Babylonians are Sumerians and Mesopotamians the same

Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία Mesopotamia; Kurdish: Mezopotamya; Arabic بلاد ما بين النهرين Bilād mā baina n-Nahrain), also Mesopotamia, describes the cultural landscape in the Middle East, which is influenced by the large river systems of the Euphrates and Tigris.

Together with Anatolia, the Levant in the narrower sense and the Indus Valley, it is one of the most important cultural development centers of the ancient Orient. With the former, it forms a large part of the so-called fertile crescent, in which people settled for the first time permanently and practiced agriculture and cattle breeding. While this process also took place on the northernmost edge of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, the first advanced civilization in human history, developed in its south. They were followed by the Babylonians, Assyrians and Arameans, before the Persians, for the first time, a culture developed outside Mesopotamia gained permanent control over the region. The Persians were followed by the Macedonians, Parthians, Sassanids, Arabs and finally the Ottomans, whose rule was briefly interrupted in the 17th century by the Persian Safavids.

The country, especially in terms of its water availability, offered the people living there very different settlement conditions at all times, which had a massive influence on the historical development.

The term Mesopotamia is said to go back to Alexander the Great, who used it to describe the land "between the rivers" Euphrates and Tigris north of what is now Baghdad to the southern flank of the Taurus Mountains. In ancient times, Mesopotamia usually only referred to the northern part of the area, while the southern part was called Babylonia. The only surviving ancient author who referred the term Mesopotamia to the entire area from the sources to the Persian Gulf was the geographer Claudius Ptolemy around 150 AD. This usage is common today.

While politics and the press today often equate the term Mesopotamia with the national territory of Iraq, the sciences that deal with the exploration of the Ancient Orient mostly use a definition that applies to the river systems of the Euphrates and Tigris, their tributaries and the lower reaches of the Karun is based. Thus, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria, Iraq, northeast Kuwait and western Iran have a share in Mesopotamia.

The natural borders of Mesopotamia are the eastern edge of the valley of the Zagros and Taurus Mountains, the coastal area of ​​the Persian Gulf and the beginning of the Syrian-Arabian desert. The source regions of the Euphrates and Tigris, on the other hand, did not belong geographically to Mesopotamia. With the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the historical concept of Mesopotamia also ended.

Jesus spoke Aramaic - one of the original languages ​​of the Middle East. This is especially true of the prayer he gave his disciples, our Lord's Prayer today.
From the 14th century BC In addition to the Babylonian cuneiform script, the alphabetic cuneiform script was also used for texts.
Mesopotamia within today's state borders
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