Which French colony was the most important
The French colonies:
The French Empire
France was the largest colonial power after Great Britain and the largest world empire on earth. France established its first colonies in North America. In 1535 the French navigator Jacques Cartier sailed around Newfoundland and founded a settlement on St. Lorenz Bai (North America).
Cartier took possession of much of Canada for France. He sailed as far as the village of Stadacona. Today the city of Quebec stands at this point. The first European settlement was founded by the navigator Samuel de Champlain, who established a trading post here in 1608.
1629 was Quebec captured by the English, but recaptured by France three years later. When the colony of New France became a royal province in 1663, Quebec took over as the capital. English expeditions unsuccessfully attempted Quebec in 1690 and 1711.
Cartier also reached the Indian village of Hochelaga. He named this hill Mont Réal (Königsberg). Of which is the name of the current city Montreal derived. In the following time the French penetrated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River to the Canadian chain of lakes and reached the Mississippi in 1680. At the Influence of the Missouri arose in 1682 St. Louis. The city was founded in 1718 in the Caribbean at the mouth of the Mississippi New Orleans. The French connected their areas in the south with the areas in the north along the Mississippi. The area was named in honor of their King Louis XIV. Louisiana. In doing so, they closed the way to the west for the British.
Also on the West Indies (Caribbean) and South America, France established itself; as early as 1604 the French built in the area of French Guyana (1664) the city of Cayenne and settled the two islands in 1635 Martinique and Guadeloupe. In 1660 Spain had to cede West Haiti to the French in the Peace of Rijswijk. France also established a trading post on the west coast of Africa. In addition, France had trading posts on the Indian coast, they were in a strong rivalry with the British trading companies and stations.
1759 was the year of the French Defeat in North America; The British captured Quebec in September and in 1760 all of the French forces in Canada surrendered. In 1763 France and Great Britain made peace in Paris. France had to cede a large part of its possessions in India as well as Canada and all areas east of the Mississippi to Great Britain. Part of the French territory on the Mississippi with New Orleans went to Spain. For France this peace treaty was a great colonial defeat.
But as early as 1800 Spain had to give the Mississippi region back to France. France then sold the area to the newborn United States as early as 1803, which almost doubled in size.
France had nothing more to get in North America; it was busy now Africa. From 1830 to 1912, France acquired almost half of the African continent. In 1830 France conquered Algeria and between 1843 and 1897 France conquered the entire Sahara. In 1898 the French conquering from west to east clashed with the British conquering from south to north on the Nile. The powers were on the verge of war until France finally gave in. In the Indian Ocean, France acquired it in 1885 Madagascar, with the islands from the 16th century, France finally gained superiority in the Indian Ocean. The second largest French possession was Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia). France had suffered a great deal at the end of the world division.
http://www.colony-info.de/d/histkap5.html (November 8, 2002)
http://www.lsg.musin.de/Geschichte/lkg/Verfassungen/imperialismus-F.htm (November 8, 2002)
The French colonies from the 15th century to the present day:
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