How do I choose PAC to be its leader

South Africa after Nelson Mandela's release and the legalization of ANC and PAC

Africa Yearbook 1990 pp 46-55 | Cite as

Summary

For forty years, South Africa was pilloried by international politics. The incessant attacks at the United Nations centered on two sins of the government in Pretoria: racial discrimination in South Africa itself and South African colonial rule over Namibia. In both fields, the white minority in South Africa regularly fended off all attacks from outside (the Security Council's arms embargo, withdrawal of the League of Nations mandate over Namibia) as well as suppressing internal rebellion - from the ANC's Defiance campaign in 1952 via the pass boycott of the PAC 1960 (Sharpeville massacre), Soweto 1976, SWAPO guerrillas in Northern Namibia up to the uprising in the townships in 1984. Half-hearted economic sanctions imposed by the USA and the EC aggravated the crisis in the South African economy in the late 1980s, but they did not causing the crisis; after all, all developing countries suffered from the drying up of private foreign investment and debt (South Africa initially belongs more to this category than to the market-based industrialized countries).

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further reading

  1. ANC Discussion Paper on Economic Policy. In: KAS-Auslandsinformationen 6 (1990) 12, pp. 15-25 (Konrad Adenauer Foundation) Google Scholar
  2. Cooper, Carole et al .: Race Relations Survey 1989/90, Johannesburg 1990 (SA Institute of Race Relations) Google Scholar
  3. Declaration by Rustenburg, November 1990. In: EMW-Informations 91 (December 1990) (Evangelisches Missionswerk) Google Scholar
  4. Friedman, Steven: Options for the Future, Johannesburg 1990 (SA Institute of Race Relations) Google Scholar
  5. Violence in South Africa: the new kairos. Heidelberg 1990 (Werkstatt Ökonomie) (Original ed. By Institute for Contextual Theology, Johannesburg 1990) Google Scholar
  6. Hanf, Theodor: Conflict Transformation in South Africa: Peaceful Change through Negotiations? In: From politics and contemporary history (supplement to the weekly newspaper Das Parlament), December 7, 1990, pp. 3–11Google Scholar
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  8. Maull, Hanns W. (Ed.): South Africa. Politics, society, economy before the end of apartheid, Opladen 1990Google Scholar
  9. Mufson, Steven: South Africa 1990. In: Foreign Affairs 70 (1991) 1, pp. 120-141 Google Scholar
  10. Ropp, Klaus Frhr. from: South Africa on the way to democracy? In: From politics and contemporary history (supplement to the weekly newspaper Das Parlament), December 7, 1990, pp. 12-20Google Scholar
  11. Sachs, Albie: Towards a Bill of Rights in a Democratic South Africa. In: South African Journal of Human Rights 6 (1990) 1, pp. 1-24 Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1990

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