How is the government formed in China

 

On October 1, 1949, the Chinese people won the great victory in the New Democratic Revolution and founded the People's Republic of China. The ruling Kuomintang clique withdrew to the Chinese province of Taiwan and - with foreign support - confronted the central government. This gave rise to the Taiwan question.

Solving the Taiwan question and finally uniting China are the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. For the past 50 years, the Chinese government has fought incessantly for it. Especially after 1997, the Chinese government made every effort in great sincerity to bring about a peaceful reunification of China in the form of "one country, two systems". Since the end of 1987, economic, cultural and personal exchanges between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have made considerable progress. However, Lee Teng-hui, leader of the Taiwan Authority, has gradually turned his back on the "one China" principle since the 1990s and pursues a policy of splitting with the idea of ​​"two China" at its core. He has gone so far as to publicly refer to the relationship between the two sides of the Straits as a "state-state relationship, or at least a special state-state relationship". This undermined the foundations for peaceful reunification between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, endangered the essential interests of the Chinese nation, including those of compatriots in Taiwan, and threw peace and stability in the Asian and Pacific regions out of balance. The Chinese government always adheres to the "one China" principle and is firmly against any attempt to separate Taiwan from China. The struggle between the Chinese government and the divisive forces with Lee Teng-hui at its head can be clearly seen in whether one adheres to the "one China" principle or the goals of "two China" or "one China, one Taiwan" tracked.

In August 1993, we published the White Paper, "The Taiwan Question and the Unity of China," which systematically identifies Taiwan's affiliation with China, the origin of the Taiwan question, and the basic guidelines and policies of the Chinese government to resolve the Taiwan issue. Question were presented. It is now necessary to explain the position and policy of the Chinese government on the "One China" principle in more depth to the international public.

I. The facts of "one China" and the legal basis

The "One China" principle emerged in the just struggle of the Chinese people for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China, and its basis is factually and legally unshakable.

Taiwan is an inseparable part of China. All the facts and laws about Taiwan show that Taiwan is an inseparable part of Chinese territory. In April 1895, through aggression against China, Japan occupied Taiwan by forcing the Qing Dynasty government to sign the unequal Treaty of Shimonoseki. In July 1937, Japan waged an all-round war against China. In December 1941, the Chinese government announced in its notice "China declares war on Japan," that China annulled all treaties, conventions and agreements relating to Japan, including the Shimonoseki Treaty, and was determined to regain Taiwan. In December 1943, the "Cairo Declaration", published jointly by China, the USA and Great Britain, stipulated that Japan must return all occupied Chinese territories such as northeast China, Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to China. In 1945 the "Potsdam Declaration" signed by China, the USA, Great Britain and later the USSR said: "The conditions in the Cairo Declaration will certainly be implemented." In August of the same year Japan declared its surrender and assured in the clauses of its declaration of surrender that it would "faithfully fulfill the obligations set out in the Potsdam Declaration". On October 25, 1945, the Chinese government recaptured Taiwan and the Penghu Islands and restored sovereignty over Taiwan.

On October 1, 1949, the founding of the People's Republic of China was announced. Since then, the central government of the People's Republic of China, like the government of the Republic of China before, has represented all of China as the only legitimate government and the only legitimate representation of China in the international arena. This put an end to the historical position of the Republic of China. A new state power replaced the old one without changing the subject in the sense of international law. The sovereignty and territory of China remained the same. It is therefore a matter of course that the government of the People's Republic of China enjoys and exercises complete sovereignty over China, including Taiwan. The ruling Kuomintang clique, although they continue to call themselves "Republic of China" and "Government of the Republic of China" in Taiwan, have long since been completely unjustified to represent China and to exercise state sovereignty over China. It was and is in reality only a regional authority on Chinese territory all this time.

The origin and the essential meaning of the "One China" principle. On the same day the People's Republic of China was proclaimed, the Central People's Government of China announced to the governments of all countries: "Our government is the only legitimate government that represents the entire people of the People's Republic of China. Our government is ready to cooperate with any foreign government that is willing to adhere to the principles of equality, mutual benefit and mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, to establish diplomatic relations. " She then sent a telegram to the UN with a statement stating that the Kuomintang authority "lacks any basis of laws or facts for representing people of China." She is completely unjustified to represent China. Recognizing the government of the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate government in all of China and breaking with or not establishing diplomatic relations with the Taiwan Authority is the principle on which diplomatic relations with New China are built.

