How is cgpa calculated at SVNIT

National Institutes of Technology - National Institutes of Technology

Public technical and research universities in India

The National Institutes of Technology ( NIT ) are the first autonomous public technical and scientific colleges under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, Government of India. They are subject to the National Institutes of Technology Act of 2007, which declares them institutions of national importance and defines their powers, duties and frameworks for governance. The National Institutes of Technology Act of 2007 lists thirty-one institutes. Each NIT is autonomous and linked to the others through a common council, the NIT Council, which oversees its administration and finances all NITs from the Indian government.

These institutes are among the leading engineering universities in India and have one of the lowest acceptance rates for engineering institutes at around 1 to 2 percent. In 2020 that ranked National Institutional Ranking Framework twenty-four NITs among the top 200 in the engineering category. The language of instruction at all of these institutes is English. As of 2020, the total number of seats for undergraduate programs and 13,664 for postgraduate programs is 23,506 in all 31 NITs combined.


A number of industrial projects were considered during the second five-year plan (1956-60) in India. The Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs) were established by the central government to mimic the IITs at the regional level and serve as a benchmark for the other colleges in that state. Approval used to be very selective. Students who pass their state's 12th board exam may be admitted to their state's REC. As of 1959, 17 RECs were set up in each of the main states. Each college was a joint and cooperative venture between the central government and the state government concerned. The government opened 9 RECs in 1960, an average of 2 in each region, as follows:

Six more were added later in 1967. The first 15 institutes were Srinagar, Warangal, Calicut, Durgapur, Kurukshetra, Jamshedpur, Jaipur, Nagpur, Rourkela, Surathkal, Surat, Tiruchirappalli, Bhopal, Allahabad and Silchar. Two more were founded, one in Hamirpur in 1986 and another in Jalandhar in 1987.

These were large institutions that were judged by the standards then in force in the country. The considerations that played a role in this decision were:

A large university would be more efficient than the corresponding small universities. The proposed universities must meet the additional requirements of the entire country and, for this purpose, function on an all-Indian basis. The smaller they are and the bigger they are, the better and for the same reason their location is important from a pan-Indian point of view.

The RECs were operated jointly by the central government and the state government concerned. One-time expenses and expenses for graduate courses during the REC period were borne by the central government, while recurring expenses for undergraduate courses were shared equally between the central and state governments. According to the IITs in India, they were considered the best state engineering schools even before their upgrade to National Institutes of Technology.

The success of the technology-based industry resulted in a high demand for technical and scientific education. Because of the enormous cost and infrastructure involved in creating globally respected Indian Technology Institutes (IITs), Human Resources Development Minister (MHRD) Murli Manohar Joshi decided in 2002 to use RECs instead of National Institutes of Technology (NITs ) to create update IITs. The central government controls NITs and provides all funds. In 2002 all RECs became NITs.

The Bihar Engineering College in Patna (founded in 1886), the third oldest engineering college in India, was converted into the NIT Patna in 2007.

The upgrade was modeled on the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) after it was determined that RECs have potential stemming from their alumni's success and contributions to technical education, and that they are on par with IITs. As a result, the NITs have increased funding and autonomy, and they award degrees that have increased the perceived worth of their graduates. These changes implement recommendations of the High Powered Review Committee (HPRC). The HPRC, chaired by RA Mashelkar, submitted its report in 1998 entitled "Strategic Road Map for Academic Excellence of Future RECs" .

In 2004, MHRD granted NIT status to three additional colleges in Patna (Bihar Engineering College, a 110 year old college), Raipur (Government Engineering College) and Agartala (Tripura Engineering College). At the request of the state governments and feasibility, future NITs will either be converted from existing institutes or new ones can be created. In 2010, the government announced the establishment of ten more new NITs in the remaining states / areas, bringing the total to 30 NITs. This would result in every state in India having its own NIT.

