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Street food is a ready-to-eat food or drink that is sold by a street vendor or vendor on a street or other public place, such as a market or fair. It is often sold from a portable grocery booth, grocery cart, or grocery cart and is intended for immediate consumption. Some street foods are regional, but many have spread beyond their region of origin. Most street foods are classified as both finger food and fast food and are on average cheaper than restaurant meals. According to a 2007 study by the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day.

Today people can buy street food for a number of reasons, such as convenience, to get tasty food for a reasonable price in a sociable setting, to try ethnic cuisines, or for nostalgia.

Hygiene and freshness often prevent people from eating street food. The lack of cooling is often interpreted as a lack of cleanliness and hygiene, but on the other hand, street vendors often use particularly fresh ingredients.

Street food is closely related to the takeaways, junk food, snacks and fast food and has the characteristic that it can be bought outside instead of inside a building. Both take-away and fast food are often sold by the meters located in the buildings but facing the street, which makes it difficult to differentiate.

With the advent of globalization and tourism, street food safety has become a major public health concern, prompting governments and scientists to focus on educating the public about it. Therefore, the Food Standards Agency provides comprehensive food safety guidelines for vendors, distributors and retailers of street food in the UK. 4 Other effective ways to improve the safety of street food are mysterious customer programs, training and rewards for street vendors through regulatory measures and technical tests.

Small fried fish were a street food in ancient Greece; however, Theophrastus disparaged the practice of street food. A large number of street vendors were discovered during the excavation of Pompeii. Street food was consumed by poor city dwellers of ancient Rome, whose tenement houses did not have ovens or stoves. Chickpea soup with bread and cereal paste were common meals here. In ancient China, street food was usually intended for the poor, but wealthy residents would send servants to buy street food and bring it back to them to eat in their homes.

A traveling Florentine reported in the late 14th century that Cairo people brought rawhide picnic towels to distribute on the streets while they ate lamb kebab, rice, and donuts bought from street vendors. In Renaissance Turkey, many crossroads had vendors selling "fragrant bites of hot meat," including roasted chicken and lamb. In 1502, Ottoman Turkey became the first country to legalize and unify street food.

Aztec marketplaces had vendors selling drinks like Atolli (“a porridge made from corn dough”), nearly 50 types of tamales (made with ingredients from the meat of Turkey, rabbit, gophers, frog and fish to fruits, eggs and corn flowers), as well as insects and stews. Spanish colonization brought European food supplies such as wheat, sugar cane, and cattle to Peru, but most of the citizens continued to eat mostly their traditional diet. Imports were only accepted on the fringes of their diet, such as grilled beef hearts sold by street vendors. Some of Lima's street vendors from the 19th century, such as “Erasmo, the‘ Negro ’Sango Vendor” and Na Aguedita are still remembered today.

During the American colonial era, "Street vendors sold oysters, roasted ears of corn, fruits, and sweets to all classes at low prices." Oysters, in particular, were a cheap and popular street food until around 1910, when overfishing and pollution raised prices. Street vendors in New York City faced a lot of opposition. After previous restrictions restricted their hours of operation, street vendors in New York City were banned completely until 1707. Many women of African descent made their living on the streets of America in the 18th and 19th centuries, from fruits, cakes, and nuts in Savannah to coffee, cookies, chocolates, and other sweets in New Orleans. Cracker Jack started out as one of many street food exhibits at the Columbian Exposition.

In the 19th century, street vendors in Transylvania sold gingerbread nuts, cream mixed with corn, as well as bacon and other meat fried on ceramic vessels with hot coals fried inside. French fries, consisting of fried potato strips, were probably made as a street food in Paris in the 1840s. Street food in Victorian London includes tripe, pea soup, pea pods in butter, whelk, shrimp and eel.

Ramen, originally brought to Japan by Chinese immigrants 100 years ago, began as a street food for workers and students. However, it soon became a "national dish" and even gained regional variations. Street food culture in Southeast Asia today has been heavily influenced by coolie workers imported from China in the late 19th century.

In Thailand, although street food did not become popular among native Thais until the early 1960s due to rapid urban population growth, it had "supplanted home cooking" by the 1970s. The rise of the country's tourism industry also adds to the popularity of Thai street food.

In Indonesia - especially in Java - the food and beverage manufacturer has a long history, as mentioned in bas-reliefs from the 9th century and in the 14th century inscription as a catalog raisonné. During the colonial days of the Dutch East Indies around the 19th century, various street foods were developed and documented, including street vendors with satay and dawet (cendol). The current proliferation of Indonesia's strict street food culture is supported by massive urbanization over the past few decades, which has opened up new opportunities in gastronomy. This happened in the country's rapidly growing urban agglomerations, particularly in the greater Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya area.

