What is the brutal truth about living alone

What was behind the witch hunt

The war of the sexes has become more brutal and less brutal throughout history. There were armistices and unlimited wars of annihilation between men and women. One of these wars of extermination was the fight against the so-called "witches", which was actually a war against all women. In all, at least nine million women were burned. There are even estimates of 30 million! In Europe the pyre burned for about 400 years. The flames also spread to America, to the Puritan colonies.

Even today, historians strive to portray or downplay this incomparable gender murder as partially justified. Witches? We rarely hear of the historical extent of the massacre. Sometime in the dark Middle Ages something would have happened, they say. People would have believed in the devil then. We also know from Grimm's fairy tales that witches are old and nasty, carry cats on their backs and eat small children. But what really happened?

Witches are old and nasty, carry cats on their backs and eat small children.

The witch hunt did not take place in the "dark Middle Ages", but in the late Middle Ages and modern times. It had its climax, macabre, in the period of so-called "humanism" and the Renaissance. And that's not a coincidence. Two components came together. On the one hand, the misery of the majority of the people at this time worsened so that if the ruling class wanted to avoid revolts, an outlet was absolutely necessary: ​​the witches were the "Jews" of this epoch! On the other hand, it was the time of a massive offensive by men's power that tried to push the women out of the last positions they still held.

Women who, in contrast to later, still had their place in the craft guilds, were now finally maneuvered out! Women who until then had been the "doctors of the people" as midwives and wise women were displaced by the developing medical schools to which they had no access. Her knowledge of medicine and the relationships between psyche and body, which has been handed down for thousands of years, has also been buried.

The transition from the natural economy to the money economy tore people out of their agrarian context. If a farmer had previously reimbursed his master for the taxes in the form of harvest yields, eggs, grain, fruits, he now had to pay them in cash. If the harvest failed to materialize, the family not only had nothing to eat, but also no product that they could sell in order to pay the taxes that were due again and again. So people got deeper and deeper into debt. Often lost house and yard and had to earn their living as workers.

Famine and epidemics had weakened the poor population.

The misery of the peasants became unbearable and with it that of the manufacturing workers, dyers, weavers and small craftsmen. Famine and epidemics also weakened the poor population. Resistance arose: peasant revolts! Revolts of the weavers and dyers! Witches!

The peasant wars were put down, the peasants were cruelly tortured and murdered, entire villages burned down, the uprisings of the weavers and dyers were brutally stabbed and shot by the rulers. But the “witches” were not that easy to grasp. The rebellion of women was difficult to locate and broke out again and again everywhere. That is why they were persecuted, tortured, burned, and tortured with ever more perfected methods of cruelty for centuries. They were hunted by ecclesiastical and secular lords, by Protestants and Catholics, from Spain to England, by city councils and feudal lords, by fanatical clerics and "humanists", by strangers and their own neighbors.

Any woman could be a "witch" or be declared to be a "witch". Suspicion was enough. Did she have red or black hair, was she young or old, beautiful or ugly, did her husband want to get rid of it or didn't have one, was she particularly quirky or particularly clever - no matter what she was or what she did, potentially every woman was that At the mercy of the male inquisitors. If it occurred to the neighbor or someone else that she had sneaked around as a cat at night, that was enough proof. They then obtained their confessions through torture, which was so cruel that most women confessed to anything just to stop the torture. (We can imagine what would have happened to today's feminists under such circumstances ...)

The women served as scapegoats for all evil: for epidemics, stillbirths, male impotence, bad milk, hail, etc. etc. Since the prevailing misery had to have a cause, it was simply declared that it was “witchcraft” of women.

Women knew how to use herbs and how to relieve pain.

But why women in particular had to serve is the question we have to ask ourselves today. There are several possible causes for this: women were among other things the carriers of folk medicine, they knew how to use the herbs, to bring about premature births, to alleviate the pain or to prevent conception at all. These women worked with humane methods based on empirical experimental knowledge and ancient tradition, while the new "doctors" who came from the universities actually had no idea about healing, since they were trained according to an abstract scholastic theoretical model, the had hardly any contact with humans, their organs and nature, its poisons and medicines. In addition, they worked for (not low) pay, which the poor could not afford anyway.

Also, during the Crusades and the 100 Years War, when the men were out of the country, women had advanced into important positions in textile production and agriculture, from which they now had to be displaced by the returning men. In addition, women fueled resistance against the rulers: women played an important role in the peasant wars, and resistance was often organized on the women-led Sabbaths ...

The patriarchy clearly recognized all of this as a threat, which was all the more dangerous since women had “magical” powers that eluded masculine reason. Within the framework of medicine, magic and ancient religion, the women had saved matriarchal knowledge until the beginning of modern times. The men knew that, especially the clergy, it was clear how superficial the Christianization of the people really was and how alive old traditions and the knowledge of the former women's power was.

