimer’s disease is caused by a lack of vitamin B12. And B-complex vitamins from assimilation. Vitamin must be taken together by “B” -group Because they have a complex task and the lack of one often leads to the other.

Vitamin B1 deficiency: Vitamins

vitamins: Vitamin B1

The most important vitamin B1 function is its role in carbohydrate cycle regulation (the more carbohydrate consumption, the more vitamin B1 needs). This function makes vitamin B1 significant for muscles and nervous system.

The vitamin B1 deficiency symptoms are:

  • general weakness
  • decreased working capacity
  • headache
  • disability to concentrate
  • tingle limbs
  • heart beating at physical work

At a very extreme shortage, the berry-berry disease develops, which leads to neuritis, polyneuritis, and neuralgias. The guilt to so-called “hidden” vitamin B1 deficiency is of alcohol, black tea, and coffee, also regular overeating with chocolates and other sweets.

Vitamin B1 or thiamin was the first vitamin to be discovered. The name comes from its chemical structure. The daily dose is approx 1,5 mg. It is recommended to be consumed 0,5 mg. vitamin B1 at every 1000 kcal. eaten.

Vitamin b2 riboflavin facts: Vitamins

vitamins: Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 belongs to the group of flavins (natural pigments in vegetables, potatoes, milk, etc.) Naturally, the body fills its supplies with vitamin В2 mainly by the food, but also small quantity through specific useful bacteria that naturally live in small intestines. Vitamin B2 amounts decrease in thermally treated food with 15-30%, so eat more fresh provisions.

General descriptions: Vitamins

The main riboflavin functions in the body are:

  • a general compound of the enzymes which accomplishes the cell breathing in the carbohydrate cycle
  • in the amino acid metabolism
  • in the fat body metabolism
  • exchange of iron and porphyrin
  • In the case of riboflavin deficiency the following symptoms persist:
  • steamy eyes, reddish eye mucosa
  • changes in the mouth mucosa, tong, and the mouth
  • skin peeling
  • changes in the nails and hair
  • nerve system damages

Lactoflavin deficiency occurs when the consumption of milk, eggs, meat, cheese, and yellow cheese is not enough. Vitamin B2 also founds in spinach, lentils, peas, carrots, etc. Riboflavin deficiency develops in people treated with antibiotics from the tetracycline, largactil and chlorine groups.

Description and sources Vitamin B3


Vitamin B3 is widespread in the body, it finds in every one cell. PP is relatively steady at heating- the food loses only 20% of its vitamin B3 quantity. Source of PP: chicken meat, beef, pork, liver, grain foods, and legumes. Learn about the Pros and cons of eating meat.

Health benefits of Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 participates in cell breathing, carbohydrate metabolism, and fat synthesis. The body fills its supplies with PP by the tryptophan amino acid dissociations (from 60 mg tryptophan oxidation a 1 mg. vitamin B3 receives). At chronic PP deficiency develops pellagra disease. The pellagra manifestations are:

  • disturbance in stomach and intestines
  • disturbance in the nerve system
  • skin changes

That is a so-called triple D – diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.
It is very important to know that, the anti-baby pill prevents the Vitamin b3 niacin and leads to hypovitaminosis. The vitamin B3 taking is good for metabolite diseases by reducing blood cholesterol.

Vitamin B2 Riboflavin
in Vitamins / Riboflavin, riboflavin facts, vitamin b2
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin (Lactoflavin)

Vitamin B5: Vitamins

Vitamin B5

Chemical Name: Pantothenic Acid
It is soluble in water.
Decreased paresthesia or “pins and needles” can occur.

Sources of Vitamin B5

Meat, whole grains (milling can remove it), broccoli, avocados, royal jelly, and fish ovaries.

Vitamin B6 pyridoxine / adermin

Vitamin B6

The designation vitamin B6 comprises three similar substances- pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. They have a different proportion of each food. Very reach vitamin B6 are beans, bananas, walnuts, peanuts, and meat products.

Less quantity of vitamin B6 founds in fish, but more in the fruits and vegetables. A small amount of vitamin synthesizes by bacteria, which naturally lives in the stomach and small intestines. The bacteria activity often has been suppressed by antibiotics and easily rotting food.

