Is the marketing field good for mechanical engineers
So far there are about 2000 definitions of the concept of "marketing" in which the main tasks, processes and marketing concepts are reflected in various combinations.
The word "marketing" in English literally means "act of buying and selling in the market". The term "marketing" was found in America in 1905-1910, perhaps in connection with this "classic" was perhaps those definitions that Americans gave it. One of the first definitions McCarthy received: "Marketing is a set of economic operations to control the flow of goods and services from manufacturers to consumers in order to meet the needs of the latest and realize the goal of the company."
Today, the marketing classics are used to define F. Kotler: "Marketing is a type of human activity that aims to meet needs and needs through exchange."
The problem of identifying marketing is also complicated by the ambiguity of classifying this phenomenon with science categories. German professor E. Dichtl and X. Hershgen talk about 4 possible positions in the interpretation of marketing:
1) Marketing can be seen as the principle of business management;
2) as a means to achieve some goals;
3) as a procedure;
4) as philosophy as a style of thinking, market-oriented.
A special role in the search for a definition was played by a systematic approach that not only gained popularity in the 1960s. The twentieth century due to cybernetics' priority position as an innovative activity, but also became one of the fundamental research and management approaches. The system approach is based on understanding an object as a structure of elements of different levels and relationships, relationships between them. All elements of the system are interconnected and interdependent, so that the change in one element brings the change in another and the change of the whole system as a holistic education. In addition, any system almost always acts as an element of a higher-level system and is interconnected with other systems, which not only influences the processes occurring in it, but the processes of external nature for it.
A great influence on the variety of marketing definitions has been provided by the variety of perspectives on the purpose, objectives and content of marketing activities. Marketing definitions are often based on concepts of economic nature (e.g. profit maximization, income, market, competitiveness, etc.), management concepts (planning, regulation, organization, etc.).
F. Kotler, one of the leading modern marketing theorists, determines it through the concept of a transaction as a measurement result. SH. Hunt calls marketing on behavior that focuses on explaining the relationship between the parties in such an exchange.
Using a phenomena part as a marketing category, you can assign a sociological approach to determining the concept of marketing. The exchange is interpreted as a fundamental social process that leads to the formation of a social structure and is present in all situations of social interaction. Marketing is defined as the operation to optimize this process and meet the conditions for mutually beneficial exchange.
History of marketing
The approximate time of marketing is the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX century.
The development of large-scale machine production in the leading industrial forces (USA, Germany, England) led to a violation of the sustainable development of social space, the emergence of social tensions and caused a variety of crises of various types for the pace and volume of production was in that Imbalance with the existing material distribution system of material resources and traditional distribution algorithms included. In response to this imbalance, the need for stability, on the one hand, and the stimulation of development, on the other, and marketing appeared: first as a sphere of applied product sales activities, then as a scientific and applied discipline aimed at creating an effective relationship between the supplier and the consumer.
Currently The following concepts of marketing activities are generally accepted.:
1) improvement of production, d. H. production(before the early 1930s) - asking each product when it is available for the price and widely represented in the market;
2) sales improvement, d. H. sales(before the early fifties) - any product can be sold if it does.
3) improvement of the goods, those. Would (before the 1970s) - any product can be sold in the market if it is of good quality.
4) consumer (until the end of the 1970s) - the product is sold on the market if its production precedes the study of corporate and market needs;
5) social and ethical marketing (1980s) - Quality goods are asked if they meet non-economic social needs (ecology, safety of goods, etc.).
Marketing performs two main functions: The production orientation to meet existing and potential needs; Education and stimulation of demand. "To produce what is bought, not sell what is produced" is the main marketing formula. However, there is another, usually no announced side of his side, if the product, even if it is unsuitable, is produced, it has to be sold. Therefore, the marketing is designed to coordinate production and consumption, thus inserting control elements into the market mechanism.
The concept of marketing was written in 1776 by A. Smith who wrote that consumption is the only and ultimate production goal, i.e. H. Marketing is the process of comparing the company's capabilities with wants and customer needs to achieve the results you want to get the results you want. Thanks to marketing, the company does not produce what it wants and the goods on which there is market demand (see Table 1.3).
Table 1.3. Evolution of the marketing concept
|Years||concept||Leading idea||Main toolkit.||the main goal|
|1860-1920||production||I'm doing something that I can||Price-performance ratio||Improvement of production, sales growth, profit maximization|
|1920-1930||Would||I make a quality product||Product policy.||Improving the consumer properties of goods|
|1930-1950||sales||Develop a distribution network, sales channels||Sales policy.||Increase sales of goods through marketing efforts to promote and crumble goods|
|1960-1980||Traditional Marketing.||I do what you need to consume||Marketing mix complex, consumer research||Satisfaction of the needs and needs of the target markets|
|1980. - the present||Strategic Marketing||I do what you need for different groups of consumers||Systematic analysis of market needs, a complex of marketing mix, consumer research, segmentation and positioning||Satisfaction of the needs and needs of certain groups of buyers, the development of efficient goods, a sustainable competitive advantage|
|1980-1995||Social and Ethics Marketing||I do what you need for consumers, keeping society's demands in mind||Complex of the marketing mix, the study of the social and environmental consequences of the production and consumption of products and services||Satisfy the needs of the needs of the target markets, subject to savings in people, materials, energy and other resources, environmental protection|
|1995 - present||Individual marketing.||I do what is needed for an individual consumer||Interactive communication (defining the buyer's attitudes, recording and reacting to them), Mixa marketing complex||Continuous and long-term mutually beneficial relationships, calm, confidence in the future|
|MARKETING interaction.||I'm doing something that satisfies consumers and business partners||Coordination, integration and network analysis methods, mixing mixed complex||Satisfaction with the needs of consumers, the interests of partners and the state in the process of their commercial and non-commercial interaction|
|Marketing of impressions.||I propose what will satisfy a particular consumer and create positive emotions for them.||Methods of marketing, advertising and PR, production personalization||Make an element of play or entertainment in what might otherwise go weak and unnoticed. Make a bright unforgettable impression|
Currently, the following approaches to organizing marketing activities are widely recognized:
1. Production concept or production improvement conceptin particular, allows consumers to be benevolent for goods that are widely available and affordable. Therefore, this concept has made the main subject of attention to improve production and improve the efficiency of the distribution system. The leading means of achieving the goal has been recommended to increase the scale of production and reduce the cost of production.