No woman could do it like her:
Mary gave birth virgin.

The church - coming from the Jewish one-god belief - has always been misogynistic. The Lord of the believers was a male God, and women had to be silent in the congregation at least since Paul. Women could not become priestesses, for the clergy - after long arguments - the celibacy rule applied. For the Church, women were and are the daughters of Eve, seducers to carnal lusts and to apostasy. Only the Virgin Mary was considered worthy of veneration, albeit on the basis of a privilege in which no woman could imitate her: She had given birth virginly, had been the vessel from which the male god rose.

The woman embodied the "lust of the flesh". She menstruated, gave birth and was undoubtedly connected to nature - in a way that the ascetic, anti-body Roman Church must be suspicious of. In addition, the clergy feared for their celibate perseverance, which they saw endangered by women. The arguments at that time are reminiscent of some of the things that are said about rape today: the woman as a constantly ready body that sexually provokes men so that they lose their senses. The men probably transferred, then as now, a good part of their own perverted sexuality and imagination to the women.

From this image of women in the clergy grows the most important charge of the Inquisition, which is at the same time the most absurd and says more about the clergy's imagination than about the witches themselves: the accusation of being a devil.

The imagination of the clergy: impotence equals witchcraft.

Many other charges are based on actual practical actions by wise women and are only perverted in their opposite: utility magic becomes harmful magic, folk medicine becomes poisonous mixture. Then of course there are also accusations that are true: the rejection of the Christian religion, which has been interpreted as "apostasy". Eibenso abortion, achieving infertility in women and possibly impotence in men.

The latter was a particular concern of the witch hunters, the author of the “Hexenhammer” (the “Bible” of the Inquisition in Germany) even formulated an exact criminological definition for this accusation: “If the rod does not move at all, so that (the man ) could never recognize (his wife), this is a sign of coldness. But if it moves and stiffens, but he cannot complete it, it is a sign of witchcraft. "(Sure, it can only be because of her...)

In the foreword of the Hexenhammer, which was used as the reference book for all inquisition trials in Germany, there is also the witch bull Pope Innocent VIII. The witches are accused of forgetting their own bliss and falling away from the Catholic faith with which devils who mingle with them as men or women, abuse them, and with their charms, songs and hideous superstitions and magical transgressions, vices and crimes, the births of women, the young of animals, the fruits of the earth perish, suffocate and perish make and cause, and even afflict and torment people, women, all kinds of cattle (...) large and small, with cruel both internal and external pains and plagues, and the same people that they do not beget, and women, that they do not conceive, and men that they give to wives, and women, that they give to husbands who are married rke cannot afford to prevent it. About this, deny faith itself (...) With an eyebreaky mouth. And others exceedingly many carelessnesses to commit sins and vices by inciting the enemy of the human race and to accomplish them, not to fear, to the danger of their souls, the offense of divine majesty, and very many harmful examples and scandal. "

It is revealing that the Pope (and not only he) differentiates between “people”, “women” and “animals”. The authors of Hexenhammer, Institoris and Sprenger, recommend that you also ask the accused about poisoning, night drives and cannibalism. It is said again and again that the witches have sexual intercourse with the devil. At the same time, they are accused of being homosexual. And also that they are "bad women":

"1. Man flee, 2. Holiday just observe, 3. draw in self, 4. draw children, 5. use ceremonies, 6. hide, be alone, man do not fall, 7. ask artists, 8. hang on to yourself pork and learn what the spirit urges them to do, 9. look at no man, 10. seldom cook, do not wash hair, forehead, the meat, 11. hinder turning around in churches, 12. want to, only block yourself Main signs that the witches have when the spirit of ascending has overcome them and wants to make them together. "

The one who recognized this so wisely is Paracelsus, the "father of medicine", who burned his book on pharmacology in 1527 because he had to admit that he had everything he knew about witches and shepherds.

The reproach of refusing to play the female role arises here quite openly: the crime of witches is either not to have a husband or to not run the household carefully, not to make oneself sufficiently beautiful and, if married, to have conjugal intercourse to refuse! For those of you who haven't understood it yet: Here it becomes clear what it's all about!

Rape in dungeon - by the devil?

What role does the claim that the witches had sexual intercourse with the devil play in this? Is it he who is actually behind everything? It has three reasons:

1. The incapacitation. By saying that behind the witches, these women, whose mysterious power one fears, there is in truth a male being (the devil), one turns them into puppets for men.

2. The demonization. By saying that they are in league with the number one enemy of Christians, they are branded as lepers in this Christian era. A medieval form of psychological warfare, so to speak ...