Vitamin B6 benefits and functions in the body:

  • as an enzyme structure element vitamin B6 participates in moreover 60 substance exchange reactions. Also take part of activities that facilitate the formation and pull down the fence of amino acids (especially of tryptophan, methionine, cysteine, glutamine, etc.).
  • Participates in the fat metabolism process. Vitamin B6 makes easier the assimilation of unsaturated fatty acids (upon its activity the cholesterol blood levels in people ill from atherosclerosis lessens).
  • Vitamin B6 has a significant role in the formation of substances responsible for neural impulses mediation – serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine, etc.

It has hypoglycemic activity (lessen the blood sugar levels), by insulin activation.

Usually, the hidden deficiency of vitamin B6 occurs in people regularly taking anti-baby pill and preparation suppresses the gut microflora, like isoniazid (prescript at tuberculosis), penicillamine (usually taken at liver and brain diseases). The extreme deficiency of the vitamin happens in people who suffer from chronic alcoholism.

At systematic vitamin B6 – pyridoxine deficiency the following diseases are developed:

  • mucus and skin changes (dermatitis, inflammations, parasitic fungi, herpes, etc.)
  • anemia
  • a cordially-vesicular disturbance
  • central and peripheral nervous system damages (psychosis, neurosis, polyneuritis, etc.)
  • Vitamin b5 – Pantothenic acid

Vitamin B5 is a structural part of the enzymes, which have an important role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism. The vitamin B5 deficiency is rare to meet and usually precedes of long term starving.

You can supply with those vitamins in sufficient doses by grain food consumption.

Vitamin B9 – folacin, folic acid

Vitamin B9 - folacin, folic acid
Vitamin B9 – folacin, folic acid

Details and sources Vitamin B9

When folic acid enters the body, it goes into the liver where it becomes biologically active. Vitamin B12 and Vitamin C are co-operating the converting process. This is the reason that folic acid biological activity depends on the level of vitamin B12 and vitamin C in the body.

Here are some of the Folacin sources: liver, parsley, spinach, green salad, mushrooms, peas, meat, fish, etc. Vitamin B9 is very sensitive to thermal treatment and air oxidation makes it much easier to oxygen.

General Details Of Vitamin B9

Folic acid participates in amino acids and nucleic acid metabolism. Apart from this, there is a large hematopoietic potential and helps red blood maturity in the medulla. Palatine deficiency is associated with megaloblastic anemia development. (deficiency of red blood cells)

Folic acid fiber also develops on alcohol because alcohol suppresses vitamin B9 activity. In pregnant women and people who regularly take drugs, there is a lack of Falkin, such as anti-baby pills.

People with liver disease have increased the need for Folksenin. For a long time, the sun exposes an extra dose of vitamin B 9, because the sunlight destroys it.

Vitamin b12 information

Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12

Major doses of cobalamin found in animal sub-products and meat. #Vitamin B12 is very stable at heating (its molecule breaks down about round 250 degree 

Vitamin b12 benefits

*Vitamin B12 improves the protein exchange, participates in the holin, methionine and nucleic acids synthesis. It is an important part of the protoplasm and cell nuclei.

The nucleic acids are used for protein synthesis, also they make easier cell proliferation and regeneration processes in the young organisms. Vitamin B12 stimulates the retro, leuco, and thrombopoiesis. In the stomach, B12 forms the so-called anti-anemic agent, which stores in the liver.

Cobalamin has a good influence over the nerve system and liver functions. B12 has anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-dystrophic effects.

Vitamin B12 prevents the liver from fat infiltrations and increases glucose tolerance, also improves the reproduction system, skin, and digestive tract activity.

Vitamin b12 deficiency

Vitamine B12 enters the body with the food as an “outer” agent and synthesizes from the gut microflora, which naturally lives in small intestines. Rotting processes in the organism prevents vitamin B12 assimilation.

The processes appeared at incorrect protein consummation; the proteins are kept in the stomach from carbohydrates. Which makes difficult protein assimilation. The vitamin B12 deficiency appears in people who suffer from alcoholism and liver diseases, in pregnant women and vegetarians too.