Alive this concept today - still swore in the field of budget, social services, laundry where marketing was not yet general - in the sphere of nonprofit relationships. Negative features and consequences of using this concept are indifference to consumer desires, surveillance of consumers, goods, companies.
2. Product improvement concept (product concept, commercial concept) He put forward a statement as staff work that the consumers are cheap for the goods, the highest quality, have better operational properties and properties. The main target of attention was the goods on the principle: the main thing - a mousetrap (and not the problem of getting rid of mice). Marketing efforts focused on improving the quality of goods, the leading means of achieving the goal was declared to be the modernization of the goods produced. The realm of marketing existence has shifted something somewhere where it wasn't just being produced, but the whole technocratic approach. Negative features and consequences of implementing such a strategy can be considered marketing myopia, triggering the nature of the problems and needs of the customer, design options, packaging, prices.
3. Concept of intensifying commercial efforts (sales concept) - It claims consumers will not buy sufficient quantities of the company's goods unless it makes a significant effort in the sales territories and stimulates sales. The most worthy ultimate goal of the company and its marketing is to receive profits from the growth in sales. The main focus of attention is the process of selling. The main content of marketing is the concern of the seller's needs to make his goods cash. Means of guide to the goal - commercial effort and revenue sales, "hard" sales, achievable to accept the purchase immediately. The modern scope of this concept is the sale of goods and services of passive demand (which the consumer does not think about - insurance, retirement plans, funeral homes, current (large) goods, election campaigns. Negative consequences are the loss of customer trust due to the concealment of product defects , Coercion through to immediate acquisition.
In the 1970s. The point is that sales cannot exclusively dominate marketing. The thought is rising that marketing is not "the art of selling Eskimos ice cream" at all, that it is not the same as sales and needs to make sure that in general is traditional sales questions (WHO is and how to be) in general. Marketing is understood as a complex of instruments of raw material and price policy, promotion guidelines and sales. A particular term "marketing mix" does not appear successfully to us as a "marketing mix", and actually represents that the first significant stage design represents the formation of a systematic understanding of marketing.
4. In the concept of general marketingenter smoothly. mix mixes concept., the achievement of the ultimate goal is to make a profit - directly linked to the main condition: effective satisfaction of consumer wishes. Hence, attention is paid to the new basic item - the needs of the consumer, represented by the chased wording: "The consumer needs a boring crown, but a well."
The main content of the marketing activity is the pursuit of meeting the needs of the consumer through goods and a number of factors related to the creation, delivery and consumption of this product. Tools Achievement - Complex Marketing Efforts (Marketing Mix). This type of marketing is still dominated in those areas where work with mass demands is made by large companies.
5. Mid eighties. There were a number of concepts - strategic socially oriented (socioethical), individual marketing, marketing relationships.
Strategic Marketing Conceptoriensen Marketing Efforts Long-term and essentially represents a constant and systematic analysis of market needs that develop efficient goods that are intended for certain groups of buyers and have special properties that distinguish them from the goods of competitors and thus create a sustainable competitive advantage.
The concept of socio-ethical marketing,In the basis of strategic marketing, marketing activities are in difficult connection with new global problems of mankind - environment, ethical, educational, manufactured postal industry, information civilization. Environmental quality deterioration, bioethics problems (for example, organ transplants, abortions, leaving life easier - euthanasia), the inadequacy of introducing with the help of information funds into a person's personal life is difficult to solve the equation where on the one hand are the Profits of the company and, with the other, not only present present needs, but also long-term well-being, the incremental value of a person's life as a whole. The relationship with this concept originated Megaarkelting and focused on marketing problems of large social communities, state politics.
Marketing deserves a special conversation with long-term partnerships and its kernel - individual marketing concept. This is a continuous use in practice of the knowledge of the individual consumer obtained through interactive communication and helping to create and promote products and services to ensure continuous and long-term mutually beneficial relationships.
Individual marketing consists in maintaining the reaction of a particular buyer in cooperation with yourself, implies the definition of the buyer's preferences, their reception and reaction to them. The advantages of such relationships are: For the buyer - the effectiveness of the contact, for the manufacturer - profits, both for the reassuring confidence in the future.
Individual marketing has already been developed in the field of hotel service-luxury, in the organization of individual rest and treatment in banks, can be used in the market for individualized goods in sectors where the repetition of the purchase is part of the formula for success. Relationships of trust are more important than low prices than active (and obsessive) product promotion than modern technology. According to supporters and propagandists of individual marketing, market changes can change price and technology, but good relationships can be saved for life and passed on to successors. At the same time it is already directly about the success of the connection between future generations of entrepreneurs (manufacturers, intermediaries) and customers (consumers) about the success.
Marketing of impressions. - Impressions related to the use of goods and services.