Around the world
Street food vending can be found all over the world, but varies greatly between regions and cultures. For example, Dorling Kindersley describes Vietnamese street food as "fresh and lighter than many of the cuisines in the area" and "strong on herbs, chili peppers and limes", while Thai street food is "fiery" and "spicy with shrimp paste ... and fish sauce." "New York's street food is the hot dog, but New York street food also includes everything from" spicy Middle Eastern falafel or Jamaican jerk chicken to Belgian waffles "

Street food in Thailand offers various selections of ready meals, snacks, fruits and beverages sold by street vendors or vendors at food stalls or food trucks on the street side. Bangkok is often mentioned as one of the best places for street food. Popular street food options include pad thai (fried rice noodles), som tam (green papaya salad), sour tom yum soup, various Thai curries and sticky rice mango

Indonesian street food is a diverse mix of local Indonesian, Chinese and Dutch influences. Indonesian street food often tastes quite strong and flavorful. A lot of street food in Indonesia is fried, such as local gorengan (donuts), including nasi goreng and ayam goreng, while bakso meatball soup, chicken satay and gado gado salad served in peanut sauce are also popular.

Indian street food is as diverse as Indian cuisine. Each region has its own specialties to offer. Some of the most popular street food dishes are Vada Pav, Cholle Bhature, Parathas, Buns, Bhel Puri, Sev Puri, Gol Gappa, Aloo Tikki, Kebabs, Tandoori Chicken, Samosa, Bread Omelets, Pav Bhaji and Pakora. In India, street food is popularly known as Nukkadwala food. There are several restaurants and QSRs in India that have also been inspired by the vibrant street food in India.

In Hawaii, the local street food tradition of plate lunch (rice, macaroni salad and a portion of meat) was inspired by the bento of the Japanese who were brought to Hawaii as plantation workers. In Denmark, sausage trolleys allow passers-by to buy sausages and hot dogs.

In Egypt, a common street food is ful, a slow-cooked fava bean dish.

Mexican street food is known as “antojitos” (translated: “small cravings”), which includes various types of tacos, such as tacos al pastor, huaraches, and other corn-based foods

Cultural and economic aspects
Because of differences in culture, social class, and history, the ways in which family street vendor businesses have traditionally been founded and run vary in different regions of the world. For example, few women are street vendors in Bangladesh, but women in Nigeria and Thailand are women. Doreen Fernandez says Filipino cultural attitudes to meals are a "cultural factor that works in the Philippines in the street food phenomenon" because eating "in the open, in the market or in the street or in the field" is not inconsistent with that Meal is in the house or at home "where" there is no special room to eat ".

In some cultures, such as Japan or Swahili cultures, walking on the street while eating is considered rude, although it is acceptable for children. In India, Henrike Donner wrote about a “clear distinction between food that could be eaten outside, especially by women”, and food prepared and consumed at home, with some non-Indian food being too “foreign” or too tightly unrelated -Vegetarian preparation methods are made at home.

In the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania, street vendors gain economic benefits that extend beyond their families. As street vendors buy local fresh food, urban gardens and small farms in the area have expanded. In the United States, street food vendors are credited with supporting New York City's rapid growth by providing food for the city's merchants and workers. Street food owners in the United States had an upward mobility goal by moving from selling on the street to running their own businesses. In Mexico, however, an increase in street vendors has been seen as a sign of deteriorating economic conditions, where grocery shopping is the only job opportunity unskilled workers who have migrated from rural areas to urban areas can find.

In 2002, Coca-Cola reported that China, India and Nigeria were among the fastest growing markets: markets where the company's expansion has been to train and equip mobile street vendors to sell their products.

Female role
Another very important socio-economic aspect is related to the role women play in the street food phenomenon and intervene in the various stages of production, including preparation, transport and final sale on the street. Women play an important role, especially in developing countries, and in some economic and ethnic contexts they are even the most important component of work.

Some companies, such as India and Bangladesh, stand in sharp contrast, with a market fabric dominating the traditional male component of salespeople with stakes ranging from 90 to 99%. But even in such cultural contexts there is a significant proportion of female employment, not only in the preparation of food, but also in commercial ones, where they play the role of sales aids.

A feature of the food prepared by female hands seems to be its closer proximity to tradition, in the variety and use of ingredients, compared to that of male production. Also, according to some studies, female preparation street food is of better quality in terms of the presence of bacterial fillers.

health and safety
As early as the 14th century, government officials were overseeing street vending activities. With the increasing pace of globalization and tourism, street food safety has become a major public health concern and a focus for governments and scientists to raise public awareness. However, despite concerns about contamination at street vendors, the incidence of such problems is low, with studies showing rates comparable to restaurants.