However, the position of the Chinese government was hampered by the then American government. In order to isolate and block China, in June 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, the US government not only sent troops to Taiwan and occupied Taiwan, but also beat the drum for saying that "Taiwan's position is indefinite," even though the American one President Truman announced on January 5, 1950 that the United States and its allies had accepted China's sovereignty over the island of Taiwan in the four years after 1945. The US later advocated "double recognition" in the international community to help "two China" get on their feet. The Chinese government was, of course, firmly against it. She insisted that there is only one China in the world, that Taiwan is part of China, and that the government of the People's Republic of China represents the only legitimate government of China. In the process of developing normal foreign diplomatic relations with China and maintaining China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, the "One China" principle arose. The above points of view constitute the essential meaning of the "One China" principle, the key to which is the preservation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China.

For almost 40 years after the founding of the People's Republic, the Taiwanese authorities did not accept the legitimate position of the government of the People's Republic of China to represent all of China, but also advocated that Taiwan was part of China and that there was only one China, and turned against the idea of ​​"two China" and against "Taiwan independence". This proves that for a long time the Chinese on both sides of the Taiwan Straits were united on the basic issues of "There is only one China" and "Taiwan is part of China". As early as October 1958, when the Chinese People's Liberation Army took Jinmen Island under fire, Chairman Mao Zedong pointed out to the Taiwan authorities in public: "There is only one China and not two China in the world. That is also your opinion and can be seen from your announcements. " In January 1979 the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress published a "Message to Compatriots in Taiwan," which said, "The Taiwan Authority is consistently upholding the" one China "position and is against Taiwan independence Point of view and the basis for cooperation. "

The Chinese government's firm position and fair support for the "One China" principle is gaining understanding and support from more and more countries and international organizations. The "One China" principle has gradually been widely adopted by the international community. In October 1971, the 26th General Assembly of the United Nations passed resolution number 2758, expelled the representatives of the Taiwan Authority, and restored the seat and all legitimate rights of the government of the People's Republic of China to the UN. In September 1972, China and Japan signed a joint declaration that China and Japan would establish diplomatic relations with each other and that Japan would recognize the government of the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate government of China. Japan fully understood and fully respected the position of the Chinese government that Taiwan was an inseparable part of the territory of the People's Republic of China and was adhering to the provisions of Article 8 of the "Potsdam Declaration". In December 1978, China and the United States published the Diplomatic Relations Communiqué, which stated that the United States accepted "the government of the People's Republic of China as the only legitimate government of China" and "recognized China's position that there is only one China and that Taiwan is part of China ".

161 states currently have diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. They all accept the "One China" principle and have promised to regulate their relations with Taiwan within the framework of the "One China" principle.

II. The "One China" principle is the basis and prerequisite for achieving peaceful reunification

The "One China" principle is the cornerstone of the Chinese government's Taiwan policy. Initiated by Comrade Deng Xiaoping, the Chinese government introduced the guideline for peaceful reunification in 1979 and gradually developed a basic scientific concept "One country, two systems" and on this basis the basic guideline "Peaceful reunification; one country, two systems" solidified. These policies are based on the fundamental standpoint and spirit of the "One China" principle, while fully taking into account the desire of compatriots in Taiwan to be master of Taiwan and to govern Taiwan itself. President Jiang Zemin clearly stated in January 1995 in the "Eight Points for Developing Relations between the Two Sides of the Strait and for Progress in the Peaceful Reunification of the Fatherland": "Adhering to the" One China "principle is the basis and prerequisite for achieving peaceful reunification. "

