How do human values ​​deteriorate?

blood values

The examination of the blood is an important part of the medical treatment. It can provide information about the presence of a disease and help the doctor to research the cause of the disease. There are many substances in human blood that can be used to diagnose diseases. What Hb, CRP, Creatinine and Co. mean.

What is the blood made of?

Man's blood is made up of fixed shares (the so-called Blood cells) and from plasma. Make the solid ingredients about 45 percent of blood volume and are composed of three types of cells:

  • Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
  • White blood cells (leukocytes)
  • Blood platelets (thrombocytes)

The plasma that 55 percent of the blood volume, consists for the most part of water. In addition, there are Egg whiteswho perform various tasks and others Fabricsthat arise in the metabolism.

What tasks do the blood cells perform?

1) red blood cells (erythrocytes)

The red blood cells (Erythrocytes) are for supplying the body with oxygen of great importance. They carry the red blood pigment hemoglobin (Hb) in itself, which can bind oxygen. The erythrocytes in the lungs absorb this oxygen and then distribute it to the rest of the body. One microliter of blood - i.e. one millionth of a liter - contains about 5 million Red blood cells.

The amount of red blood cells can be determined in the blood count (Blood count erythrocytes), as well as the content of the red blood pigment hemoglobin (Blood value hemoglobin, Hb). With the help of these values, the doctor can determine whether a Anemia is present. In order to understand more precisely where the cause of the anemia lies, one can calculate further values. That's how doctors often pull them mean concentration of hemoglobin in a red blood cell (Blood count MCHC, middle cellular Hemoglobin concentration) to find the cause of anemia.

2) white blood cells (leukocytes)

The white blood cells are part of the human Immune system. It is a family of different cells, all of them no blood pigment contain. That is why they have been named “white” blood cells.

The white blood cells recognize foreign substances (e.g. bacteria) and conduct a Immune reaction a. They can also migrate through vessels into the tissues of the body in order to be targeted there Fight pathogens.

The amount of white blood cells can be determined in the blood count (Blood count leukocytes). It provides information about whether the immune system is currently active - for example because it is fighting an infection - or whether there are too few immune cells. Normally there is one microliter of blood in it between 4000 and 9000 white blood cells.

3) platelets (thrombocytes)

The platelets are used for Coagulation of the blood. In the event of an injury, they attach themselves to the injured vessels and form one there Plugthat stops the bleeding. Because of their flat shape, they have been given the name "platelets".

The number of platelets can be determined in the blood count (Blood count platelets). This value helps the doctor assess the risk of bleeding and, in the event of bleeding, can give an indication of the cause. One microliter of blood normally contains about 150.000 – 300.000 Platelets.

What other blood values ​​are there?

To assess the function of various organs or organ systems, the doctor can use other blood values. The blood count can determine whether there is inflammation in the body CRP Provide information. The function of the liver and the biliary tract can be determined using the values OLD, AST, γ-GT and AP to be checked. The most important kidney values ​​are Creatinine and GfR, the most important thyroid value is that TSH.

Inflammation Levels (CRP)

The CRP (c-reactive protein, Blood count CRP) is a protein produced by the liver. When the body's immune system is activated by inflammation, the production of CRP also increases. Doctors use this blood count to get clues about a present inflammation to obtain. The value can also be checked during the course of therapy to determine whether the treatment is reducing the inflammation successfully fought. A normal CRP value is less than 10 mg / l Blood.

Liver values ​​(ALT, AST, γ-GT, AP)

OLD (Alanine aminotransferase) and AST (Aspartate aminotransferase) are two enzymes found in the cells of the liver. Become liver cells due to a disease damaged, these enzymes pass into the blood where they can be measured. Depending on how much the values ​​are increased and what the ratio of ALT and AST is, the doctor can provide information about the Severity of liver disease receive. Measure ALT and AST in Units (U, units) per liter. A normal value for the two enzymes is less than 50 U / l Blood.

γ-GT (gamma-glutamyltransferase) and AP (Alkaline phosphatase) are enzymes that also provide information about the function of the liver give. In addition, diseases of the Biliary tract be recognized. The γ-GT is increased when liver cells are damaged. Regular alcohol consumption also increases this blood count. AP is increased when the cells that line the bile ducts (Biliary epithelia), to be damaged. The standard value for the γ-GT is less than 55 U / l Blood contributing to the AP 40-104 U / l Blood.

Kidney values ​​(creatinine, GfR)

Creatinine is a substance that is known as Degradation product arises in the metabolism. It gets through the kidneys with the urine eliminated. When the kidneys do not function properly, they can no longer remove enough creatinine from the blood. This blood count is therefore a good way of assessing the function of the kidneys. A normal blood creatinine level is less than 1.1 mg / dl Blood. If the creatinine level is increased, this indicates damage to the kidneys.

The kidneys are responsible for the blood clean and from Pollutants to free. The GfR (glomerular filtration rate) is a measure of how much blood can be filtered by the kidneys. It is calculated using a complicated formula from other blood values, the age and gender of the patient and other factors. A reduced GfR value indicates a impairment close to kidney function. For healthy people, the GfR is more than 90 ml / min.

Thyroid levels (TSH)

The TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) is a hormone produced by the thyroid (Glandula thyroidea) is produced. Among other things, it controls the Energy metabolism of the body. A determination of the TSH and its subtypes helps the doctor that function check the thyroid gland. Increased or decreased values ​​indicate a Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

The human blood contains many substances that provide information about the function of organs and organ systems. A blood test is therefore often an essential part of medical treatment. Knowing the most important blood values ​​helps patients to understand blood tests and to get an overview of their own blood count (save blood values ​​in their own health account).

Important NOTE: This article contains only general information and descriptions on the subject of blood values. It is not suitable for self-diagnosis or self-treatment and under no circumstances can it replace a doctor's visit.

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