Country names are always capitalized in English
Upper and lower case in English
A “cultivated” English (especially in the written correspondence) also includes the command of upper and lower case in English. In principle, the rules of the English language are simpler and clearer than in German and comprise three basic rules:
Upper and lower case in English
As already mentioned, there are three basic rules according to which words are written with a capital letter:
- The first word of a sentence is always capitalized.
- The personal pronoun "I" (German: I)
- Proper names and titles
The rules in detail
The two rules “the first word of a sentence” and “the personal pronoun I” are always capitalized, are relatively simple and do not require any further explanation. It looks different, for example, with proper names and titles.
Upper and lower case letters in proper names and titles
Unfortunately, there is a long list of so-called special cases and exceptions when a name is written in upper or lower case. However, some rules are clear:
- Company names and trademarks always begin with a capital letter in English.
- Country names, city names and area names also start with a capital letter in English.
- Nationalities also start with a capital letter in English.
- First names, surnames, days of the week, names of months, and holidays also begin with a capital letter.
It becomes more difficult with the rules on titles and official titles:
Basically, the following applies:
- Official government, nobility or honorary titles in connection with names or when they refer to a specific person.
- Political parties
- Religious terms
With these rules, however, it should be noted that proper names that have become generic names are written in lower case. Furthermore, general personal designations or office designations are not entered, in principle the following applies here: If the office is to be described rather than the person, the office designation is written in lower case.
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