Achieving peaceful reunification depends on adherence to the "One China" principle. The Taiwan question is a result of the civil war in China. To date, the hostility between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait has not officially ended. In order to preserve the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China and to achieve the reunification of the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, the Chinese government is entitled to use all necessary means. An ideal solution is the peaceful way that contributes to the common social development of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait and to the growing together of compatriots on both sides. The guideline for peaceful reunification issued by the Chinese government in 1979 was based on the fact that the Taiwanese authority at the time insisted that there was only one China in the world and that Taiwan was part of China. At the same time, reference was made to the fact that the American government, which had long backed the Taiwan Authority, also accepted that there is only one China, that Taiwan is part of China, and that the government of the People's Republic of China is the only legitimate government of China represents. All of this spoke in favor of a peaceful solution to the Taiwan question. In implementing the Peaceful Settlement Directive, the Chinese government made it clear from the start that it is an internal matter for China to determine how to resolve the Taiwan issue. China does not undertake to renounce the use of force, which would not be directed against the compatriots of Taiwan, but against attempts to enforce "Taiwan independence" and against the intervention of foreign powers against the unification of China. This attitude is a necessary guarantee for peaceful unification efforts. Letting the arms do the talking is only the last choice.

As for Taiwan, adhering to the "One China" principle means recognizing that China's sovereignty and territory are inseparable. This means that the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have a common ground and condition, and the two sides can negotiate on an equal footing to find a way to resolve the political differences and bring about the reunification of China. If the "One China" principle is rejected and an attempt is made to separate Taiwan from China's territory, the prerequisites and the basis for a peaceful settlement cease to exist.

As for the US, being ready for the "One China" policy means really putting into practice the three joint communiqués of the Chinese and American governments and a series of promises. The US should only maintain cultural, trade and other informal relations with Taiwan, oppose "Taiwan independence", "two China" and "one China, one Taiwan" and not hinder the reunification of China. Conversely, the external conditions for peaceful unification efforts by the Chinese government are being undermined.

For countries in the Asian and Pacific regions as well as in other regions, the location of the Taiwan Strait is always closely related to the stability in the Asian and Pacific region. The adherence of the countries concerned to the "One China" principle is beneficial for peace and stability in the Asian and Pacific regions and also for the development of friendly relations between China and the other countries. This corresponds to the interests of all countries in the Asian and Pacific regions as well as the whole world.

The Chinese government is vigorously and sincerely seeking peaceful reunification. In order to achieve this, the Chinese government appeals time and again to conduct equal negotiations between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait on the basis of the "one China" principle. In order to fully correspond to the political realities of Taiwan and to take into account the demands of the Taiwan authorities for their status in equal negotiations, we successively submitted proposals to start negotiations between the Communist Party of China and the Kuomintang of China on an equal footing, at which also representatives of the other parties Taiwan's political parties and associations can participate. We always avoid speaking of a negotiation between "headquarters and region". The Chinese government also suggested starting with dialogues, including political dialogues, which can then turn into a preparatory meeting for political negotiations, in which the identities of the negotiating partners, as well as the negotiation topics and negotiation form, are determined, and then the actual political negotiations can begin. The political negotiations can be conducted gradually. The first step should be to negotiate the official end of hostility on the two sides of the Straits under the "One China" principle. The aim is to reach an agreement that both sides will jointly safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China and plan the development of relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. In order to seek and expand the political basis for the relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait, the Chinese government made it clear to the Taiwan Authority in January 1998 that the two sides were facing an agreement on the settlement of the relations between the two sides on the Taiwan Strait, especially in negotiations between the two sides, to adhere to the "one China" principle, that is, to adhere to the fact that there is only one China in the world, that Taiwan is part of China, and that sovereignty and territoriality are in place China's integrity are inseparable.The Chinese government hopes that the two sides will negotiate the deal on an equal basis on the basis of the "One China" principle.