Major doses of cobalamin found in animal sub-products and meat. Vitamin B12 is very stable at heating (its molecule breaks down about around 250-degree centigrade).

Antioxidants- Vitamin C: Vitamins

Antioxidants- Vitamin C
Antioxidants- Vitamin C

Vitamin C is an antioxidant necessary for at least 300 metabolic organism functions: for tissue growth and recovery, for the normal function of several glands and for healthy gums, too. It assists also the anti-stress hormone and interferon production (a protein important for the immune system) and is necessary for the folic acid, tyrosine, and phenylalanine metabolism.

The vitamin C assimilation can relieve asthma symptoms. Vitamin C protects from the destroying effect of the environment pollution, also assists the anti-cancer prophylactics, protects from infections and increases the immunity. Organism iron absorption increases at vitamin C availability.

This vitamin can binds toxic substances, like heavy metals, and returns them in a form suitable for throwing out from the organism. Even the “black widow” spider’s poison can be made harmless with huge vitamin C doses application.

Vitamin C ascorbic acid

Vitamin C is one of the most important vitamins in our body. It is found in a lot of foods. But mostly in fruits and vegetables (citrus fruits, tomatoes, and green seasonings). When such foods missing in your diet, or are in small amounts, you can use vitamin C as a preparation.

Facts and benefits of vitamin C

Vitamin C has very significant functions in our body. Those are the most important: strengthens the bones, connective tissues and the immune system quickens the sore healing, actively participates in the body metabolism and acts as an antioxidant.

Vitamin C defenses the body liquids (mainly blood) from the function of the free radical. The vitamin also strengthens the blood vessels, which leads to blood pressure stabilization. It has prophylactic activity at cancer, cardio-vascular and arthritis diseases and delays the growing older processes too.

According to some experiments, vitamin C suppresses cortisol secretion, which takes down the fence of the muscular tissue. This activity increases the testosterone/cortisol proportion, which stimulates muscle growth. The minimum vitamin C dose for people who do not sport regularly is about 100 mg. daily.

For sporting people, the recommended dose is bigger: 300-800 mg. Vitamin C is not dangerous even in huge doses, because the redundant amount removes from the body with the urine (but still in this case you have to drink a lot of water, otherwise the glomerular kidneys can be damaged).

The people with diabetes have to be careful with vitamin C high doses because it suppresses the normal function of the pancreas and in this way reacts directly upon insulin levels. All multivitamins contain vitamin C (MultiTabs, Supradin, Supravit, etc.) and also can be sold as a separate tablet.

Source of vitamin D2: Vitamins

vitamins: vitamin D2

Rich of vitamin foods are fish oil, liver, eggs, milk, butter, meat foods. The people, which train bodybuilding, have to take vitamin D together with the calcium preparations.

Vitamin d2 vs. d3

The vitamin D activity has a significant role in calcium and phosphor metabolism, by regulating the calcium indraughts and transport through guts, also transform the organic form of the phosphor in inorganic, which is the suitable form in which phosphor precipitates in the body bones.

The simultaneous calcium and vitamin D resorption improve by the middle-sized chain triglycerides taking, which normally contains in the milk butter. That is exactly the consummation of milk products that contributes to the more effective calcium precipitation. In this case, the triglyceride metabolism regulates from the parathormone and calcitonin.

Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 have almost equal vitamin activity, but vitamin D3 has a more important key role. The primary vitamin D3 transformation begins in the liver, after that in the kidneys, bone cells, blood, placenta, etc. and in a result obtains the physiological form 1-?,25-dihydroxy calciferol.

The latter substance synthesis has been regulating from the calcium blood level by the negative converse response- i.e the newly develop concentration stops its own synthesis.

Besides calcium metabolism participation, vitamin D3 takes part and in other processes such as immune response, myocardial metabolism, insulin secretion, spermatogenesis, etc. That is why has been put down to vitamin D3 hormone activity.

Facts about vitamin E: Vitamins

Vitamin E

Vitamin E has the ability to binds and then to removes the accumulated free radicals from the organism. Free radicals destroy the cell membranes and cause a number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and Parkinson’s disease.