At Starbucks, we can only find out what the taste and smell of real coffee should be through our own experience. Restaurants like Planet Hollywood and Hard Rock Cafe primarily offer their customers new, unusual impressions.
Las Vegas hotels should convey an old Rome or New York feel to their owners. Walt Disney remains an unsurpassed master in this field, giving its clients the opportunity to visit the Wild West in a fabulous castle on a pirate ship, etc.The purpose of merchant impressions is to add vibrancy to what might go unnoticed or underestimated.
It is with this vitality that we buy sneakers in Niketown, where the fifteen foot images of Michael Jordan on all sides are discouraged. Not only can we try out sneakers, we try them right away on the actual basketball court itself. We can go to one of the REIHÄNDER, a network that sells tourist network sales equipment, and try the carabiners and ropes on the wall that are specially built for climbers , or walk in a new rain under artificial trotting rain. We can buy tackle in Bass Pro and try to catch a fish in a shopping man.
1. The theory of the "communication society" (W. ROSTO, J. GELBREIT, P. SAMUELSON etc.)
Its content applies to the following society - for the society that has reached the very high stage of industrial development, the stage has occurred when the practical personal needs for food, clothing, comfortable housing are satisfied, and the incomes of the members of society are exceeded the cost significantly from these purposes. High sales mean that consumer consumption is actively involved on a large scale, long-term goods are involved, the role of various services is also steadily increasing. The share of the respective industries grows and their role in the economy becomes leadership. The consumer of material goods and services becomes the central figure, the center of economic life; Its aspirations are subject to production as well as most of the social processes.
The most complete of this concept has been considered W. ROSTO.the author of the famous theory of economic growth levels. He believed that the mass consumption stage was coming for the United States from the early 1920s onwards, and other developed countries, or came near, or stepped on. According to W. Rosto, the cause of this phase is the following: The preceding "stage of economic maturity" creates essential opportunities to meet the various material and spiritual needs of a person, and in "awareness" of the usefulness of such development. According to him, the company does not take into account "the advancement of technology of its main goal", it is not interested in production problems, since the main thing now is - problems of consumption and well-being.
Further development of the life system, via the community of mass consumption concepts of quality of lifesurrendered in the 1960s. In part, these processes were reflected in the theory of mass society. Mass society theory - The theory that considers the mass as the crucial characteristic of all processes and phenomena of modern society and explains its specificity. A number of sociologists (D. Matindale, D. Bell, E. Shilz) argue that the processes of integrating the masses and forming the homogeneity of society occur.
2. Conciemer As a social phenomenon. Consumerism (Consumerism) - Organized civil society movement issues: citizens, consumer unions, trade unions, environmental movements, etc. to expand rights and improve the impact of buyers on sellers and manufacturers of goods.
Motion participants ensure that every consumer initially has the right to receive comprehensive information about the main characteristics of the goods (manufacturing costs for the production and maintenance of the product; the ingredients used, components, some of the overall technological properties; the degree of the product good program, the freshness of the product, its advantages or characteristics compared to the analogues. Second, the consumer must have the right to defense against dubious goods and dubious marketing techniques, as well as the right to influence the goods marketing techniques in order to contribute to increasing the "quality of life" to increase.
In the USA, the reduction of compulsions became a tangible force in the 1960s, when D. Kennedy declared the rights of consumers to the safety of consumption, information on the characteristics of the goods, from the products of the goods, in 1962 from the products of the products. In 1985 the UN General Assembly approved "Guidelines for the Protection of Consumer Interests", which outlined the main directions of international activity in this area: ensuring the physical safety of consumers; Protection of economic interests through satisfactory technical and operational characteristics of products; Strengthen control measures against unscrupulous competition; Ensuring proper maintenance and delivery of spare parts; Distribution of reliable information; Promote the creation of consumer associations and cooperatives, etc.
The special form of the implementation of the condition ideas is the introduction of the international day for the protection of consumer rights as an instrument of social advertising, the promotion of consumer knowledge, the promotion of special public administration programs.
In Russia, cache chemistry has not yet taken as serious positions in the social management system, as in countries with extensive experience in market relations among mass production and consumption. Even so, Russian society is quick to take up the ideas of cachemism. First of all, the legal answer as an indicator of the importance of social development. In Russia there is a law "for the protection of consumer protection", which aims to implement the "guidelines for the protection of consumer protection" of the UN General Assembly.
Condumperism finds manifestation and popularization of consumer knowledge based on the media and the general educational system.
Thus, the capacitors acts as an example of a mechanism for social management that is geared towards ensuring sustainable development and the maintenance of humanitarian priorities. Condumperism acts as a guarantee for the civilized development of market relations, which reduce the interests of consumers to the level of socially and economically significant phenomena and influence the priorities and directions of the development of society on the contemporary stage.
3. comuniy. (Community) - Community of Internet visitors, a kind of virtual alternative to minors. At heart - The community of interests of interests of a wide range of users, in most cases no other common parameters. Modern communicative technologies implemented on the Internet allow you to create your own interests in virtual space. Its distinctive feature is precisely one particular problem, the topic of discussion.
Community is a social phenomenon, the emergence and development of which is stimulated with informatization, and not only in a technological, but also a social plan. The variety of problems that surround a modern person strengthens the role of information in the decision-making process, the role of the analytical component in social behavior. Meanwhile, the social experience of our contemporary times has formed in it to do a discussion of important problems, serious solutions and community cooperatives in response to this need.
4. Protection. The concept of "MiSumery" was formed on the basis of the fusion of English-language product and consumerism. The term "prostemerism" itself is bound to apply to American sociologists who used it to describe a particular stage, the stage of the United States, which is characterized by the American man living in the street in the society of mass production and Consumption.
