What is tsonga's traditional food

African Tribes: Aboriginal and indigenous peoples of Africa

Africa is known for its indigenous people, its peoples and ethnic groups. In the future, we want to speak more specifically of the indigenous peoples of Africa.1 See Wikipedia: Indigenous peoples of Africa In Africa there are some states of ethnic groups that differ from the majority population in particular in cultural, economic and social terms.

Population in southern Africa

In the south of Africa, the distinction between indigenous and non-indigenous populations is particularly clear. The San and the Khoi Khoi are considered indigenous people. The majority of the black population have immigrated and belong to the Xhosa, Tsonga and Zulu, among others!

Nama

The Nama are counted together with the Orlam to the Khoi Khoi. Most of the Nama live in Namibia and make up about five percent of the Namibian population. They live mainly in the southern region of ǁKaras, formerly known as Namaland, and to a small extent in the area of ​​Namaqualand. Tourists are this area of ​​the country by the wildflower bloom2Wikipedia: Nama (people).

Khoisan

The term Khoisan encompasses around 100,000 people. How many can be assigned to the San and the Khoi-Khoi is not clear. 3 See Wikipedia: Khoisan Genetic studies have shown that the Khoi-san the oldest people in the world (Group of people) is.4Sciencemag.org: Study of the Khoe-San. October 19, 2012. 5Nadja Podbregar (Welt.de): The Khoi-San - the oldest people in the world. 09/20/2012

Habitat: mainly in Namibia, South Africa, Botswana and Angola | In the past, far north
Language: Khoisan language family (as well as Hadza and Sandawe) | They communicate by means of clicks and clicks

The distinction between the Khoisan in two differentiated groups can be traced back to the 17th century. Physical and economic characteristics were used for classification. The livestock population was therefore called Khoikhoi denotes that animalless than san. The separation was supported according to economic aspects by the wealthy Khoi. "Livestock" was seen as more respected than the "lower" activity of "gathering". To make the difference clear, the external name “San” was introduced.6Alan Barnard: Anthropology and the Bushman. Berg, Oxford 2007, p. 5

The anthropologist - anthropology = science of man - Leonhard Schultze first used the word Khoisan in 1928 to express the connection between Khoikhoi and San. 7 Susanne Berzborn:Goats and diamonds: securing a livelihood in rural South Africa. Cologne Ethnological Studies Vol. 30, 2006, p. 41

Khoi-Khoi

is a collective term for linguistically and culturally closely related peoples in South Africa and Namibia.8 See Wikipedia: Khoikhoi The Khoikhoi operated migrant pasture farming with cattle.9 Dieter Haller (text), Bernd Rodekohr (illustrations): Dtv-Atlas Ethnologie. 2nd Edition. dtv, Munich 2010. p. 167

Other names for the Khoi-Khoi: Khoikhoi, Koikoin, Khoe, Khoekhoen, "real people", Hottentots
Habitat: South Africa, Namibia

It is assumed that the collective term "Hottentots" developed from the Dutch name "Hottentot" during the colonial era. The term is mainly used derogatory, racist and discriminatory.10Susan Arndt, Antje Hornscheidt (Ed.): Africa and the German language. 2004

The term Khoe can be translated as "human" from the central Hoisan. The doubling of the term gives the meaning of “real people” or “real people” .11Sabine Klocke-Daffa: “If you have, you have to give”: social security in ritual and in everyday life with the Nama of Berseba / Namibia. 1998

Although the Khoi fought against the advancing Europeans, they were almost completely exterminated during the colonization by the Dutch. Many worked for the farmers, some joined the San and retreated to mostly drier areas in the direction of the Cedar Mountains. The Cape Town region is home to around 2,400 khoi. However, only about 5 percent maintain their culture. Around 3,400 people of this people live in Namibia, around half of whom maintain their tradition. The rock paintings are considered a tourist attraction. Blood-red paintings can be discovered on hikes in the mountains and along the rivers. 12 Peter Köpf (taz.de): Fall and Legacy of the San

San

The term “Bushmen” can have a negative charge.13Survival.de: News about the Bushmen However, the term is increasingly being accepted by the San themselves. Your country is associated with “bush”. The Gana, Gwi and the Tsila are also referred to as San.

Surname: "San" means something like "those who pick something up from the ground"
Habitat: Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe

However, few live the traditional way. Alcoholism is often cited as a particular problem because the San may not be able to dehydrogenate alcohol. In the Khoisan Nama language, the word “San” means “stranger”, “useless” or “bandit” .14R. Elphick:Khoikhoi and the Founding of White South Africa.Yale University Press, 1975, pp. 24, 27.

The term "Bushmen" is also used by indigenous groups as a self-designation. It is supposed to express the relationship with your country. In 2003, representatives of the San stated that the collective term "San" was most pleasant for them.15Carina Schlebusch:Issues raised by use of ethnic-group names in genome study. In:Nature. 464, No. 7288, March 25, 2010, p. 487. [footnote]

The foreign names changed depending on the epoch from Bosjesman (Dutch) via Bushman (English) to "Bushmen". The San were also called Basawa or Khwe. In our modern European minds, the San received more attention from the film "The Gods Must Be Crazy" by Jaimie Uys. In the 1980 comedy, San meet modern Western civilization. [Footnote] See Wikipedia: San (people)

Indigenous peoples in western Africa

Berber (Amazigh) including Tuareg

Berber is an indigenous ethnic group in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.

The history of the Berbers on Wikipedia.