Vitamin E protects the tissues of cell membranes from oxidation, at the same time increases the men’s potency. The vitamin also helps at inflammations and muscle pains. It stimulates the protein synthesis and helps the muscular growth, also stabilizes the blood sugar levels, by insulin secretion influences.

All multivitamin preparations ( MultiTabs, Supradin, Supravit, etc.) contain vitamin E and sells as separate preparation in form of tablet, too.

Facts about Vitamin E

Vitamin E

Together with Vitamin E, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C, there is a very strong antioxidant. It is a fat-soluble vitamin and produces a substance that eliminates free radicals from the body. Vitamin E is found in many food products, such as vegetables, wheat germs, nuts, and eggs. You can also supply the preparation of vitamin E.

Vitamin E has the ability to binds and then to removes the accumulated free radicals from the organism. Free radicals destroy the cell membranes and cause a number of diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and Parkinson’s disease.

Vitamin E protects the tissues of cell membranes from oxidation, at the same time increases the men’s potency. The vitamin also helps at inflammations and muscle pains. It stimulates the protein synthesis and helps the muscular growth, also stabilizes the blood sugar levels, by insulin secretion influences.

Vitamin E dosage and overdose

For actively sporting person the dose is 1200-1500 mg. daily. In big doses, vitamin E causes high blood pressure and even can be toxic, so be careful. You can find vitamin E in every pharmacy. All multivitamin preparations (MultiTabs, Supradin, Supravit, etc.) contain vitamin E and sell as separate preparation in the form of a tablet, too.

Benefits of Vitamin E

Together with Vitamin E, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C, there is a very strong antioxidant. It is a fat-soluble vitamin and produces a substance that eliminates free radicals from the body. Vitamin E is found in many food products, such as vegetables, wheat germs, nuts, and eggs. You can also supply the preparation of vitamin E.

Vitamin K3 – Vikasolum: Vitamins

vitamin K

blood coagulation, fat assimilation, k3, Vitamin K3, vitamin Edit this vitamin K3 is a water-soluble vitamin made by the coli bacteria, which lives in the small intestines.

Functions of Vitamin K3

Its resorption helps the prothrombin synthesis (prothrombin defines the blood coagulation time) in the liver, also increases prothrombin levels in the blood and is responsible for blood coagulation, too. Besides, takes part in fat metabolism by improving fat assimilation (as increasing the bile quality, which reaches the stomach).

Directions of use Vitamin K3

It is recommended to take it daily. You can find vitamin K in every multivitamin preparation and also as separate tablets.

Vitamins and Multivitamins For Breastfeeding, Pregnancy, Proteins


Vitamins are the basic nutrition along with proteins, fats, carbohydrates and mineral salts. They regulate all metabolic processes, as their catalytic activity is the main function. Vitamins are essential for the normal body reactions fulfillment, for nutrition assimilation, for cells and tissue growth and recovery.

Regular vitamin intake increases the organism’s immunity and its firmness against aggressive environmental factors. Vitamins help the blood development, liver, and hormonal functions, too. They are necessary for normal proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and mineral salts usage.

In the presence of vitamin deficiency, the regular metabolism of the listed essential substances is broken. The specific vitamin deficiency can lead to all other vitamin assimilation disturbance. Their biological activity depends on the number of food proteins.

Protein deficiency disturbs vitamin C, B1, B2, carotene and etc., assimilation. That is why vitamin deficiency is connected with protein lack. With the right organized daily diet, the organism takes all necessary vitamins and additional synthetic vitamins are not needed. The natural vitamins are easily assimilated and have a better influence than their synthetic analogs.

The organism’s vitamin needs depend on sex, age, physiological activity, profession and labor conditions. Daily vitamin doses increase with pregnancy, breastfeeding, intensive physical and intellectual activity, at sports activities and after infection diseases period.

The vitamins deficiency or lack can cause specific shortage conditions and diseases called hypo- and avitaminosis. On the other side, extreme vitamin intake leads to hyper avitaminosis.



  1. Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B 2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk and other dairy product, meat, mushrooms, and almonds. Some countries require its addition to grains.

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