In the context of prostemerism today, in most cases, the marketing approach is understood, for the concentration on the problems of the mass market and the priority of the consumer in marketing strategies. The emergence of this approach relates to the end of the 50s - the beginning of the 70s of the 20th century and coincides with the formation of a new phase of social development called the "society of mass consumption". One of the first works in which the fundamentals of T. Levitta's protective paradig "Marketing Myopia" were expressed had seen the light in 1960. At the same time, the works of F. Kotler became cult work that popularism popularism around the world.
Programmism focuses on creating those products that do not require and stimulate sales efforts. The basic idea of prosumery is expressed as follows: "To produce what is sold, not sell what is made" and requires the removal of the consumer's marketing research to the level of the leading marketing process.
Seminar 1. Introduction to the problem of the course "Marketing Territories"
1. Social and "commercial" marketing: common functions and functions.
2. Marketing areas: concept, topics, varieties.
3. Authorities - an important topic in the marketing areas: power and "customers". Indoor and outdoor area.
What is Marketing in Modern Management?
What historical stages of marketing development are made available?
What are the key functions of social and "commercial" marketing? What are their specificities?
What is the essence of the marketing areas? Object and Object Marketing Territories?
What are the varieties of Territories Marketing Topics? What are their functions?
Who is the most important topic in the marketing areas? Who is his "customer"?
What is the internal and external territory?
Explain that there is modern marketing in management: philosophy, technology and / or tools. Recalculate current marketing problems.
Determine the role and importance of marketing in state and municipal management. Explain the difference between marketing in "commercial" organizations and in state and local government.
Identify key factors and issues related to the internal and external environment of the area.
Economic and sociological approaches to marketing: general and excellent.
- "Marketing is a kind of human activity aimed at meeting the needs and needs through sharing." (Philip Kotler)
- "Marketing is a social process that aims to meet the needs and wants of individuals and groups through the establishment and suggestions with the value of goods and services and free exchanges." (Philip Kotler)
- "Marketing is the art and science of properly targeting the target market, attracting the number of consumers, awakening, nurturing, and increasing the number of consumers by creating confidence from the buyer that it is the highest value for the company," as well as the "ordered." and targeted instructions of awareness of consumer problems and market activities ". (Philip Kotler)
- "Marketing is an activity, a set of institutions and processes that, inform, inform, the delivery of proposals that have value for consumers, customers, partners and society as a whole (the activity, set of institutions and processes for creating, Communicate, delivery, and exchange offers that have value to customers, customers, partners, and across society) (American Marketing Association (AMA))
- "Marketing is a system of planning, pricing, promoting and distributing ideas, goods and services to meet the needs, needs and wants of individuals and organizations; advertising is only one of the factors in the marketing process."
- "Marketing is one of the management systems of the capitalist enterprise, which involves careful accounting of the processes occurring in the market for the adoption of economic solutions. The aim of marketing is to create conditions for production production based on public demand, market requirements, a system Develop organizational and technical measures to study the market, increase sales to increase the competitiveness of goods, to increase maximum profits.The main functions of marketing: The study of demand, price problems, advertising and stimulating sales , the planning of the raw materials sector, the distribution and trading operations, the activities related to storage, the transport of goods, the management of trade and industrial staff, the consumer services. "
- Marketing is the management of the organization's production and sales activities based on ongoing comprehensive market analysis. Marketing includes: prices, product policy, forecast and student demand, promotional activities, public relations, organizing the win-win culture, etc. Sometimes marketing is narrowly defined as "market study".
Most researchers agree that marketing is a process. It starts with studying the target market segment the company will work for. Marketers determine potential demand and its size (market capacity), that is, they reveal buyers whose needs are insufficiently satisfied or have an implied interest in certain goods or services. The market takes place and the choice of those parts that the company can best serve. Plans to create and bring the products to the consumer, as well as the marketing mix strategy. marketing mix.) Impact on demand through goods, price, distribution channels and product promotion methods. Create a marketing audit system that will allow you to evaluate the results of the activities carried out and the degree of their impact on consumers.
Marketing adopted the following five basic principles:
- the production and sale of goods must meet the needs of buyers, market situation and company capabilities.
- complete satisfaction of customer needs and compliance with modern technical and artistic level;
- presence in the market at the time of the most efficient possible sale of products;
- constant updating of the products manufactured or sold;
- Unity of strategy and tactics to react quickly to changes in demand.
Features and Marketing Concepts.As a rule, the marketing content is identified with the sale and the incentive, the advertising. In reality, however, revenue is one of the marketing functions and is often not the most important. If the company has worked well on such marketing sections as identifying consumer needs, developing suitable goods and establishing a reasonable price for them, establishing a distribution system and an effective incentive, then these goods will no longer have sales problems unless the company operates in a highly competitive market. According to the management theorists, "The goal of marketing is to make efforts to sell unnecessarily. Its goal is to know as well and understand the customer that goods or services are exactly the last and sell themselves."
All of this does not mean that the sales effort and its stimulation are meaningless. These functions become part of a large "marketing complex" (marketing mix), ie a set of marketing tools that must be harmoniously combined in order to achieve maximum impact on the market. In general, marketing is human activity, relevant to the market in one way or another.
Marketing functions form the following concepts: demand, needs, demand, product, exchange, transaction and market.
The underlying marketing source idea is the idea of human needs.
Need - Feeling of lack of something. People's needs are many and complex, but in general their number naturally contrasts with the needs. Here and basic physiological needs in food, clothing, warmth, and safety; and social needs in spiritual intimacy, influence, and affection; Personal needs in knowledge and self-expression. Most of these needs are determined by the first components of human nature. When the need is not satisfied, a person feels unsatisfied and either seeks an object capable of satisfying or drowns.
