Why is Denver such a desirable travel destination

ST

Swiss Federal Gazette.

48th year. II.

No. 12.

# S T #

March 18, 1896.

Report of the

Federal Council to the Federal Assembly

its management in years

1895.

E, Department of Foreign Affairs, I. Department.

Political Department.

Introductory remarks.

The organization of the political department of the Department of Foreign Affairs, as far as its personnel is concerned, is based on the law of April 13, 1883, which only provides for a secretary and a registry, which is also a registry. The task of this department has since expanded to such an extent that it is absolutely impossible to get along with these staff. We have therefore felt compelled to resort to provisional assistance, so that at present the permanent staff of the Political Department consists of two legally paid civil servants and five provisional employees. This provisional arrangement should soon be replaced by an organization based on law. We have been given suggestions on this, Federal Gazette. 48th year vol.

10

146

and we will consult them as soon as we have the draft of a general salary law to be drawn up by the finance department.

During the course of the year, Messrs. W. Du P as q u i er, A. S i m o n, W. B u r c k h a r d t and L. G r a m e r worked in the political department. At the end of 1895, Mr. Burckhardt submitted his dismissal.

In place of the Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Rome, Dr. jur. C a r l i n is Dr. jur. Gustav G r affi n a, from Chiasso (Canton Ticino), was elected Secretary of the Department.

I. Foreign relations.

Switzerland's relations with other countries have always remained good and untroubled in the past year.

  1. Contracts concluded or ratified.
  2. An agreement was signed between Switzerland and Germany on September 21, 1895 concerning the Baden community of B ü s i n g e n (A. S. n. F. XV, 345), which the National Council approved on December 18, 1895 and the Council of States on the 20th of the same month. On January 1, 1896, the head of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Federal President Lachenal, and the German Chargé d'Affaires, Mr von B u i o w, exchanged the instruments of ratification. The agreement entered into force on the same day.

For details, we refer to the annual report of the commercial department of the Department of Foreign Affairs.

b. With Greece on November 21/3. December 1895 exchanged a declaration on the mutual protection of the F a b r i k - and H a ​​n d e l s m a r k e n (A. S. n. F. XV, 328).

We took the initiative and suggested to Greece that it would either join the international convention of March 20, 1883 on the protection of industrial property, or conclude a special agreement with Switzerland on this subject. Neither one nor the other could be obtained, and we had to be content with exchanging a declaration along the lines of the one which Greece had exchanged with the Netherlands on April 8, 1895.

147

c. Regarding the trade relations with F r a n k r e i c h hetrifil ;, with whom an understanding could be reached, we refer to the business report of the trade department.

d. The contract approved by us on July 6, 1894 between the canton of Geneva and the French company Paris-LyonMéditerranée, relating to the transfer of the concession and the.

Operation of the line G e n f - L a P l a i n e (see the annual report pro 1894, Bundesbl. 1895, I, 836) has not yet been ratified by the French government. At the request of the State Council of the Canton of Geneva, we have entered into our diplomatic role in order to bring about an early settlement of this matter; an official answer has not yet arrived.

e. We have exchanged declarations with the Brazilian government, according to which, from January 1, 1896, the estates of Swiss people who died in Brazil and those of Brazilians who died in Switzerland as defined in the Official Collection, new version, vol. XV, p. 351 , printed decree of the Brazilian government of November 8, 1851 are to be dealt with (see also the annual report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 847).

For Switzerland, the advantages of this declaration of reciprocity are that if a Swiss citizen dies in Brazil without leaving any heirs or executors present in the country, the custody and liquidation of the estate is transferred to the Swiss consulsB. Declarations regarding accession to existing conventions and their amendments.

  1. In a note dated January 22, 1895, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Nicaragua announced that it had joined the W e l t p o s t agreement of July 4, 1891 (Federal Gazette 1895, I, 1013).

The Republic of Honduras also joined the Universal Postal Union (main contract) and notified the Federal Council of this on June 3, 1895.

In addition, the English embassy in Bern declared in a note dated November 22, 1895 the accession of the British protected area of ​​Zanzibar and East Africa to the Universal Postal Union (main contract) with effect from December 1, 1895 (A. S. after F. XV, 357).

The Republic of Paraguay has finally joined the ranks of the Universal Postal Union countries.

148

As for the special agreements reached at the Vienna International Universal Postal Congress of 1891, Salvador has acceded to the Newspaper Service Agreement and Serbia has acceded to this Agreement and to the Agreement on the Money Order Service.