For peaceful reunification, the Chinese government has taken a number of positive policies and measures that will fully promote cross-strait relations. After the state of separation between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait was relaxed in late 1987, 16 million compatriots from Taiwan had been registered as visiting relatives on mainland China by the end of 1999, or who came here as tourists or for other purposes. The indirect volume of trade between the two sides was $ 160 billion. Agreed and realized investments by Taiwanese businesspeople in the mainland have reached more than US $ 44 billion and US $ 24 billion, respectively. The postal and telecommunications links between the two sides have also been very successful, while the sea and air links between the two sides have made limited progress. The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee of the State Council and regional governments have passed numerous laws and regulations to lawfully protect the legitimate rights and interests of compatriots from Taiwan. In order to discuss and properly solve specific problems arising from intercourse between compatriots on the two sides of the Taiwan Straits, the Cross-Straits Relationship Society (Mainland) and the Cross-Straits Exchange Foundation are established (Taiwan) agreed in November 1992 to use the phrase "both sides of the Taiwan Strait adhere to the" one-China "principle" at routine meetings. On this basis, leaders of the two associations successfully conducted the interview between Wang and Koo in April 1993, during which some agreements were signed relating to the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait. In October 1998, leading figures from the two associations met in Shanghai. Political dialogues between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait began. The dialogues between the two associations took place on the same status. These facts show that on the basis of the "one China" principle, it is possible to find a suitable way of negotiating on an equal footing between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait. After the return of Hong Kong and Makao to China, traffic and exchanges between Hong Kong and Taiwan and between Makao and Taiwan will be maintained and further developed informally on the basis of the "One China" principle.

III. The Chinese government firmly defends the "One China" principle

The split forces in Taiwan deliberately undermine the "One China" principle. In 1988, Lee Teng-hui became the head of the Taiwan Authority. He said several times at the time that the basic policy of the Taiwan Authority was "the One China Policy, not the Two China Policy," and he said literally: "We always advocate and uphold China's reunification us to the "one China principle."

Since the early 1990s, however, Lee Teng-hui gradually moved away from the "one China" principle. He successively proclaimed theses of "two governments" or "two equal political legal entities", he emphasized: "Taiwan is already a sovereignly independent state", and he stated: "The Republic of China currently exists on Taiwan and the People's Republic of China on the mainland?" He broke his word by pretending to "never speak of China". Lee Teng-hui also gave cover and encouragement to the divisive forces advocating "Taiwan independence" and their divisive activities, so that these forces could develop quickly and the ideas of "Taiwan independence" could take hold. Under the direction of Lee Teng-hui, the Taiwan Authority took a number of practical measures to promote the split. In the political power system of Taiwan he tried with all his might to make Taiwan an "independent political entity" by means of a so-called "constitutional reform" in order to meet his needs for the creation of "two China". In foreign relations he advocated the "development of international living space" by all means, which aimed at establishing "two China". In the seven years since 1993 he operated the "participation in the UN". He bought large quantities of advanced weapons abroad and tried to join the TMD in order to create a camouflaged military alliance with the United States and Japan. He tried to undermine the identity of the compatriots in Taiwan, especially the younger generation, as Chinese and the recognition of the fatherland, to sow misunderstandings and alienation towards the mainland and thus to cut the ideological and cultural ties between the compatriots on both sides.

Since 1999, Lee Teng-huis' splitting activity has reached new heights. In May, in his book "The Views of Taiwan", he beat the drum for dividing China into seven zones, each of which should enjoy "complete sovereignty". In a speech on July 9, he distorted the cross-strait relationship as "state-to-state, at least a special state-state relationship," an attempt to fundamentally explore Taiwan's position as part of China to discard, to destroy cross-strait relations, in particular the basis for political dialogue and negotiations between the two sides and the basis for the peaceful reunification of the two sides. Lee Teng-hui has already become the main representative of the split forces in Taiwan, is a saboteur of stability on the Taiwan Straits, an obstacle to the development of Sino-American relations and a disruptive factor for peace and stability in the Asian and Pacific regions.

The Chinese government firmly defends the "One China" principle. The Chinese government and the Chinese people remain very vigilant and determined to fight against the splitting activities of splitting forces in Taiwan, led by Lee Teng-hui.

After Lee Teng-hui visited the United States "privately" in June 1995, the Chinese government resolutely opposed a split and an "independence of Taiwan". The Chinese government protested sharply against the American government and engaged in serious negotiations with the United States for violating its promises in the three Sino-American communiqués and seriously damaging China's sovereignty by publicly defeating Lee Teng-hui Allowed visit to the USA. This struggle demonstrated the determination and ability of the Chinese government and people to defend state sovereignty and territorial integrity, and had far-reaching effects. The compatriots of Taiwan clearly recognized the grave consequences of pursuing "Taiwan independence". Lee Teng-hui's splitting activities have been badly hit. Some of the forces advocating "Taiwan independence" were forced to renounce some extreme views. The need to adhere to the "one China" principle has become clearer to the international community, and the American government has subsequently clearly declared its willingness to refrain from "Taiwan independence" or the theses "two China" and "one China, one Taiwan" to support and not to assist Taiwan in joining international organizations whose membership requires the status of a sovereign state.