Given the continued growth of technology-based industries, the government decided to expand twenty National Institutes of Technology into full-fledged technical universities. Parliament passed the National Institutes of Technology Act Enabling Act in 2007 and went into effect on August 15 that year. The aim is to meet the demand for skilled workers in the fields of engineering, science and technology and to provide a uniform governance, fee structure and rules for all NITs. The law designates each NIT as an Institute of National Importance (INI).

The Indian Parliament passed a law establishing the 31st and newest NIT, NIT Andhra Pradesh, on August 1, 2016, on a day when MPs from the state's ruling Telugu Desam Party protested to demand special category status. The National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research (Amendment) Bill of 2016 was voted on by Rajya Sabha. The law was passed in Lok Sabha on July 21, 2016.


Organizational structure

Organizational structure of the NITs

The President of India is from Officially Visitors to all NITs. The NIT Council works directly under him and includes the minister responsible for technical education in central government, the chairs and directors of all NITs, the chair of the University Grants Commission (UGC) and the director general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) , the directors of other selected key prestigious institutions, members of parliament, secretary of the Joint Council of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), central government candidates, All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the visitors.

Below the NIT Council is the Board of Governors of each NIT. The Board of Governors of each NIT consists of the following members:

  • Chairman - an outstanding technologist / engineer / educator nominated by the Government of India.
  • Member Secretary - Director of the NIT.
  • Candidate for the MHRD, Government of India.
  • Candidate from the department for higher education / technical education of the respective state government.
  • Head of another technical facility in the region or a major technologist appointed by the central government.
  • Director, IIT (in the region) or his candidate.
  • UGC candidate not below the rank of Assistant Secretary.
  • AICTE candidate not below the rank of Consultant.
  • An alumnus of the institute among alumni from education / industry, who is nominated by the Board of Governors.
  • Two representatives of large, medium and small industry to be appointed by the central government.
  • One professor and one assistant professor of the institute by rotation.

The principal reports to the Board of Governors and is the academic director and executive officer of the school. Academic policy is determined by the Senate, which is made up of a few professors and other representatives. The Senate controls and approves the curriculum, courses, exams, and results. Senate committees review specific academic matters. The teaching, training and research activities of various departments of the institute are regularly reviewed in order to maintain educational standards. The director is ex officio Chairman of the Senate. The deputy director reports to the director. Together they lead the deans, department heads, the chancellor, the president of the student council and the chairman of the hall administration committee. Deans and department heads in NITs are more administrative positions than career paths. Faculty members act as deans and department heads for limited periods of time, typically 2 to 3 years, and then return to regular faculty duties. The Chancellor is the main administrative officer and gives an overview of the day-to-day business. Below the head of department (HOD) are the various faculty members (professors, assistant professors and lecturers). The director chairs the Hall Management Committee.

National Institutes of Technology Act

The National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research Act 2007 was enacted by the Indian Parliament to declare India's national institutes of technology institutes of national importance. The law received the approval of the Indian President on June 5, 2007 and went into effect on Independence Day 2007. The National Institutes of Technology Act is after Indian Institutes of Technology Act of 1961 the second law for technical educational institutions.


The NIT Council is the highest governing body of India's National Institutes of Technology (NIT) system. The NIT Council consists of chairmen, directors of all NITs and government candidates from various sectors with the Minister for Human Resources as chairman of the council. The NIT Council is the highest decision-making body in the NIT Brotherhood and reports only to the Indian government. It is expected that the NIT Council will meet regularly and take steps that will lead to maximum growth of the entire NIT in the near future.


The NITs together with the IITs receive comparatively higher grants than other engineering schools in India. Average NIT funding increased ₹ 100 crores ($ 15.4 million) in 2011. On average, each NIT also receives ₹ 20-25 crore ($ 3-38 million) under the World Bank-funded Technical Education Quality Improvement Program (TEQIP I and TEQIP II ). Further sources of funding are tuition fees and research grants from industry as well as contributions from alumni. The faculty to student ratio in the NITs is between 1: 7 and 1: 9. The cost for undergraduate students is approximately £ 250,000 (~ $ 3,600) per year. After students from the SC and ST categories, physically disabled students now benefit from the fee exemption at the NITs in India.

