Which companies offer goods and services


In contrast to material goods, in which the manufacture and the material value of a product are in the foreground, the service is an immaterial good in which the provision of the service is in the foreground. A service can be provided by both natural persons and legal persons. Both groups of people are referred to as service providers.

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Characteristics and types of services

The typical characteristic of a service is the simultaneity of production, or provision and consumption. This means that the moment services are provided, they are consumed. For example the haircut at the hairdresser's or trips on public transport. The simultaneity is called Uno actu principle designated.

A general distinction is made between four types of services

  • Personal services
  • Material services
  • Product-related services
  • Original services

Personal services

As personal are the services that are provided either to a person or together with a person and can only be performed by a direct participant of the service recipient. The recipient's involvement can be active or passive. Recipients who are passively involved are, for example, patients with a doctor. An example of active service recipients are participants in a seminar or workshop.

Characteristics of the personal services

Personal Services (PBD) describe, for example, the services that teachers, doctors or nurses provide. This form of service comes about exclusively because the customer is involved in the preparation and process of a measure. The personal involvement of the customer is independent of whether it is active or passive.

The objective for the service is determined in cooperation between the service provider and the customer. The procedure in which the service is to be performed is also developed in cooperation between the service provider and the customer. In the course of the personal service, the social relationship between the service provider and the customer must also be clarified, as this is of decisive importance for the success of a measure. The social relationship between those involved can be expressed, for example, by the customer taking active actions with the service provider providing assistance.

Material service

A service that is not performed on a person, that is, a person, but is useful to a person is called a relevant service designated. Examples of a factual service with a direct benefit for the service recipient are counseling or telephone information.

Characteristics of the related services

In the case of the relevant service, the service provider does not appear or only appears in a subordinate form. The service is independent of the person of the service provider and is based on an object. The relevant service providers include, for example, car repairs, delivery services, freight forwarders, insurance companies or banks.

Product accompanying service

Product-related services are all services that are offered by companies in addition to material goods, both self-produced and traded goods. The focus here is on an additional benefit for the company's customers. Product-related services are pre-sales services and after-sales services that are offered before and after a purchase. This can be maintenance work (after the purchase) and consultation (before the purchase).

Features of the product-related services

Product-related services are among the industry-related services that companies use as Service in the course of the sale Deploy their products. They are also called hybrid products because they are a combination of the production of goods and services. The product-related services belong to the so-called secondary services, which offer an additional benefit for the customer in addition to the material product.

Pre-sales services

To the Pre-sales services include, for example Elaboration of proposed solutions for problems or the development of several variants for the execution of services. For example, the measurement of a room and the individual planning of a joiner's kitchen to be built are among the pre-sales services. Likewise, the development of several drafts for the design of an online shop can be counted among the pre-sales services. In the course of the preparatory work, the service provider addresses the individual requirements and needs of the customer, taking into account the budget, in order to develop possible solutions. The aim of pre-sales services is to achieve as much as possible the benefit that the service is intended to generate for the customer.

After-sales services

After-sales services aim at customer loyalty by maintaining interest in the customer after purchasing a product. Typical after-sales services include, for example, the maintenance and regular servicing of a product or the provision of special spare parts, as well as inquiries about customer satisfaction. The aim of the after-sales service is to maintain customer contact on a permanent basis, in that the service provider supports his customers in handling the object of purchase. In this way, the service provider not only ensures positive customer contact, but also ensures that the product sold guarantees the best possible standard of quality. The increased use by after-sales services should lead to further business with the customer.

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Original services

Original services are provided by companies that neither produce nor trade in goods themselves. These companies are original service providers who only provide services. These include, for example, janitorial services.

Characteristics of the original services

The original services focus exclusively on the Provision of services that serve the customer directly and are based exclusively on his needs. In addition to the direct service, original service providers do not offer any additional services or goods. The original services include, for example, laundries, cleaning services or tour operators, but also hospitals and towing services.

A special form of the original services are the so-called knowledge-intensive offers by freelancers, such as auditors or management consultants, lawyers, advertising agencies or engineers.

Forms of contract when using a service

Contracts with service providers can take the form of:

  • service contract or
  • Work contract

be completed. As part of a Service contract the service provider is obliged to perform one or more services, without that a guarantee of successconsists.

Will be with a service provider Work contract finished, that's how it is The provider is committed to a concrete success in the implementation of the service. This is the case, for example, with craftsmen who accept an order with the promise of doing a certain job.

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