The second source idea of marketing is the idea of human needs.
For example, an elderly person needs to communicate a television for youth disco. The needs are expressed in terms of items that can satisfy the need of the method inherent in the cultural appreciation of a particular society or social group.
As society progresses, the needs of its members grow. People face an increasing number of objects that arouse their curiosity, interest and desire.For their part, manufacturers take focused measures to stimulate the desire to have goods. They try to forge a link between the fact that they both produce people's needs. The commodity is conveyed as a means of satisfying one or a number of specific needs. Marketing worker does NOT create need, it already exists.
Salespeople often confuse needs with needs. The manufacturer of drilling columns can assume that the consumer needs the bob, while the consumer actually needs a well. If another product appears that can be better and cheaper, the consumer has a new need (in the product novelty), although the need remains the same.
People's needs are practically limitless, but a person acquires only those goods that satisfaction will acquire for him at a minimal cost, temporary information cost.
It is not difficult to list a particular company's requests at any given time, while the company could plan production volumes for the next year based on the previous year's set of requests. This is what happened with production planning in the USSR. However, requests are an unstable indicator. People annoy the things that are on the go now and they are looking for varieties for diversity. In the 90s, the down jackets were added to the fashion for which people had given up the previously used clothes, then also abandoned jackets.
The change in choice can also be the result of price changes or income levels. A person usually selects the commodity, the combination of characteristics in which it gives him the greatest satisfaction for that price, taking into account his specific needs and resources.
The commodity is anything that can meet the need or need and is offered to the market to attract attention, acquisition, use or consumption.
The goods must not meet the needs, can partly meet and finally fully meet the needs, ie the so-called ideal product. The more closely the goods meet the needs of the consumer, the greater the success of the manufacturer. The concept of "goods" is not limited to physical objects. The commodity can be called anything that can offer a service, that is, fulfill the need. In addition to products and services, it can be personality, places, organizations, activities and ideas. The consumer decides which entertainment to watch on TV, where to go on vacation, what ideas to support, etc.
Marketing takes place in cases where people choose to meet their needs and requests through the exchange.
Exchange is the basic concept of marketing as a scientific discipline. For his commission, compliance with five conditions:
- Parties should be at least two.
- Each party should have something that could be of value to the other side.
- Each party must be able to communicate and deliver their product.
- Each party must be completely free to accept or reject the other party's proposal.
- Each party must be confident of feasibility or desirability to deal with the other side.
These five conditions only create the potential exchange. Whether the exchange occurs depends on the agreement between the parties on their terms. If exchange is the basic concept of marketing as a scientific discipline, the main unit of measurement in the marketing field is transaction.
The transaction is a commercial exchange of values between the two sides. For example, the buyer gives the seller some quantity and receives the desired goods. This is a classic currency business. With an exchange transaction, the exchange of things - the sunflower that has been exchanged for metal or services, an attorney is a doctor, in exchange for a medical exam.
The transaction suggests a number of conditions:
- at least two valuable objects;
- agreed conditions for its implementation;
- agreed commitment period;
- agreed place.
Typically, the terms of the transaction are supported and protected by law.
From the concept of "deal" you can go straight to the concept of "market".
The market is a set of existing and potential buyers of goods. The ways to meet people's needs differ in different economic systems. Self-sufficiency prevails in primitive social structures - the needs of a little and each person himself takes care of everything that is necessary. In the case of a decentralized exchange, every manufacturer of a certain product looks for a deal with every consumer of the goods of interest. The third method is a central exchange in which the creation of an additional participant in the trader - the trader and a specific place of exchange is the market.
The market can be formed on a separate product or particular service that has values of value. For example, the labor market consists of people who want to offer their workforce for wages or goods. The money market meets human needs, makes it possible to occupy money, to learn, to save money and to ensure their safety.
From the concept of "market" you can return to the basic concept of "marketing". The exchange process requires certain actions. To the one who wants to sell, you need to search for buyers to identify their needs, design relevant goods to promote them to market, storage, transportation, negotiation prices, etc. etc. The basis of marketing activities are processes like the product development, research, communication, sales organization, price adjustment, provision of service service.
While it is usually believed that the marketing of the seller is engaged in them and buyers. Housewives conduct their own marketing when looking for the goods they need. In search of scarce goods, the company has to look for sellers.
Market buyers - This is one such market where sellers have more power and where the most active buyers need to be. Buyer's market - This is a market where buyers have more power and based on which sellers need to be the most active.
In countries with developed market economies, where marketing was started in the early 1950s, the supply of goods began to overtake demand for them, and marketing began to connect with sellers to find buyers to find buyers. Marketing problems are therefore usually viewed as problems arising from the seller in the conditions of the buyer's market.
Buying behavior End users - individuals or families who purchase goods and services for personal consumption.
Consumer market - Individuals and families, purchasing goods and services for personal consumption.
Marketing mix (or Marketing Complex) presents the most important factors that are the subject of Marketing Management. It consists of four elements, the so-called " four P.»- products, prices, channels (place) of distribution and promotion (eng. Product, price, location, promotion). There are concepts that unite " five P.»- Products, Prices, Distribution Channels, Promotion and Personnel (English. Product, location, promotion, personnel).
Types of Marketing:
Depending on the state of demand in the market
- Conversion marketing. It is used in the absence of real demand. The task of marketing in this situation is to develop such an action plan, which will contribute to the emergence of the demand for the relevant goods or services.