The various NITs work autonomously and their special status as Institutes of national importance facilitates the smooth running of NITs, which are practically free from regional and student politics. Such autonomy means that NITs can create their own curricula and adapt quickly to changing educational requirements without bureaucratic hurdles. The medium of instruction in all NITs is English. Classes usually run between 8:30 am and 5:30 pm, although there are some variations within each NIT. All NITs have public libraries for their students' use. In addition to a collection of mandatory books, the libraries have sections dedicated to fiction and other literary genres. Electronic libraries give students access to online journals and other journals through the AICTE-INDEST consortium, an initiative of the Ministry of Personnel Development. Students also have access to IEEE documents and magazines.

The academic policy of each NIT is determined by the Senate set . This includes all professors of the NIT and student representatives. Unlike many Western universities, which have an elected Senate, the NITs have an Academic Senate. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses, exams, and results, and appoints committees to deal with specific academic issues. The institute's teaching, training and research activities are regularly reviewed by the Senate in order to maintain educational standards. The director of the NIT is ex officio Chairman of the Senate.

Rigorous faculty recruiting and industry collaboration also contribute to the NIT's success. Faculties other than lecturers must have DTech and relevant teaching and industry experience. Existing faculties that do not meet these criteria register with IITs and IISc as part of a quality improvement program (QIP).

All NIT follow the credit point system of performance evaluation with a proportional weighting of the courses according to their importance. The total number of points (usually out of 100) forms the basis for the grades, with a grade value (out of 10) assigned to a range of grades. Sometimes a relative assessment is made taking into account the overall performance of the entire class. For each semester, students are rated based on their performance on a scale from 0 to 10 by taking a weighted average of the grade points from all courses with their respective credit points. Each semester assessment is done independently and then the weighted average of the total semesters is used to calculate the cumulative grade point average (CGPA).

Basic training

The Bachelor of Technology (BTech) is the most common undergraduate degree in the NITs in terms of student enrollment. The BTech course is based on a 4-year program with eight semesters, while the Dual Degree and Integrated courses are 5-year programs with ten semesters. In all NITs, the first year of the BTech and Dual Degree courses is characterized by a common course structure for all students. However, some NITs also include an introductory course for a department. The general courses cover the basics of most departments such as electronics, mechanics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics. At the end of the first year, some NITs offer deserving students the opportunity to change departments based on their performance in the first two semesters. Few such changes ultimately take place because the criteria for them are usually strict and limited to the most deserving students. Only a few NITs also offer 5-year Bachelor of Architecture (BArch) and 4-year Bachelor of Science (BSc).

From the second year onwards, students only study subjects from their respective departments. In addition, students must take compulsory advanced courses from other subject areas in order to expand their education. Separate compulsory courses from the Humanities and Social Sciences Department and sometimes management courses are also enforced. In the final year of their studies, most students are placed in industries and organizations via the placement process of the respective NIT, although some students either decline this if they are aiming for a higher degree or if they accept a job by contacting the company directly.

Postgraduate and PhD training

Masters degrees

The NITs offer a range of postgraduate courses including Master of Technology (MTech), Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Science (MSc), and Master of Computer Applications (MCA). Some of the NITs offer an MS program (based on research). MTech and MS are similar to US university master’s degrees for non-theses (course-based) and theses (research-based), respectively. Admission to master's courses in engineering is based on the results of the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE), while admission to master's courses in natural sciences is based on the results of the Joint Admission Test to MSc (JAM).