6. According to a note from the French Embassy dated January 18, 1895, the Halifax and Bermudas Cable Company has joined the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n T e l e g r a p h e n v e r a g (A. S. n. P. XV, 126).

c. 1. At the occasion of the conference, which met in Bern on July 16, 1895 for the purpose of signing the additional agreement to the international agreement of October 14, 1890 on rail freight law, the ratifications of the declaration of September 20, 1893, concerning the procedure on the accession of new states to the above-mentioned agreement, deposited by the representatives of the following states: Switzerland, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Russia.

The representatives of Germany and the Netherlands were unable to deposit their instruments of ratification because the parliaments of these states had not yet approved the declaration.

The agreement will only come into force when the ratifications of Germany and the Netherlands are available.

2. In the conference of July 16, 1895, already mentioned, the additional agreement to the international agreement of October 14, 1890 on rail freight law was signed by the representatives of the various states and the question about the double French and German text was passed in a protocol regulated that the German text was recognized as authoritative for the countries of German and mixed tongues.

The instruments of ratification were deposited in a further conference, also held in Bern on December 18, 1895, by the representatives of the following countries: Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Russia. The ratifications of Austria-Hungary and the Netherlands are still pending.

The supplementary agreement (AS n.F. XV, 361) entered into force on January 1, 1896 among the states that ratified it as a special agreement (§ 1, last paragraph, of the implementing provisions of the international agreement of October 14, 1890) .

149 d. For its colonies of Natal, Ceylon, Lagos, St. Helena and Canada, the British government acceded to the D r e s d e n e r S a n i t ä t s - on April 15, 1893 (A. 8.

n.P. XV, 358).

e. On June 29, 1895, the Kingdom of Siam (East India) joined the agreement concluded in Geneva on August 22, 1864 in order to improve the lot of the M i l i tär s (R ​​o t e s K r e u z) wounded in the war (A. S. n. F.

XV, 186).

C. Projected contracts.

  1. The conference held in Berne in September 1894 with the aim of founding an international association for the publication of the s a t a t s agreements (see Annual Report pro 1894, Bundesbl.

'1895, I, 839) was unsuccessful; only Brazil has agreed to sign the proposed agreement.

Belgium has now taken up the idea again and submitted a new draft to the various states on October 1, 1895. We do not yet know how this draft was received. As far as we are concerned, we have spoken to Belgium that we would make its proposals the subject of benevolent consideration as soon as the other states have given a declaration of approval.

b. We have nothing new to mention with regard to the conclusion of an arbitration treaty with the United States of America.

c. The negotiations linked with the republics of C h i l e, K o l u m b i e n, G u a t e m a l a, V e n e z u e l a, N i c a r a g u a u n d A r g e n t i n i n i e n for the conclusion of friendship, settlement, trade and k o n s u l a r v e r have not yet led to any definite results; however, they will be continued.

d. The question of the Simplon breakthrough (Annual Report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 847) has been significantly promoted in the course of the past year.

The technical conference planned for February 25, 1895 met on that day in Milan. The management of the Jura-Simplon Railway was managed by two of its members, President Ruchonnet and Mr Dumur, Italy through the engineer Commendatore J. Colombo, Com-

150 datore A. Ferrucci and General Manager Commendatore Massa represented. The construction company had sent Messrs Locher and Brandt. At this meeting, the most essential questions pertaining to the State Treaty and the concession were discussed and in part settled.

On July 10, 1895, we were able to submit to the Italian government the draft of a state treaty concerning the construction and operation of a railway through the Simplon from Brieg to Domodossola, as well as the draft of the concession for the section allotted to Italian territory and on it to make an invitation to attend a diplomatic conference.

This took place from November 4th to 25th in Bern between our delegates, the heads of the Departments of Foreign Affairs, Finance and Railways, and the Italian delegates, Mr Peiroleri, Italian envoy in Bern, and Mr Commendatore A. Ferrucci, Member of the building council. At the request of the Italian delegation, President Ruchonnet and Director Dumur as representatives of the Jura-Simplon Railway were also included in the negotiations.

The rather protracted negotiations led to the signing of a treaty on November 25, 1895, which we will submit to you for ratification.

e. In consideration of a special case, the Swiss consulate in Trieste suggested that those cantons, whose legislation allows it, should be induced to exchange a R e c i p r o c i t ity with Ö s t e r r e i e h - U n g a r n a r e c i p r o c i t e r e r u n g on tax exemption for movable estates. According to a ministerial decree of April 8, 1854, the movable estates of foreigners who died in Austria-Hungary remain tax-free, provided that the state to which the testator belongs does not levy any tax on the estates of Austro-Hungarian nationals.