- Stimulating marketing in connection with the availability of goods and services that there is no demand for the reason for complete indifference or disinterest in consumers. The stimulating marketing plan should consider the reasons for such indifference and identify measures to overcome them.
- Develop marketing In connection with the emerging demand for goods (services).
- Remarketing. Removes the demand for a period of fading in the life cycle of goods or services.
- Synchrometing. Used in conditions of oscillating demand. For example seasonal consumer goods.
- Marketing support. It is used when the level and structure of the demand for goods fully correspond to the level and structure of the rate.
- Anti-marketing To reduce demand that is seen as irrational from the point of view of society or the consumer (e.g. alcoholic beverages, tobacco products).
- Shame Used to reduce the demand for their product in a situation when demand exceeds supply and there is no way to increase production. It is possible to achieve such results as an increase in the price of goods, a decrease in advertising volumes or promotion efforts. The goal of demarket (as opposed to adversarial marketing) - do not destroy the demand for the product, just to reduce it, balanced with production sites.
Depending on the market coverage
- Mass marketing It takes guidance in the broadest range of consumers without considering the differences between them. (I will do what you need) The purpose of the company to establish low prices, as it reduces the cost of mass production and promotion.
- Concentrated (target) marketing Orientation of a specific segment that tries to meet its needs in order to maximize (goods for bridal images, ritual services). Pros: Complete satisfaction of need is used by small businesses. Disadvantages: The segment can be reduced unexpectedly, which limits the possible growth of the company.
- Differentiated Marketing. The desire to seize most of the market as a whole, while proposing several varieties of the same product, distinguished by its consumer qualities and able to meet the needs of many segments (dairy companies, products of different products, fat, raw materials, cottage cheese, yogurt) . Advantages: fulfilling needs. Fasten for implementation.
- Marketing Management Tasks -Positioning the goods in the market. The development of a marketing complex involves the development of goods, the establishment of prices of goods, the choice of methods of distributing goods and stimulating the sale of goods.
- Marketing Management Concepts -There are five main approaches that commercial organizations use to manage their marketing activities: Production Improvement Concept, Product Improvement Concept, Commercial Efficiency Concept, Marketing Concept, and Social and Ethical Marketing Concept. These concepts were formed in different market economies. The general trend of marketing development is the transfer of an accent from production and goods to commercial endeavors, on the consumer and an increasing orientation about the problems of the consumer and the social ethiquot.
Production concept improvement (the production concept.) It comes from the fact that consumers will be kind to goods that are too widespread and connected at prices, and therefore management should focus its efforts on improving production and increasing the efficiency of the distribution system.
Applying the concept of improving production is appropriate in two situations. The first is when the demand for goods exceeds supply. In this case, leadership should focus on finding ways to increase production. The second - when the cost of goods is too high and it is necessary to reduce it, for which it is necessary to increase productivity (but at the same time part of the products that are in warehouses, since the cost of production is too high and therefore there is demand for it not high, must sell at discounted prices. It may negatively affect the business involved in the production and / or sale of this product).
Product improvement concept (product concept) It stems from the fact that consumers will show interest in goods of the highest quality, features and characteristics, and therefore the organization must focus its energies on continuous improvement of the goods.
Use of this concept may only provide a company with short term benefits for certain benefits, but in general the concept of product improvement leads to "marketing myopia". The seller can pay full attention to this type of product, the seller may miss the consumer's needs. In the US, for example, the US railroad leadership believed that consumers needed a train, not a means of transportation, and failed to see the threats posed by airlines and vehicles. Logarithmic line makers believed that engineers need a ruler, not the ability to make calculations, and missed the threat to calculators.
Commercial efforts intensification concept (sales) (sell concept.) It stems from the fact that consumers will not buy corporate products in sufficient quantities unless they make sufficient sales and stimulation efforts.
According to this concept, various techniques are developed for identifying potential consumers and the so-called "hard selling" of them when the buyer is actively influencing what actually compels the purchase.
Marketing concept (marketing concept) It stems from the fact that the key to achieving the goals of the organization is to determine the needs and needs of the conditional markets and to ensure the desired satisfaction more efficiently and productively than that of the competitors on ways. The object of attention in the marketing concept is not the goods, but the company's customers with their needs and requirements. Profit at the same time that the company receives thanks to the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction.
Comparing the last two concepts, it can also be noted that the concept of intensifying commercial efforts, or, as it is also called, the "sales concept" is characteristic of the Russian market as a whole, and the marketing concept is extremely rare, especially in construction of luxury housing.
Social and ethical marketing concept (social marketing) It stems from the fact that the task of the company is to determine the needs, needs and interests of the target markets and to ensure the desired satisfaction with more efficient and more productive (than the competitors) in a way that is at the same time that of the consumers and of society as a whole.
This concept was established relatively recently after drawing conclusions on the insufficiency of the concept of pure marketing from the position of environmental protection, lack of natural resources and a number of other social and ethical problems. Ultimately, the concept of pure marketing does not take into account the problems of possible conflicts between the needs of the buyer and long-term wellbeing. The concept of social and ethical marketing requires a balance of three factors: the company's profits, buying needs, and the interests of society.
The concept of holistic (holistic) marketing It is based on the planning, development and implementation of marketing programs, processes and measures, taking into account their latitude and change dependency. Holistic Marketing recognizes that everything is important to marketing and it is often an advanced integrated approach. Holistic marketing has four components: relationship marketing, integrated marketing, internal marketing, and socially responsible marketing. Thus, holistic marketing is an approach in which an attempt is made to recognize and balance the various competencies and complexity of marketing activities.
