Are natives considered immigrants

Australia and New Zealand - indigenous people


it entered the Malay Archipelago 40,000–60,000 years ago during an Ice Age sea level drop. They lived as hunters and gatherers according to the natural conditions. However, it was by no means a single homogeneous tribe, but rather different peoples with over 200 languages ​​and many more dialects. The boomerang was not known to all of these peoples as a hunting weapon. At first they preferred to settle in the favored areas of the continent. Only in the course of the violent occupation of their residential areas by European settlers were they pushed into the outback, i.e. into those regions in which extreme drought, deserts and other unfavorable factors make agricultural use virtually impossible. With European immigration, a rapid decimation of the indigenous people began through displacement, murder and introduced diseases. Around 500,000–750,000 indigenous people were probably still living on the continent towards the end of the 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century their number had fallen to less than 100,000; in 1920 it was only 60,000 353,000 descendants of indigenous people counted again. Most of them were Aborigines, a smaller minority are the Torres Strait Islanders, who are not related to them. They live mainly in the north of Queensland in the area of ​​the Torres Strait and have a strong Melanesian culture. To date, the number of descendants of indigenous people has increased again to around 600,000, making up almost three percent of the population. Exact figures have only been available since the descendants of the indigenous people were formally equated with all other inhabitants in the course of a constitutional amendment in 1967. Since then, anyone who describes himself as such has been considered an Aboriginal. The awareness that the indigenous peoples also have rights developed late among the white majority. Through the "Land Rights Act" of 1976, the indigenous people were granted property rights for the first time; previously they had either been pushed back into reservations or settled around mission stations. It was not until 1992 that the High Court, the highest court in Australia, ruled in a landmark judgment that they have property rights to land to which the indigenous people have traditionally maintained ties ("Native Title Judgment"). In the meantime they have been given ownership rights to land with extensive self-government (Land Councils) under the supervision of the federal government. The best-known examples are the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (Ayers Rock, Olgas) and the Kakadu National Park, which secure income from tourism for the descendants of the indigenous people. Similar contracts exist with mining companies. Since 2007 the indigenous people have had land rights to rainforests on the east coast again, there are also several national parks here. A milestone in equality was the official apology issued by the government in 2008 by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd for all injustices committed against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, in particular for the forced assimilation of children from indigenous families from 1900 to 1973. A majority of Australians consider this the art and culture of the indigenous people are now part of their national identity, yet the indigenous Australians continue to constitute an economically and socially disadvantaged population group. They are hit harder than the average by poverty and unemployment, and infant mortality is significantly higher among them.