After Lee Teng-hui hatched the "two-state theory," the Chinese government and people fought it even more resolutely. Regarding the attempt of the splitting forces to put the "two-state theory" into practice in "legal form", the relevant authorities clearly indicated to the Chinese government that this was an even more critical and dangerous step towards the split and a considerable provocation against peaceful reunification. Had this attempt been successful, a peaceful reunification of China would no longer be possible at all. In this struggle, Chinese people both domestically and abroad have unanimously condemned the "two-state theory". Most countries in the world reiterated their adherence to the "one China" policy. The American government also reaffirmed its commitment to the policy of "one China" and to promise the "three non-supports". The Taiwan authorities were forced to declare that they did not want to revise the "constitution" and "laws" according to the "two-state theory".

But the forces of division in Taiwan are still trying in various ways - such as "editing the constitution", "revising the constitution", "interpreting the constitution" or "legislating" - "legally" under the name "Republic of China" Split Taiwan from China. It is particularly dangerous that the forces of division in Taiwan are always trying to sow discord between China and the USA and to provoke conflicts and confrontations between the two states in order to carry out their attempt to divide.

The facts show that a serious crisis still exists on the Taiwan Strait. In order to serve the interests of the Chinese people, including the entire population of Taiwan, and to ensure peace and development in the Asian and Pacific regions, the Chinese government continues to adhere to the guidelines "peaceful reunification; one country, two systems" and the " Eight points for the development of cross-strait relations and for progress in the peaceful reunification of the fatherland, "said President Jiang Zemin. China continues to do everything it can for peaceful reunification. If a serious event were to occur, so that Taiwan would split off from China on some pretext, if a foreign power invaded Taiwan, or if Taiwan refused to negotiate peacefully between the two sides of the Straits in the long term, the Chinese government would have to however, take all sorts of drastic measures that may be considered, not excluding the use of force, in order to preserve the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China and to realize the work of China. The Chinese government and people have the determination and strength to uphold state sovereignty and territorial integrity. In no case do they condone or tolerate or allow the division of China. Any attempt at division will be doomed to failure.

IV. Some "One China" issues in relations between the two sides of the Strait

China's territory and sovereignty are not divided, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait are not two states. The so-called reasons why the Taiwan Authority supports its thesis "two China" and the "two-state theory" of Lee Teng-hui are nothing more than the claim that the government of the People's Republic of China has never governed Taiwan and has been in Taiwan since 1991 a regime already exists that has nothing to do with mainland China. These arguments are completely untenable and therefore cannot lead to the conclusion that Taiwan can call itself a state under the name "Republic of China" and that the two sides of the Taiwan Strait have already been split into two states. First, the sovereignty of a state must not be divided. The territory is the space of a state in which it exercises its sovereignty. Only one central government can exist on the territory of a state, which represents the state in the exercise of its sovereignty. As mentioned above, Taiwan is an inseparable part of Chinese territory. Since the government of the People's Republic of China took over from the government of the Republic of China in 1949, it has been the only legitimate government in all of China to enjoy and exercise sovereignty over all of China, including Taiwan. Although the two sides of the Straits are not yet united, the status of Taiwan as part of Chinese territory has never been changed, and therefore nothing has ever been changed about the fact that China has sovereignty over Taiwan. Second, the international community recognizes that there is only one China, that Taiwan is part of China, and that the government of the People's Republic of China is the only legitimate government of China. Third: The reason that the Taiwan question has not been resolved for a long time is simply the result of the interference of foreign powers and the prevention of an agreement by the splitting forces of Taiwan. However, the long-standing abnormal condition that the two sides of the Taiwan Strait are not yet united does not mean that Taiwan is granted international legal status and rights and can change its legal status as part of China. Rather, the current problem is that the splitting forces of Taiwan and some anti-China forces abroad want to change the current situation in Taiwan. This is precisely the state of affairs against which the government and the people of China are resolutely fighting.