We therefore invited the cantonal governments to be heard about it, but only received an affirmative answer from five cantons (Schwyz, Obwalden, Appenzell A.-Rh., Wallis, Ticino), while the others stated that their tax legislation did not allow them to to ensure tax exemption for the movable estates of foreigners.

We did that
Austro-Hungarian government notified of this and asked them to instruct the competent authorities not to levy any tax on the movable estates of members of the five cantons mentioned.

151

D. Special cases.

  1. The response of the Spanish government to our note of October 3, 1893, regarding the S o l d and P e n s i o n s r u c k s t ä n d e d e r e h e m a l i g e n S c h w e i z e r r e g i m e n t e r i n span i s c h e n d e n s t e n, is still pending despite repeated letters.
  2. In the United States of America a new pension law came into effect on March 2, 1895, which repeals the law of March 1, 1893, and allows those resident abroad who do not belong to the United States to enjoy their pension from July 1, 1893, reassured. This law also stipulates that any pension under six dollars per month must be increased to this amount!

be ; the pension office has to carry out the increase of its own accord, without the beneficiaries having to submit a special request.

We have made the persons involved aware of this law through repeated announcements (Bundesbl.

1895, I, 1018, and II, 218).

On March 2, 1895, another law was passed that regulates the claims of relatives and heirs of deceased pensioners to the pension arrears due on the days of their death. This law has also been published in a German translation in the Federal Gazette (Federal Gazette 1895, III, 100).

c. We had to deal with nine requests for intervention for the purpose of releasing the service in the F R a n z E S i S C h e n Premd e n l e g i o n; We had to reject five from the start because there was no doubt that the French Government would have rejected them; of the rest, two were approved by the French government and one rejected; the fourth is still pending.

Here, too, we emphasize that the French Government would only respond to such requests if the mercenary was not yet 17 when he entered the Foreign Legion, or if he suffers from a serious illness.

d. In the year under review we repeatedly had to deal with complaints from nationals residing in the SÜ d a m e r i k a n i s c h e r e p u b l i k e n: 1. On the occasion of the R e v o l u t i o n that broke out in the province of S a n t a Fé in 1893, a number of Swiss citizens

152 suffered considerable damage. It is thanks to the zealous efforts of our embassy in Buenos Aires that the consequent claims for damages were finally recognized in July 1895, at least for the most part, as justified. The complaints of some colonists were not taken into account because they had acquired Argentine citizenship.

2. Negotiations with C hile to obtain cheap compensation for the losses suffered by some Swiss merchants settled in Valparaiso during the unrest in August 1891 (see our annual report for 1892, Federal Gazette 1893, II, 624) are being continued .

3. The proceedings initiated by the Argentine authorities against the murderers of Anton von W yl (see annual report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 852) have not yet been concluded.

The Embassy in Buenos Aires, however, continues to devote its full attention to the matter.

4. We are satisfied to be able to inform you that the hope expressed in last year's annual report (Bundesbl. 1895, I, 853) of obtaining cheap compensation from the Brazilian government for the heirs of Bocca on July 28, 1892 -Corrego in the Brazilian province of Bahia murdered Gustav L ecoul tre, has come true.

After the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the United States of Brazil had rejected our claim for compensation in a note dated October 25, 1894, we believed we should make one last attempt to help the Lecoultro family to gain their rights. On June 29, we sent a note to the President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil, in which we tried to justify the legitimacy of our demand anew by explaining the facts of the matter.

This step was successful in that the President of the Republic, in a note dated November 26, 1895, declared himself ready to pay the Lecoultre family compensation of CHF 20,000.

Although this amount does not reach the amount originally requested by those involved, we decided to accept the amount offered in agreement with the bereaved.

We owe this happy result not at least to the representative of Brazil in Switzerland, who warmly advocated a friendly settlement of the matter and the award of cheap compensation.

153

5. On the 11thOn April 4th, in the colony of Las Garzas boi Reconquista (province of Santa Fé), the colonist Fridolin W a lker, born in the canton of Valais, was found murdered in his home with his wife and daughter. Various suspects of the crime have been arrested and will have to answer before the courts.

6. Bin Zürcher, named Johann Huber, was attacked and killed on March 6th, in the Romang colony in the province of Santa Fé (Argentina). Our embassy in Buenos Aires has taken steps to punish the murderers.

e. In this year, too, a number of limit violations were reported to us, of which we would like to highlight the following: 1. On June 10, 1895, the State Council of the Canton of Ticino complained about the same month on the 8th to S t from io by Italian customs officers border violation committed; they were said to have fired two shots at smugglers in the direction of Swiss territory. The Italian government, to which we approached, had the customs guard found guilty punished.

2. On July 16, 1895, three Italian customs guards crossed the border at C a m p o V a l l e m a g g i a in order to arrest smugglers on Swiss territory.