14 NITs, including NIT Allahabad, NIT Bhopal, NIT Calicut, NIT Hamirpur, NIT Jaipur, NIT Jalandhar, NIT Kurukshetra, NIT Rourkela, NIT Silchar, NIT Karnataka, NIT Warangal, NIT Durgapur, NIT Management Schools Tiruchirappalli and NIT Agartala Offer degrees in management or business administration. In addition, NIT Arunachal Pradesh offers an online MBA program and an M.Tech. in adequate technology and entrepreneurship, which may be the only one among the NITs.

Bachelor-Master double degrees

The NITs also offer an unconventional integrated education program from BTech and MTech called "Dual Degree". It integrates undergraduate and postgraduate studies in selected subject areas. It will be completed in five years, compared to six years in conventional BTech (four years), followed by one MTech (two years). Integrated Master of Science programs are also offered at a few NITs that integrate undergraduate and postgraduate studies in science streams in a single course against the conventional university system. These programs were started to enable NITians to complete postgraduate studies at the NIT instead of having to go to another institute. NIT Rourkela and NIT Agartala have such a system.

PhD degree

The NITs also offer the Doctor of Technology (D.Tech) as part of their doctoral training program. Candidates receive a topic of academic interest from the professor or have to work on an industry consulting project. The duration of the program is usually not fixed and depends on the respective discipline. DTech candidates must submit a dissertation and defend their thesis orally. Teaching assistants (TA) and research assistants (RA) are often offered. The NITs, along with IITs and IISc, make up almost 80% of all engineering graduate students in India.

students life

NITs provide on-campus accommodation for students, academics, and faculty members. Students live in dormitories, also known as halls, throughout their college life. Most have single accommodation, but many live in double or triple rooms for the first few years. Each hostel has a common room with cable TV, magazines, newspapers, indoor games and in-room internet connection. Each hall has its own cafeteria managed by the college or a local private organization. NITs also have a shared cafeteria for students and a separate cafeteria for professors. During the holidays, hostel dining is generally closed and the shared cafeterias serve students who stay on campus. All NITs have a sports field and facilities for field, indoor and water events. Many of the NITs also have guest houses.

NIT locations across India organize official welcome parties and interactive sessions to introduce newcomers to senior students and professors. Faculties and researchers from IITs, ISM, and IISc occasionally organize technical seminars and research laboratories.

Student management

Some NITs hold individual elections to elect the student body to be general secretary and vice president. These representatives are typically responsible for communicating with college management and the media, organizing festivals, and for various development programs in their college. Some NITs (such as NIT Rourkela, NIT Surat and NIT Nagpur) have recently introduced the online voting process. The committee that oversees the flow of funds has a student representative. This committee also includes the chairman of the board, a representative of the MHRD and NIT professors. Due to some disruptions in the voting process, the 2008 student elections were suspended in SVNIT, Surat. However, they resumed in 2015 and will therefore continue.

Disciplinary Committee

The Disciplinary Commission (DISCO) consists of the director, the representative for student affairs and professors. and reports to MHRD. DISCO regulates student activities and combats student harassment and illegitimate student policy. After a number of incidents of harassment, all NITs took tough measures, particularly to protect freshmen.

Extracurricular activities

Popular after-school activities include the National Cadet Corps (NCC), National Service Scheme (NSS), Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE), and annual college celebrations. Students at NITs run hobby clubs such as Linux User Groups (LUGs), music clubs, debate clubs, literature clubs, and web design teams. The students also publish campus magazines that demonstrate the students' creativity and journalism. The first Linux user group in India, the Bharat Linux User Group, was founded at the NIT Surat (SVNIT) in early 1997. Students conduct quizzes and cultural programs on a regular basis. They also present research and participate in technical festivals at the national level on IITs, IISc and NITs. Most NITs promote entrepreneurship by setting up incubation centers on campus as part of the STEP program.