Fulbe / Fulani

The Fulani are one of the largest ethnic groups in West Africa. The Fulbe can be found in at least 18 countries. About 45,000 members of the Wodaabe are ethnic Fulani. In English, the Fulbe / Fulani are usually referred to as Fula, Fulla, or Fulani (see Wikipedia).

Tribes in East Africa

Sandawe

The Sandawe comprise around 40,000 people. Originally the Sandawe were hunters and gatherers, but today they often practice livestock and agriculture. (See Wikipedia)

Hadza

About 700 Hadza live in central Tanzania.16 See Wikipedia: Hadza estimates from 2011 are 1,500 Hunters and gatherers out, In 2009, the Hadzas were still estimated at 1,000.17 Geographic Germany (PM): No possession. No stress. No war. The Hadza are the last hunters and gatherers in Africa - and role models for a sustainable way of life? 11/19/2009

Other names for the Hadza: Hadzabe, Hadapi, Kndiga, Tindiga, Wakindiga, Kangeju
Habitat: Tanzania in an area of ​​about 1,500 square kilometers. Especially at the southern end of the Eyazi lake, at the Yaeda swamp, in the Mbulu highlands, in the area of ​​the village Mang’ola.
Language: A click language is spoken that was created in isolation and has typological similarities to the Khoisan languages.

Not far from the Hadza homeland, specifically in the Olduvai Gorge, important Pleistocene fossils have already been found around 2.5 million years ago. Homo habilis is also said to have lived in this region.

Genetically, the Hadza have one of the “oldest” lineages of mankind.18Survival: Presentation of the Hadza

As one of the last ethnic groups, the Hadza still used stone tools. However, the influence of modernity is growing. On average, they only spend around two hours a day getting food. Tubers, baobab trees, edible leaves and berries as well as 20 percent game meat and honey serve as a food source. 19Klaus E. Müller: The better and the worse half. Ethnology of the gender conflict. Campus, Frankfurt a. M. / New York 1984, p. 34.

Investigations of the intestinal flora in 2017 have shown that these are composed differently - depending on the rainy or dry season - as the food sources change. They have a broader microbiome than western people20Katharina Roll (orf.at): The intestinal flora changes with the season.

Typically for hunter-gatherer cultures, the entire animal is consumed. Offal are eaten first, which fully covers the nutritional needs.21 Julia Tulipan (paleolowcarb.de): What do traditional hunters and gatherers eat today? September 8, 2014

Traditionally, the Hadza look for food as far as the Serengeti. Hunting is strictly prohibited in this area. The Tanzanian authorities accept the special case and do not enforce the regulation. We mostly hunted with a bow and arrow and sometimes as a trapper.22Hans Konrad Biesalski: Micronutrients as the engine of evolution

As the only ethnic group in Tanzania, the Hadza do not have to pay taxes. In addition, the government formally recognized the land rights in October 2011 and handed over a title deed. This was preceded by many years of threat from the authorities, who pushed ahead with their own proselytizing.23 Wolfgang Mayr (gfbv.it): Hunters and gatherers pressed against the wall: The Hadza in Tanzania need international support

Commissioner’s assistant Dorothy Wanzala stated:

We have decided that the Hadza should have official title deeds to ensure that the land's last hunters and gatherers are not disturbed by land-hungry invaders. This is especially true at a time when more and more people are pushing for the land.24Survival: Tanzania: Hadza people celebrate their first land titles. November 8, 2011

The Hadza Group in the Mangola area can be visited through some "safari companies". We ask tourists to refrain from this so that the people remain indigenous.

Mursi

About 7,480 people25Ethnologue.com: Presentation of the Mursi belong to the Mursi ethnic group. The people live in the southwest of Ethiopia, partly in the Mago National Park and describe themselves as Mun.

The Mursi are known to us Europeans for their lip plates (called dhebi a tugoin). For this purpose, girls between the ages of 15 and 16 have their lower lip cut open and two of the lower incisors knocked out. A wooden stick holds the cut open until the wound has healed. Over the years, the skin is not infrequently stretched to over 12 centimeters in diameter26Mursi.org: Lip plates.

Otherwise only chai (surma) and tirma wear this “tourist attraction” in Africa.

Other body decorations are common among the Mursi.

Surma

Most of the 26,900 members (bilingual, 2007) live in Ethiopia (Bench-Maji Zone) on the border with Sudan.

Other names are: Churi, Dama, Dhuri, Eastern Suri, Shuri, Shuro, and Surma27Ethnologue.com: Suri.

Surma live largely from cattle breeding. However, tourism has also found its way into the people. As with the Mursi women, the traditionalists also adorn themselves with lip plates made of wood or clay. You usually receive your first plate when you are around 20 years old.

Maasai and Maa peoples

It is estimated that around half a million Maasai live in East Africa (south of Kenya, north of Tanzania).

Maasai, Maassai, Masai or officially Maasai.

Ogiek

The Ogiek are a typical people of "hunters and gatherers" especially in Kenya. The Ogiek are at home in the Mau mountain forest (Rift Valley of Kenya).

The Okiek or Ogiek ethnic group.

Peoples of the Omo Valley

Around 200,000 people from eight different groups live in the Omo Valley in Ethiopia. The Omo Valley got its name from the Omo River.

Pygmies in Central Africa

The collective term includes up to 200,000 indigenous people in Central Africa who are characterized by their small body size.

Wikipedia writes about the African pygmies.

Twa / Batwa

Twa or Batwa live mainly in Rwanda and neighboring districts.

More information about the Batwa on Wikipedia.

Baka

The Baka speak the Baka, from the Gbandili-Sere language family. This is an Oubangi language.

Learn more about the Baka people on Wikipedia.