The Italian government excused the action of the customs guards by saying that they did not know the area exactly and promised to take the necessary measures to avoid such incidents.

3. On November 12, 1895, two Italian customs guards on one of the steamships that ply on the Langensee arrested another border guard, known to them as a deserter, at the moment when he was about to disembark in Brissago. We have also brought this incident, which involves a violation of our territory, to the attention of the Italian government so that they can in turn establish the facts, give us the usual satisfaction and order the release of the illegally arrested customs officer.

4. According to a report by the government of the canton of Ticino, the beams of light directed onto Swiss territory by the headlights on board the torpedo boats used to suppress smuggling on the Langen and L uganersee have often made the horses shy and caused accidents .

154

The Italian government, which we approached to remedy the situation, remarked that it was not always possible, when handling the headlights, to prevent light rays from falling on Swiss territory from time to time; Incidentally, this would never have resulted in accidents on the Italian bank. At least she promised to take orders to remedy the reported evils as much as possible.

5. The P a r t n u n e r G r e n z fai l (see our last year's annual report, Bundesbl. 1895, I, 856) is done.

The Austro-Hungarian government proposed to give the owners of the confiscated horses the amount of 626 guilders a.s., net proceeds from the auction of the animals, in exchange for expressly renouncing all further legal steps. This proposal was accepted, but on condition that the k. and k. The government undertakes to put down and not to resume all judicial investigations initiated against Swiss citizens in connection with the matter, in particular to refrain from any further criminal prosecution of the herdsman Thöny.

The criminal proceedings initiated against Thöny and the other Swiss nationals were discontinued by means of an imperial act of grace.

6. On the night of March 22nd to 23rd, 1895, the border guards stationed at the Wi e s e nbrucke secondary customs office near Basel were awakened by three German soldiers in uniform who harshly asked for directions. This was followed by a violent exchange of words and finally a scuffle. The soldiers, by walking away, advertised the customs house with stones and smashed several panes.

We brought the incident to the attention of the German government, and the guilty soldiers were sentenced to prison terms by court martial.

7. In our last year's annual reports CBundesbl. 1895, I, 857) there was talk of a boundary violation in D i v o n n e - l e s - B a i n s.

Further investigation of the matter by the competent authorities of the canton of Vaud showed that the behavior of the Vaud country hunters was entirely correct. The French hunter Rancuret was therefore sentenced to one month in prison by the Nyon District Court in Contumaciam. That was the end of the matter.

155

8. The French government investigated the fact that on September 4, 1895, the Swiss border guard Cottier, in the vicinity of Grassi e r, had injured the French Proz, who was trying to smuggle sugar into Switzerland, by shooting a revolver.

The investigation initiated by the competent authorities revealed that it was Proz who first mistreated Cottier and forced him to use his revolver. Cottier appeared before the Military Tribunal of the 1st Division and was acquitted on October 31, 1895, when the court assumed that he had been in self-defense.

9. A complaint from the k. and k. Austro-Hungarian embassy that on September 11, 1894 a Swiss country hunter had mistreated a young man from M ade r in Austria, turned out to be well founded, so that we did not hesitate to inform the k. and k. Government to express our deep regrets about the incident.

f. R e n ctio n s a n d u s a n d u s a n g e s.

  1. The agreement signed on June 10, 1891 concerning the re i n i n g u n g of the swiss-fr anzosian G R e nz e z w i n t D o l e n t and de in G e nf e r is still awaiting approval from the French Senate.

We cannot explain this unduly long postponement of a business that is so simple in itself.

2. The negotiations concerning the correction of the Swiss-French border on the road from V e y r i e r to B o s s e y (Federal Gazette 1894, II, 130, and 1895, I, 858) are still pending.

3. The protocols on the W i e d e r h e r s t e l u n g d e g r e n z s t e i n e s No. 27 at the s w e i e r i s h - d e u t s c h e n border between the canton of Baselland and Alsace l o t h r i n g e n have been exchanged; the matter can thus be considered settled.

4. The protocol concerning the re-e r e r s t e l u n g of the group no. 9 between the canton of Solothurn and the district of Mülhausen (Federal Gazette 1895, I, 858) has been approved by us and by the German government.

5. The R e v i s i o n der M a r c h s t e i n e lä n g s der b e r n i s c h e l sä s s i s c h e n G r e n z e is over. On December 18, 1894, the objected boundary stone 32 A at A b t e i L ü t z e l

156 removed by the MPs and an addendum to the protocol signed on November 16, 1892, was added. Then, as before, the border runs between stones 32 and 33 along the surrounding wall of Lützel Abbey. The approved protocols have been exchanged.