Technical and cultural festivals

All NITs organize annual technical festivals that usually last three or four days. The technical festivals are Avishkar (NIT Allahabad), Technosearch (NIT Bhopal), Tathva (NIT Calicut), Terratechnica (NIT Delhi), Gyanith (NIT Puducherry), Aarohan (NIT Durgapur), Nimbus (NIT Hamirpur), Sphinx (NIT Jaipur )), TechNITi (NIT Jalandhar), Ojass (NIT Jamshedpur), Techspardha (NIT Kurukshetra), ACHSE (NIT Nagpur), Corona (NIT Patna), Aavartan (NIT Raipur), Innovation (NIT Rourkela), Tecnoesis (NIT Silchar) , Techvaganza (NIT Srinagar), MindBend (NIT Surat), Engineer (NIT Karnataka), Pragyan (NIT Tiruchirappalli), Technozion (NIT Warangal), Technival (NIT Goa), Morphosis (NIT Mizoram), Cognitia (NIT Meghalaya), Technovya (NIT Nagaland), Addovedi (NIT Arunachal Pradesh), AAYAM (NIT Agartala), Cliffesto (NIT Uttarakhand) and Abhiyantran (NIT Sikkim). Most of them are organized in January or March. Pragyan (NIT Tiruchirappalli) is the first student organization in the world and the third overall after the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and Manchester United to receive ISO 20121: 2012 certification for sustainable event management. It is also the largest in terms of sponsorship amounts and is also branded as a techno management festival due to its emphasis on technology and management.


Many NIT alumni have achieved leading positions in companies, such as:

  • Natarajan Chandrasekaran (Chairman, Tata Sons)
  • Rajesh Gopinathan (CEO, Tata Consultancy Services)
  • TV Narendran (CEO of Tata Steel (Global))
  • CP Gurnani (CEO, Mahindra Satyam)
  • KV Kamath (Head of BRICS New Development Bank, Shanghai; former CEO of ICICI Bank; Padma Bhushan Prize Winner)
  • Srini Raju (Chairman, Peepul Capital, iLabs VCF, former CEO of Cognizant Technology Solutions & Satyam)
  • KR Sridhar (Founder and CEO of Bloom Energy)
  • Shyam Srinivasan (CEO and MD, Bundesbank)
  • Abid Ali Neemuchwala, former Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Wipro
  • Sudhir Vasudeva, former chairman and executive director of ONGC
  • Dinesh Keskar (Senior VP, Boeing Aircraft Trading and Head of Boeing India)
  • Rao Remala (Microsoft's first Indian employee)
  • Rajeev Madhavan (Founder, Magma Design Automation, US venture capitalist. On the Dean's Advisory Board at UCLA's Henry Samueli School of Engineering)
  • Pawan Munjal (Chairman, MD & CEO, Hero Motocorp)
  • Atul Sobti, Chairman and CEO of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) from January 2016 to June 2019

NIT alumni have also pursued careers in public service; for example:

  • Vinod Kumar Yadav, Chairman of the Indian Railway Board.
  • Deepak Khandekar, Secretary General of the Department of Tribal Affairs
  • Thomas Abraham (Chairman of the Global Organization of People of Indian Origin, coined the term PIO)
  • Dawood Danesh Jafari (Minister of Finance and Economy, Iran)
  • Ajit Jogi (First Prime Minister of Chhattisgarh, also a former lecturer at NIT Raipur)
  • Sanjiv Chaturvedi, IFS officer who uncovered many corruption cases in Haryana and AIIMS; received the President's reference four times a record and the Ramon Magsaysay Award in 2015.
  • Deep Joshi (recipient of the Magsaysay Prize & Padma Shri, social activist, founder of PRADAN (NGO))
  • Hemant Karkare (Chief of the Mumbai Anti-Terrorist Squad (ATS), martyr in the terrorist attacks in Mumbai in November 2008)
  • Nitish Kumar (Prime Minister of Bihar)
  • Lakshmi Narayana (Former Joint Director of India's Central Investigation Bureau)
  • Suresh Pachouri (MP)
  • Ram Vinay Shahi (India's longest-serving energy minister)
  • Abhishek Singh (MP from Rajnandgaon Region)
  • Prafulla Kumar Das