Changing the status of Taiwan as part of China through a referendum must be resolutely opposed. The splitting forces in Taiwan are trying, under the pretext that "the decision rests with the people", to change the status of Taiwan as part of China through a referendum. However, this is a useless endeavor. First, Taiwan's legal status as part of China is already clear in both domestic and international law. There is no requirement to decide the status of Taiwan through a referendum. Second, the phrase "it rests with the people" means that the right of decision rests with the whole people of a state and not just with the population of a particular part or area. So the right to decide on Taiwan status rests with the entire Chinese people, including fellow Taiwanese people, and not just with some people in Taiwan. Third, Taiwan has never been a state in history. After 1945, Taiwan was neither a colony nor occupied by other countries. It is therefore out of the question to exercise the national right of self-determination. In a word, after China has retaken Taiwan, there is absolutely no need to hold a referendum to change the status of Taiwan as part of China. There is only one way left for Taiwan's future, namely that of unification with the fatherland, but by no means its secession. Anyone who tries to separate Taiwan from China through a so-called referendum will only bring hardship to the Taiwanese people.

The "mode of two German states" is useless for the solution of the Taiwan question. Some people in Taiwan claim that relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait could be handled by means of the so-called "mode of two German states", which reunited the German nation, which was divided into two states after World War II. However, this is a misunderstanding about history and reality. The division of the German nation and the temporary separation of the two sides of the Taiwan Strait are two essentially different complexes. The three important differences are:

1. The cause of the respective separation is not the same. In 1945 Germany was defeated in World War II and divided into zones of occupation by the four victorious powers (the USA, Great Britain, France and the USSR) according to the "Declaration regarding the defeat of Germany and the assumption of supreme power of government" and afterwards the Potsdam Agreement. After the beginning of the "Cold War", the question of the reunification of the German nation became a focal point of the confrontation between the USA and the USSR in Europe. The Federal Republic of Germany was founded in the zones of occupation of the USA, Great Britain and France, and the German Democratic Republic was founded in the zone of occupation of the USSR. This split the German nation into two states. It is clear that the Germany question was caused by factors outside the country, while the Taiwan question is a question left behind by the Chinese civil war and is part of China's internal affairs.

2. The status in the sense of international law is different. The division of the German nation was enshrined in a number of international treaties and agreements that were concluded during and after the Second World War. On the other hand, the Cairo and Potsdam Declarations and other international treaties on the Taiwan issue stipulated that Japan must return the Chinese island of Taiwan, which it had occupied, to China.

3. The real conditions are not comparable. Against the backdrop of the US-USSR confrontation, the two German states had foreign occupations and were forced to recognize each other and coexist in the international community, while the Chinese government continues to insist on the "one China" principle.The Taiwan authorities also announced before Lee Teng-hui, and Lee Teng-hui himself declared when he took office that there is only one China, and they protested against the thesis of "two China". The "One China" principle is already widely accepted by the international community. In this respect, the Germany question and the Taiwan question must not be equated, and in solving the Taiwan question, the "mode of two German states" cannot be blindly adopted.

All questions can be discussed under the "One China" principle. The Chinese government believes that the ultimate goal of the talks between the two sides of the Straits is to achieve peaceful reunification and that the "One China" principle will be the basis for the talks. This aims to guarantee the realization of the goal of the meetings. The theses "Taiwan independence" and "two China" as well as the "two-state theory" run counter to the "one China" principle, because it is not about reunification, but about division. It is of course impossible for the Chinese government to accept them. Only within the framework of the "One China" principle can one talk about any question, including those questions in which the Taiwan side is interested. The Chinese government is convinced that questions regarding the scope for Taiwan's foreign activities, in which it can be economically, culturally and socially active in accordance with its international status, as well as questions regarding the political status of the Taiwan Authority through political negotiations in the course of peaceful, will also be addressed Reunification can be finally resolved.

