Was there Allah before Muhammad
Dr. theol., born 1938; 1978 to 2006 Professor of Religious Studies and the History of Christianity at Saarland University (Philosophical Faculty); Currently head of the religious studies department at the Philosophical Faculty of Saarland University and of "Inara. Institute for Research into the Early History of Islam and the Koran", Postfach 15 11 50, 66041 Saarbrücken.
Email: [email protected]
introductionIslam is a dynamically growing world religion with more than a billion members. It sees itself justified by the prophet Mohammed (muhammad) sent by God, who, according to tradition, lived on the Arabian Peninsula from around 570 to 632 AD. A military and religious success story began after his death. The expansions of the Muslim warriors overcame the two great powers in this area, the Byzantine and Sassanid (Persian) empires. In a few decades they extended their rule in the whole of the Middle East to the borders of India, conquered Egypt and North Africa as far as Spain and advanced as far as southern France.
These operations were directed by caliphs who succeeded Mohammed in his political leadership: initially, up to the year 661 AD, the - later so-called - four "rightly guided caliphs", then, up to 750, the Umayyads, who moved the capital to Damascus moved and, from the middle of the 8th century, the Abbasids, who ruled from Baghdad.
Mohammed only made his proclamations orally. These were kept in mind by his listeners, but were also recorded on bones or palm leaves. According to Muslim tradition, this material was collected under the third caliph Osman (Othman, Uthman) and made into today's full text of the Quran has been compiled. The Caliph Osman had all other versions of the Koran forbidden. The Koran (Kairiner Koran) printed in Cairo in 1925, which today is the basis of all Koran exegesis, is said to agree with the Koran of Osman.
Western research on the Koran has largely followed the Muslim tradition to this day. Hans Zirker sums up this consensus: "Compared with the Bible (...) the Qur'an was created in an extremely short and homogeneous manner. (...) About 20 years after the death of Mohammed, the collection was available, from which all current editions With a few exceptions, even non-Muslim scholars have no doubt that the Koran reproduces the words of Revelation largely authentically in the form conveyed by Mohammed (...). " Rudi Paret also says:" We have no reason to assume that even a single verse in the whole Koran would not come from Mohammed himself. "
- Health management is a good career
- How long does a university semester last
- What is it like to be a tyrant
- What is IU's best song
- What are your favorite food colors
- How do I bring peace to Indonesia
- How is it that Asian eyes are so slanted
- What is the staple food of Israel
- What gives you euphoria
- What difficulties do nurses have
- What is a perfect date
- What are the best bedroom furniture brands
- Who is Jesus Father
- What are your favorite electronica artists
- Are you a collectivist or an individualist
- How many Chinese learn English here
- What products can I export from Nigeria
- Is there a state quota in AIIMS
- Should the sharing economy be regulated
- Will humanity ever stop eating meat?
- Why do the Chinese think they are smart?
- What is traditional japanese sushi
- Why should I never visit Austin TX
- What is invasive diagnosis