Allah knows who Lucifer is

Sura 37 verses 6-8Satan and the supreme council of angels

"We have decorated the lower heaven with stars and protect it from any rebellious devil. They do not listen to the Supreme Council and are pelted from all sides."

These Quranic verses are quite strange and extraordinary. In the original Arabic, the term "shaitân" is used for the word devil. In German: Satan. This is not a proper name here, but a generic name.

The Koran series is explained as a multimedia presentation

A first problem arises from the expression "Supreme Council" - Arabic: "al-mala 'al-a'lâ". I am following the translation of the British orientalist Arthur Arberry. My colleague Muhammad Abdel-Haleem translates as: "Supreme Assembly". The meaning is essentially the same. The word "al-mala’ "also appears in sura 38 verse 6. And while Arberry translates as "advice" again, Abdel-Haleem speaks of "leaders", so the meaning is not the same this time. Ultimately, the issue remains unresolved: Which Supreme Council, which Fuehrer's Assembly are you talking about?

Massimo Campanini from Italy is one of the leading Koran experts. (priv.) The second problem arises from the phrase "being thrown at". Who is being thrown at? By whom? It looks like it's about the devils. The devils do not listen to the supreme council and are hit (or beaten) by something on all sides.

In addition, one wonders who the leaders who make up the Board of Governors are? One explanation could be that they are angels. It is well known that one of the highest angels, Lucifer or Iblîs as he is called in the Koran, rebelled and became Satan; here it is a proper name and not a generic name.

Satan and his followers were driven out of Paradise and thus probably also from the Supreme Council. After the fall of the devils, they apparently continue to listen to the angels' meeting, but are pelted at from all sides. Are the devils now spying out the decisions of the Council of Angels? Are the devils jealous? Anyway, apparently the Koran says that there is a supreme council of angels in the heavens.

The Koranic teaching about angels and demons is very complex. At this point it is sufficient to remember that the angels sometimes form a "compact group" and act as one.

Sura 2 verse 30, for example, tells of a rebellion by the angels: When God informs them that he will appoint Adam as his "caliph" or deputy or governor, they protest that man is imperfect and malicious. Immediately God stops the angels' complaints and commands them to bow to Adam. All angels obey except Iblîs. He rebels. God punishes him, he becomes Satan.

This heavenly drama is disturbing in the face of the unique and absolute sovereignty of God. In addition, the Supreme Council or the Supreme Assembly appears to be independent of God unless God is in the chair.

With these verses, the Koran text offers a glimpse of the cosmology of the Semitic peoples in antiquity. In these cosmologies, whether in Babylon or Egypt, the gods form a supreme assembly: They sit together to decide the fate of human beings and to control the order of the universe. The supreme God presides over the assembly.

Apparently a similar situation is described in the Quran. The Koran reveals the monotheism achieved, but the road to this final stage of religion has been long and confused. The history of ancient Israel also shows that monotheism first developed from henotheism, in which there is a supreme and several subordinate gods, and then from monolatry, in which only one god is worshiped locally, but not the existence of others is excluded. The traces of this development come to light in the Koran.

The audio version had to be shortened slightly for airtime reasons.