What makes a dish
Hanisauland: Lexicon @todo: from Preprocess
Damage has occurred
If someone cheats or insults me or harms me in any other way, I can sue that person in a court of law and, for example, claim damages. It may also be that the act is so serious that the state (represented by a prosecutor) will bring charges. If there is a legal proceeding, judges examine exactly what actually happened. They listen to all those involved, possibly also witnesses, and then make a judgment.
A court case is always led and decided by one or more judges. Sometimes those affected have lawyers by their side. The course of legal proceedings follows fixed rules. If these are not followed, a procedure may be invalid. The negotiation of what actually happened, whether the accused is guilty and what grounds for exoneration may exist, is called a court case. In short, one often only speaks of “process”.
- Civil proceedings
If private individuals argue with each other in court, it is a civil proceeding (“civil” means “civil”). Often a lawsuit is filed because one party is demanding compensation or the performance of a contract (for example, payment of rent or a purchase price). Sometimes witnesses are also heard. The judge hears both parties and then issues the verdict.
- Criminal proceedings
If a serious act, for example a crime, has occurred, the state is interested in the investigation and wants to ensure that the perpetrator is punished. Such a procedure is called "criminal procedure", it is directed against the "accused". Here, however, the plaintiff is not a private person, but a public prosecutor. He or she represents the interests of the state (that is, of all of us). In the Criminal Code it is written which acts are prosecuted by the state and how high the punishment can be. At the end of a trial the judgment is announced, which always begins with the sentence: "In the name of the people the following judgment is issued ...". This sentence expresses that the judges may not express their own opinion, but only what the applicable laws prescribe.
In doubt for the accused
Basically, someone can only be convicted if his guilt can be clearly proven. If this is not the case, the accused must be acquitted. The following principle applies: In case of doubt, for the accused.
Judges and lay judges
Another very different meaning of "court"
The word "judgment" has a second, completely different meaning, which of course you all know. After all, everyone has a favorite dish, right?
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