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What is Marketing - Definition, Tasks and Types. Basics, principles and marketing strategies. Marketing Concepts in the Modern World
Hello, dear readers! You will be greeted by the authors of the Business Journal Khutirbobur.com Alexander Berezhnov and Vitaly Gypsies.
Today we are going to talk about such an important concept of entrepreneurship as "marketing". It is very common in modern society and mostly applies in corporate circles.
From the article you will learn:
- What is Marketing - Definition, Tasks and Types;
- Basics, principles and marketing strategies;
- Marketing concept in the modern world.
After studying the information information, you will get an integrated idea of marketing, as a modern market phenomenon and you will also learn about the intricacies and chips of this phenomenon and can introduce them to your business today.
1. What is Marketing - Definition, Goals, Tasks and Functions
To have an idea of what marketing is and how it works, useful and private entrepreneurs and network maimyakers and applicants who want to study this science and anyone who wants to understand how modern economy works.
There are hundreds of marketing definitions. We chose the most accurate and accessible to understand.
- marketing There is a social and leadership process, the purpose of which is to meet the needs of individuals or public groups through the suggestion and exchange of services and goods.
- marketing - This is a market concept, managing the production and sale of products.
- marketing - Scientific and applied activities aimed at a comprehensive study of the market and individual consumer inquiries.
And the shortest definition: marketing - obtaining the profits from the satisfaction of the consumer's needs.
The word "Marketing" in English means "Market activity". In a broad sense, this combination of production processes, promoting and delivering products to consumers, and managing relationships with customers with the purpose of obtaining income for the organization.
It doesn't quite apply to advertising and art marketing. Promotional activities and sales are only important, but far from the only components of marketing. The concept of marketing as a scientific discipline includes such elements as pricing policy, consumer psychology studies, working with mechanisms and market technologies.
The discipline's first pursuit courses, later called Marketing, were read in the United States in the early 20th century - Berkeley, Michigan University, and University of Illinois.
In 1926 the National Marketing Association was created in the United States. Later such organizations appeared in Europe, Australia, Japan.
In the 20th century, marketing gradually became the philosophy and main concept of management and economic theory. By the middle of the century, this science is linked to the theory of management, which is a new, oriented discipline for the market.
In addition to sales, theoreticians and marketing practices, detailed market analysis and the establishment of long-term economic relationships with consumers began. Even later, as part of marketing theory, such concepts as "market segmentation", "buyer service", "after-sales service" have emerged.
Modern marketing is the strategic management of the production, market, advertising and delivery of goods to the consumer with a long-term goal of obtaining lasting benefits from economic relationships.
One of the most important marketing tools is advertising. We have already written extensively in one of the previous articles.
Types of Marketing Activities, Goals, and Goals
Main types of marketing activities:
- market research, goods, customer needs;
- scientific and development work coordinated with marketing objectives;
- planning activities of the company;
- pricing policy;
- creating a package of goods;
- work with marketing communication - advertising, public relations, promotions, direct marketing;
- sales - work with a raw material network, trainer training, control, creation of special distribution systems, field sales optimization;
- after the sale of customer service.
Functions, instruments and marketing principles are constantly being improved and developed. This is a vibrant, relevant, and very profitable activity that involves millions of people around the world.
Novice entrepreneurs, sometimes not even the suspect, who do not enjoy the development and marketing practices all the time, the better they will study the fundamentals of this science, the higher the productivity of their business.
The main purpose of modern marketing is not the realization of goods and services in any way (including deception), but while satisfying the needs and needs of customers. In a narrower sense, marketing activities are aimed at embracing new consumers and sustaining old ways to offer them higher consumer values and accounting for ever changing requests.
The main job of marketing is to understand the needs of each market segment and select those that can serve a particular company better than others. When this task is accomplished, the company may be able to produce higher quality products and increase their profits by serving the target audience of buyers.
More detailed marketing tasks:
- Studying the needs of existing and potential customers of the company;
- Development of new services and goods taking into account consumer needs;
- Assessment and forecast of the market of the market, including the study of competitors;
- Formation of the area;
- Development of pricing policy;
- Development of the company's market strategy;
- Sales products;
- Customer service.
Correct marketing organization begins a long time before the company releases a finished product. First, marketers determine the needs of potential customers, calculate the volume and intensity of those requirements, determine the company's capabilities.
Experts continue to work on a specific product throughout the life cycle of the goods. They look for new consumer groups and try to keep old customers and study for these sales reports, improve product features and adjust the feedback.
A good marketing campaign consists of the following steps:
- correct understanding of customer needs;
- creating a product that fully meets the needs of buyers;
- appointment of fair value;
- effective advertising campaign;
- Proper distribution of goods in wholesale / retail sales;
- complete consumer maintenance after shopping.
With well-organized marketing, the goods are sold very easily and bring the maximum profit to the company.
2. Basics and Marketing Principles
In the modern economy, a trading organization's relationships with market issues are based on marketing principles.
And the principles of it are:
- Scientific and practical market research, Production capabilities of corporate and product sales channels.
- Segmentation. The identification of the most acceptable market of the market - a homogeneous group of consumers, in terms of further research on the promotion of goods.
- The established relationship between production and consumption. Flexible company reaction to changing market requirements, growth or decline in demand.
- Innovative politics. - Continuous improvement and renewal of goods, creating and implementing the latest technologies, methods of interaction with consumers, updating advertising, finding new sales methods and channels for the movement of goods.
- planning - Development of production programs and product sales methods according to market research and economic forecasts.
Marketing should be perceived as an integrated - economic, public, managerial and technological process - a process based on constant work on the study of the market and attracting the company's activities to its terms.