In 2002, a sample of 511 street foods in Ghana by the World Health Organization showed that most germ counts were within accepted limits, and another sample of 15 street foods in Kolkata showed that they were "nutritionally well balanced" and provided about 200 kcal ( cal) energy per rupee of the cost.

In the UK, the Food Standards Agency provides comprehensive food safety guidance for vendors, distributors and retailers in the street food sector. Other effective ways to improve street food safety include: mystery shopping programs, training, seller reward programs, regulatory government and membership administration programs, and technical testing programs.

Despite knowing the risk factors, the real harm to consumer health has yet to be fully proven and understood. Because of the difficulty of tracking cases and the lack of disease reporting systems, there is little follow-up research to show that there are real links between eating street food and food-borne diseases. Little attention was paid to consumers and their eating habits, behavior and awareness. The fact that social and geographical origins largely determine the physiological adaptation and response of consumers to food - whether or not contaminated - is neglected in the literature.

In the late 1990s, the United Nations and other organizations recognized that street vendors were an underutilized method of delivering fortified food to the population, and in 2007 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization recommended the introduction of nutrients and supplements for Street foods that are normally consumed by the respective culture.

Food safety
One of the aspects is the safety and nutritional quality of the preparations. The World Health Organization has identified three critical points:

The preparation processes must be sufficient to eliminate food risks or reduce them to acceptable levels.
The methods of preparation should prevent the multiplication of pathogens, the development of toxins and should not pose any risks at work
The methods of preparation and packaging should ensure that food is not susceptible to subsequent contamination
Research carried out by the International Development Research Center (IDRC) in India in the city of Pune has shown how, from a bacterial load point of view, the quality of food prepared by women at home can be sold on the road is much better than that otherwise prepared food.

Nutritional value
Among the problems associated with preparing for road consumption, there is a danger that the trend towards greater product economy will encourage producers to prefer the use of less expensive fats and edible oils, and therefore less valuable from one point of view is. Food.

Another aspect of interest concerns the quality of some basic nutritional factors: while the presence of certain stable nutrients, such as fat-soluble vitamins and mineral salts, is fairly well assured, there is a risk that some poorly stable nutritional components, such as water and soluble vitamins, are depleted . or destroyed by the processes of preparation and preservation. Given the size of the food phenomenon, this would result in poor contribution of nutritious food components in the diet of people who consume street food extensively and habitually.

Street Food Guide
Although street food is available almost everywhere, it is mostly associated with hot climates in general and Asian countries in particular.

This type of food is sold in urban settings and along highways in some parts of the world - in other words, places where people move. Markets are a good place to find a number of vendors selling street food, especially in warmer countries. There you can often go from stall to stall and try hundreds of different types of food - spicy, sweet, salty, hot and cold and a variety of drinks.

Street food is less common in colder parts of the world, usually in the form of individual food trucks, carts or kiosks, where one can often only choose between variants of the same dish, e.g. Hot dogs and sausages with different toppings. Street food there is almost always intended to be eaten by hand, and there are seldom designated seats and tables, such as those found on the street. in a Singapore Hawker’s Center. On the flip side, at market-like events, there are usually more choices, especially when it comes to food!

Street food is often not limited to one country or region: for example, hamburgers can be found almost everywhere in the world. But that doesn't mean they are the same everywhere: street food dishes often have a local flavor. The foods listed are usually only a small selection of what is available on the street in each location. The foods are listed by country or region of origin, often also in the surrounding regions. Certain dishes are also often available where large immigrant communities congregate and some dishes have become global.

Street food is often eaten in warm climates, so chilled soft drinks, water, fruit juices or beer are the most common beverages consumed with these types of food. Some drinks can also be considered street food, for example kvas, a low-alcohol fermented drink sold on stalls in Russia, Ukraine, and other parts of Eastern Europe. Warm drinks like coffee or tea are common with pastries or when it's cold outside. A highlight of the Christmas markets in Germany, Scandinavia and the Baltic states are the stalls with mulled wine to warm up.

stay healthy
Understand that street vendors don't necessarily have the same standards of hygiene as restaurants and cafes. Food that has been carelessly handled can contain bacteria, hepatitis viruses, and other things that can upset the stomach and possibly even worsen. You should be careful with food that has been sitting around for a long time. It is best to have your food cooked after you have ordered it and served it hot. In general, stalls with a high number of customers in a given time are more likely to serve fresh produce and less likely to have food lying around for too long.

It is a good idea to watch other people eat; Otherwise the food could end up all over your mouth and / or you will make a spectacle of yourself. The latter would involve eating with chopsticks without any prior experience, eating with your hands when no one else is doing it, or eating with your left hand in Muslim countries where it is considered dirty.