The so-called "dispute over democracy and the system" is a pretext to prevent the reunification of China. Over the past several years, the Taiwan Authority has repeatedly declared that "mainland democratization is key to China's reunification" and "the real essence of the cross-strait issue is a race of systems." However, this is only a pretext to prevent reunification and a trick that is intended to deceive Taiwanese compatriots and the world public. The Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese government are continuously fighting for the realization of the ideal of socialist democracy. It is in keeping with the democratic spirit and the desire of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits to achieve peaceful reunification according to the "one country, two systems" mode, according to which two social systems can exist simultaneously on both sides of the Taiwan Strait one side does not force the other to introduce a particular system. The different social systems on the two sides of the Taiwan Strait should not be an obstacle to peaceful reunification. In addition, the Chinese government is taking into account the characteristics of Taiwan that are different from Hong Kong and Macao, and will give Taiwan more leeway under the "one country, two systems" principle once peaceful reunification has been achieved. The Taiwan authorities are trying to prevent the reunification of the homeland under the pretext of "conflict over democracy and the system", but hopes in vain that the more than 1.2 billion people in mainland China will introduce Taiwan's political and economic system. Such behavior is completely unjustified and also not democratic. The rejection of reunification cannot be justified with a "demand for democracy". The dispute between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait is not really about questions of democracy and the system, but only about the question of reunification or secession.

V. Some questions about adherence to the "One China" principle in the international community

The Chinese government has full respect for the international community that generally practices the "one China" policy. In the White Paper "The Taiwan Issue and the Unity of China" published in August 1993, in Part V, "Some Issues Concerning Taiwan in International Affairs", we have our position and policy regarding the relations of those countries, diplomatic relations with China, with Taiwan, the relations of international organizations with Taiwan, the shipping and air transport connections of the countries that have established diplomatic relations with China, with Taiwan, the arms sales of these countries to Taiwan, etc. We would like to reaffirm our position and policy in this regard.

Taiwan is not allowed to join the UN or the other international organizations that only sovereign states can join. The United Nations is an intergovernmental international organization formed by sovereign states. After the legitimate rights of the government of the People's Republic of China were restored in the United Nations, the question of the right of representation of China in the UN organizations was finally resolved, and so the question of allowing the Taiwan authority to join the UN does not arise at all . However, the Taiwan Authority has claimed that UN Resolution No. 2758 only resolved the "question of China's right of representation", but not the "question of Taiwan's right of representation", and called for "participation in the UN". Behind this is the intention to create "two China" or "one China, one Taiwan", which absolutely must not be allowed. All member states of the United Nations are obliged to comply with the goals and principles of the UN Charter as well as the relevant UN resolutions and the principles for international relations, including mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and mutual non-interference in internal affairs, and they should in no way assist Taiwan in joining the UN or any of the other international organizations that only sovereign states can join.

As for some other intergovernmental international organizations that individual regions can join, the Chinese government, based on the "one China" principle, has adopted in

In accordance with the character, the statutes and the specific conditions of the relevant international organizations and regulated the accession of Taiwan in an approvable and acceptable manner. As a region of China under the name "Taibei, China", Taiwan has already joined the Asian Development Bank ADB (under the English name "Taipei, China"), the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation APEC (under the English name Chinese Taipei) and other international organizations . In September 1992, the chairman of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT, the predecessor of the World Trade Organization (WTO), declared that after the People's Republic of China joined the GATT, Taiwan would become part of the GATT under the name of "single customs and trade zone Taiwan, Penghu, Jinmen and Mazu" (in short: "Taipei, China") is likely to join. The WTO should adhere to the principle set out in the above statement in reviewing and discussing the acceptance of Taiwan into its organization. However, the special regulation outlined above is not a model that other intergovernmental international organizations or international activities can emulate.

Countries that have established diplomatic relations with China are not allowed to sell arms to Taiwan or to ally themselves militarily with Taiwan in any way. Countries that have entered into diplomatic relations with China, in accordance with the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity and mutual non-interference in internal affairs, should not sell weapons in any form or under any pretext to Taiwan or Taiwan in the manufacture of weapons help.

The Taiwan question is the most important and sensitive key issue in Sino-US relations. The three joint communiqués between the People's Republic of China and the United States laid the foundation for the healthy and stable development of relations between the two countries. For the past 20+ years, the United States has repeatedly pledged to adhere to the "one China" policy that has been of benefit to itself, including: the establishment of diplomatic relations between the People's Republic of China and the United States, the development of relations between the two countries and the relative stability of the Taiwanese situation. Unfortunately, the United States has broken its solemn promises made in the August 17 Communiqué to China and has repeatedly sold modern weapons and military equipment to Taiwan. Furthermore, the so-called "Law to Strengthen Security in Taiwan" was passed in the US Congress and an attempt was made to include Taiwan in the strategic missile defense system. This represents gross interference in China's internal affairs and a grave threat to China's security; it has stunted the progress of peaceful reunification of China and affected peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region and around the world. The Chinese government is firmly against it.