3. The sexuality. During this time, which was hostile to the body and the senses, only substitute satisfaction remained for the men: instead of freely living out their desires, they let them go on the captive "witches". In deeds and in words. Very often the women in prison were violated by their torturers and judges. And what happened in the processes of the questioning the hell was not infrequently pure pornography:

“When did he appear to her? Does he also want marriage or solemn affection from her? How did he call himself, what clothes did he (wear), what did his feet look like? Did she see and know nothing diabolical about him? ”The judge should also ask:“ Did the devil coit with the accused after a pact was made? In what way could the devil have stolen the accused's virginity? How is the male member of the devil, what is his seed? Would intercourse with the devil arouse better and greater pleasure in the accused than intercourse with a natural man? Had he also poured his semen into the defendant? Had the devil slept with the accused several times during the night and each time with ejaculation? Whether he carried out the matter with the accused in her own female genitals or in other parts of the body as well? Was she naturally impregnated by other men too? What did she do with the fruit of the womb? Was the fruit of the womb alive? In what way did she strangle the womb? "

The questions of the Inquisition - a mirror of the perverted imagination.

It just doesn't work completely without a man, and then of course the man has to be particularly masculine - hence the myth of the particularly long and always potent member of the devil. The envy that is involved here is dampened by the idea that sexual intercourse with the devil is at least painful, since his member is not only long, but ice cold or glowing hot. So: On the one hand, the "recognition" of the devil is excruciating, on the other hand it is accused of all witches and is supposedly the main pleasure on the Sabbath ... She should also be asked whether she is also with "women, with yourself, with animals against them Nature sinned ”.

These questions from the inquisitors reflect two things: the perverted imagination of these men and their maddened competition. Who has the greatest or who can do the most? It remains unclear what the witches were up to, since there were certainly as few devils then as there are now. The answer that women fantasize about intercourse with the devil is too simple. The whole devilry was without a doubt above all a fabricated reproach by the Church.

The women who were active as doctors, magicians and in the resistance of the peasants, who refused the female role constructed for them, who could not be Christianized and, above all, could not be domesticated, the women who can rightly be called "witches", posed a threat to the patriarchy, feudal lords and clergy.

Early doctors in union with the goddess Diana.

On the Witches 'Sabbaths, everything was really going on: The witches met to exchange their knowledge, so the Sabbaths were also a kind of first “women doctors' congress”. Old cult dances were danced and sacrifices were made to spirits and goddesses of pre-Christian times.In the year 906 in the Canaon Episcopi (an instruction to the bishops) a reference appears for the first time that women mean “seduced by the dazzling works of demons” and claim “that they are at night with Diana, a goddess of the pagans, and an innumerable crowd of women riding animals through the air. Whoever believes that this is true deviates from the true belief and sinks back again into the erroneous belief of the Gentiles. "

This “mistaken belief” was still so widespread in the 15th century that the two witch hunters Institoris and Sprenger have to reiterate in their witch hammer what preachers and priests in the churches entrusted to them should preach to the people with all urgency: First, that no one believes may, besides the one God, there is a supreme and divine being, secondly, that riding with Diana or Herodias is nothing more than riding with the devil, who only changes and calls himself that.

The devil not only disguises himself as Diana, he also penetrates the tightly guarded dungeon of the witch, to which only prison guards, torturers and inquisitors have access. The witch judge Remigius tells of one of his victims, Katharina, that "although she was still an unmannable child, she was repeatedly punished by the devil in the dungeon that she was found half-dead."

It wasn't the guards who raped the women, it was the devil. .. And during the torture he makes the accused insensitive to pain so that she does not shed tears. (It was not until late that doctors began to point out that excessive pain caused tearlessness.) So the devil served as an excuse and an explanation for everything. In the name of the father, his sons and the inquisitorial spirit, millions of women were murdered, tortured, all women were potentially criminalizable - that is, possible victims of those who represented the prevailing law. Any woman who did not fulfill her female role perfectly, silent, humble, serving, loving and believing against the "Lord" was a possible candidate for the Inquisition. But even the perfect housewife and mother could become suspicious, because how should you know whether the cause of their behavior was not diabolical pretense?

The woman as a witch. The enemy image of the abortive, castrating, sterile, refusing, cold or the man-eating insatiable monster "woman". The image of the enemy, which on the one hand is intended to distract from the fear of women's vengeance, their regaining strength and regaining power, and on the other hand provides the excuse for suppressing and annihilating the feminine revolt.

We are all witches! Those who don't put up with anything.

The little stupid is the one you do what you want with. The witch is the one you are afraid of, but which you must never admit. That is why one calls those witches who do not quite correspond to the ideal of women that one has produced and successfully disseminated.

That is why women all over the world are beginning to voluntarily take up the word witch, consciously remembering the possibilities and powers that women can develop. They are rediscovering "witchcraft": women help themselves, get to know their own bodies again, learn the remedies and secrets of naturopathy. They organize the resistance and ask the question of power: the witches are back!

And with them the witch hunt in the beginning. We are not yet facing a stake, but there are women unemployed, violence, defamation, psychiatry. Revolt and reaction are as old as the oppression of women.