The management of the company's strategy based on the marketing program (Marketing Mix) provides the operation in a dynamic and continuous mode that offers a quick response to changes in the market environment. The company's marketing department fully manages market behavior and determines development prospects.
Marketing mix 4P. - a well-known scheme that should help marketers develop a marketing complex. It indicates four areas that should be covered by the marketing program:
- product - Anything that can be offered to the market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that can meet some needs. It can be a physical object, a service, a personality, a place, an organization, or an idea.
- price - the amount of money or other values that the customer changes for the benefits of owning or using the product or service.
- Promotion. - Actions that inform the target category of customers about products or services, about their advantages and inclined to buy.
- Place. - All actions of the company aimed at making a product or service available to the target category of customers.
1981, BMS and Bitener, who developed the concept of the marketing concept in the service sector, offered the supplementary mix with three additional P:
Marketing mix 7P (for the service sector):
From me you add this list to other 3 points as well:
- People - Any person directly or indirectly involved in the process of providing services such as employees and other customers.
- Process. - Procedures, mechanisms and measures that provide the provision of services.
- Physical evidence - The environment, the environment in which the service is provided. Actions that inform the target category of customers about products or services, about its benefits and inclined to purchase. Pieces of material that help promote and offer services.
3. Types of Marketing
There are many types of marketing, each with its narrow goals and distinctive features. The classification below is based on the characteristics of consumer demand.
term "Marketing"Comes from the English word" market "(market) and literally means market activities.
The founder of marketing as a science is the American professor F. Kotler, who created the structure of the discipline, introduced and identified the main categories of marketing, formulated its basic concepts and showed how they can be implemented.
By definition of the cake, Marketing is a kind of human activity aimed at meeting the needs and needs through exchanges.
There are currently around 2000 marketing definitions in the world literature. As the American Marketing Association defines it as: "The process of planning and executing the design, price, promotion and execution of ideas, goods and services through exchanges that serve the purpose of individuals and organizations." Widespread in the West has the definition of marketing given by the British Institute of Management: "Marketing is one of the types of management activity that contributes to the expansion of production and trade and employment by identifying consumer inquiries, research and development organizations increase these inquiries meet; marketing combines the possibilities of production with the possibilities of selling goods and services, justified in nature, in order to achieve the scope of general work required for profit.
Despite the large number of marketing definitions, a number of domestic and foreign scholars have come to the clear conclusion that it has not yet been possible to formulate a clear and comprehensive definition of this concept that would find universal use.
When creating a modern marketing concept, five main stages of development can be distinguished (Table 1).
As a special approach to production management and sales, it was eliminated at the beginning of the twentieth century when large-scale production was formed, competition sharpened. This stimulated the search and development of new approaches to the management of the market activities of companies, which stimulates the demand for manufactured products. The acute, this process manifested itself in the United States. American economists of the time emphasized that the main problem for entrepreneurs is the analysis and organization of sales.
At that time, marketing was mainly tied to just selling goods.
After the crisis of 1929-1933, marketing lost its purely sales orientation. Acquiring a broad nature, began to cover various parties to the functioning of firms, thereby awakening the consumer to one of the most important elements of their development and promotion of products to consumers, thereby creating conditions for an increase in the demand for goods.
From the end of the 50s to the beginning of the 70s, the company focused on the marketing complex, its elements.
The next stage in the development of marketing theory - the 70s of the twentieth century. This time was marked by the activation of consumer struggles for their rights to strengthen the environment for environmental protection.
The main stages of the development of marketing theory
|Stage and its duration||Characteristic level|
|1st stage: late 19th century||The emergence of marketing with the orientation of sales optimization and advertising of goods.|
|2nd stage: mid-30s - the beginning of the 50s of the twentieth century||Loss of pure sales orientation through marketing, expansion of activities in connection with comprehensive market research, product development and their promotion on the market.|
|3rd stage: beginning of the 50s - beginning of the 70s of the twentieth century||Marketing is seen as a complex of functions aimed at meeting the needs of end users with more efficient methods than competitors.|
|4th stage: the beginning of the 70s is the beginning of the 80s of the twentieth century.||Scientific analysis of public opinion and its use in the activities of companies.|
|5th stage: The 80s of the twentieth century and until today.||Strategic planning of market activities based on a thorough analysis of the factors of the company's marketing environment.|
First, the 80s of the 20th century, the era of strategic marketing occurred. Intensive change and influence on companies of environmental factors led to predict a market situation and develop marketing plans that imply the adaptation of the company to changing environmental conditions.
Currently, marketing has become one of the most important concepts in managing the business in market conditions.
Stage 1 - Mass Marketing (late x1x - the beginning of the twentieth century.)
Stage 2 - Production Marketing (from the beginning of the twentieth century. Until the middle of the twentieth century.)
3 stage - consumer marketing (from the middle of the twentieth century. To the present day)
Mass marketinglocated with mass production, sales, immediately stimulates the sale of the same product for all buyers.
Production marketing.associated with the manufacture of one or more products with different properties, different properties in different packaging, etc. Most Russian companies are in this period of marketing development.
Consumer marketing.differs from previous types in that the company distinguishes between the market segments, chooses one or more of them, and the whole marketing complex is developed for each segment.
As a scientific discipline, marketing is closely related to other sciences.
Theoretical marketing basis is economic theory.The research and analysis of the market situation is based on the principles and methods of statistics and sociology. The study of consumers and the analysis of the marketing medium is carried out with knowledge from such sciences as demography, sociology, psychology, etc. The balance sheet, the corporate economy, which underpins the comprehensive assessment of the company's competitiveness in the industrial market. Mathematics applies to the modeling of economic and social processes.
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