The Chinese government treats Taiwan's contacts with other countries in the light of the "one China" principle. The Taiwan Authority is practicing its "practical diplomacy" with all its might on a world scale with the aim of increasing its so-called "international space of existence", which is essentially nothing more than an attempt to manufacture "two China" or "one China" Taiwan "is. Of course, the Chinese government is taking decisive action against this. On the other hand, taking into account the needs of economic and social development in Taiwan and taking into account the specific interests of our compatriots in Taiwan, the Chinese government does not raise any objections to Taiwan's economic and cultural dealings with other countries, which is of an informal nature, and takes action on condition "One China" numerous flexible measures to facilitate this economic and cultural traffic between Taiwan and other countries. Taiwan, for example, is allowed to remain on the International Olympic Committee IOC under the name "Taibei, China". Indeed, Taiwan has extensive economic, cultural and trade contacts with many countries and areas around the world. Every year more than a million people travel abroad from Taiwan: as tourists, business people and students or for academic, cultural and sporting exchanges. And Taiwan's import and export volume is more than $ 200 billion annually. This proves that adherence to the "One China" principle does not affect the informal exchanges of compatriots in Taiwan with other countries and Taiwan's needs for normal economic, commercial and cultural activities.

The Chinese government ensures all the just and legitimate rights and interests of Taiwan's compatriots abroad. The people of Taiwan are our compatriots by blood. The Chinese government is consistently committed to safeguarding their just and legitimate rights and interests abroad. The Chinese embassies and consulates abroad always consider it their duty to strengthen relations with their compatriots from Taiwan, to listen to their opinions and demands, to safeguard their interests, and to help them resolve difficulties in every way possible. During the Gulf War, for. For example, the Chinese embassy helped Taiwan workers in Kuwait to get to safety. After the severe earthquake in Osaka and Kobe, Japan, the Chinese embassy and consulate showed solidarity with the Taiwanese compatriots affected there. After the outbreak of the civil war in Cambodia, the Chinese embassy actively helped the affected merchants and tourists from Taiwan to get to safety. These facts demonstrate the concern of the Chinese government for compatriots from Taiwan. After the reunification of the two sides of the Straits is achieved, compatriots in Taiwan will be able to share the dignity and glory of the People's Republic of China in the international community with all nationalities across the country.

Final word

China has a 5000 year history and the Chinese nation lives and multiplies on this soil of China. The different nationalities live harmoniously with one another, they have strong bonds and have formed values ​​to advocate and maintain unity. In its very long history, China has experienced numerous dynasties and changes of power, underwent separate regional rulers and survived foreign aggressions, in addition to the aggressions and splits by foreign powers in modern times, but unity is always the main trend in the development of the Chinese History remained. Every split was always followed by reunification, which led to the country's rapid development in politics, economy, culture, science and technology. Compatriots in Taiwan have a glorious patriotic tradition and have made great contributions in the fight against foreign aggression in Taiwan. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Chinese people have valued the nation's hard-won independence, vigorously defended the sovereignty of the state and the integrity of the territory, and fought hard to achieve full reunification of the country. The strong national consciousness, which is deeply rooted in the Chinese people through the 5,000 year history and culture of China, demands that China be reunified.

The Chinese government hopes that the international community will continue to pursue the "one China" policy and that the United States government will vigorously implement and implement the principles set out in the three joint Chinese-US communiqués on the Taiwan issue keeps the solemn assurance given, namely to adhere to the policy of "one China",

With the Chinese government re-exercising sovereignty in Hong Kong and Macau, the Chinese people fervently hope to resolve the Taiwan issue as soon as possible and achieve full reunification of the country. It no longer wants to put the solution of the Taiwan question on the back burner forever. We deeply believe that the complete reunification of China can be achieved through the combined efforts of all of the Chinese people, including compatriots in Taiwan and compatriots living abroad.