How do I choose PAC to be its leader
South Africa after Nelson Mandela's release and the legalization of ANC and PAC
Africa Yearbook 1990 pp 46-55 | Cite as
For forty years, South Africa was pilloried by international politics. The incessant attacks at the United Nations centered on two sins of the government in Pretoria: racial discrimination in South Africa itself and South African colonial rule over Namibia. In both fields, the white minority in South Africa regularly fended off all attacks from outside (the Security Council's arms embargo, withdrawal of the League of Nations mandate over Namibia) as well as suppressing internal rebellion - from the ANC's Defiance campaign in 1952 via the pass boycott of the PAC 1960 (Sharpeville massacre), Soweto 1976, SWAPO guerrillas in Northern Namibia up to the uprising in the townships in 1984. Half-hearted economic sanctions imposed by the USA and the EC aggravated the crisis in the South African economy in the late 1980s, but they did not causing the crisis; after all, all developing countries suffered from the drying up of private foreign investment and debt (South Africa initially belongs more to this category than to the market-based industrialized countries).
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