6. The matter of restoring the bridges over the Lütz e l (see our annual report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 859) is discussed in the annual report of the Department of the Interior, to which it was referred for further treatment.

7. The protocol concerning the restoration of the border stone on the Graubünden-Italian border at the mouth of the V alle di Lei (see Annual Report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 860) has received our approval and that of the Italian government .

8. The protocol on the restoration of G R e n z s t e i n e n. 16 a u f d e r Alp Me r i g e t t o was also approved and certified copies were exchanged with the Italian government.

9. The same thing happened with regard to the re-enactment of the G r e n z s t e i n s No. 44 at T e r m i n e (Canton Ticino).

On this occasion, the Italian Government proposed that in future no longer exchange the minutes or certified copies, but limit themselves to the exchange of a declaration approving the hearing. We have agreed to this simplified procedure.

10. The question of the G r e n z s t e i n e s No. 33 at M i g l i e g l i a (Canton Ticino) has not yet been settled.

II. Representation of Switzerland abroad.

  1. On February 3, 1895, the federal law on the representation of S w e i z in the u s l a n d e with 177,991 no against 124,517 yes.
  2. The following changes occurred in the staff of our representation abroad in the course of 1895:

157 A. Embassies.

Paris. At the end of November, the previous attaché, Dr. jur.

Lucien C r a m e r, left the legation to join the Department of Foreign Affairs in the same capacity.

The following were appointed as attachés at the legation: Mr. Fürsprech Walther D e u c h e r, von Steckborn, and Dr.

jur. Hans S c h u l e r, from Glarus.

Born. To our regret, we had to accept the dismissal of Minister B a v i e r for the middle of June, who had headed the legation in Rome since 1883 and had rendered excellent service to the fatherland during this time. Mr Bavier was not to enjoy a long evening in his homeland (Malans), because he died, generally mourned, a few months after his resignation.

In his place, the previous Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Dr. jur. Gaston C a r l i n, from Löwenburg (Canton Bern). He handed over his credentials on June 22nd.

Dr. jur. G r a f i n a, has given up his post in Rome as a result of his appointment as Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs. He was replaced by the former secretary of the embassy in Buenos Aires, Dr. jur. J. C h o f f a t.

Ferdinand von Salis was transferred to London as Secretary of the Legation.

Wasliingtmi. Dr. jur. J. B. Pio d a, who was appointed envoy in Washington after Mr. de Claparède was transferred to Vienna (forget our last year's annual report, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 861), presented his credentials on March 23rd.

London. Dr. jur. Karl C o 'r r a g i o n i d'Or eli i, secretary of the legation since 1891, has been promoted to legation councilor. At his request, his discharge was accepted on November 15th, thanks to the excellent service rendered.

In November, Mr. Ferdinand von S a l i s, hitherto second legation secretary in Rome, was appointed secretary of the legation in place of Mr. Corragioni d'Orelli.

Dr. jur. Henri L a n s e i, attaché to the embassy, ​​has left the embassy.

158 B. Consulates, loc. Establishment of new consulates.

Ì. When the consulate was set up in Patras in 1885, we had, in view of the extensive trade relations between Switzerland; and Greece considered the establishment of a consulate in A t h e n, but had to wait until we had found a suitable candidate for this post.

On May 31, we appointed Mr. Ludwig S c h n e i d e r, of Basel, as consul in Athens.

2. A new consulate was also set up in D i jon (France) in view of the numerous Swiss colony there, whose business area includes the departments of Côte-d'Or, Nièvre and Yonne. On August 15th we appointed Mr. Rudolf Moser, von Thun, consul.

3. In Fl o r e n z a vice-consulate was created, which is dependent on the consulate in Livorno; We have entrusted this post to Mr. Karl S t e i n h ä u s l i n, from Sumiswald (Canton Bern).

4. Requests were made to set up consulates in the following locations: M arseillan (Hérault), T amatave (Madagascar), Montpellier, W ellington (New Zealand), Lib au (Courland), D etroit (Michigan), L ü ttich, S ait L ake C ity (Utah), S assari (Sardinia). We did not respond to any of these requests. At the end of the year, the following were still subject to the examination: Rio de J a n e i r o (Vice Consulate), R e t a l h u l e n (Guatemala) and some positions proposed in the A r g e n t i n i n i s c h e n R e p u b l i k (Tucuman, Colon, Reconquista, Paranâ).

b. Changes in the number of our consular staff.

C a r a v e l l a s (Leopoldina). On March 5th we accepted the discharge of Mr. Louis B or n and as Vice Consul for Caravellas and the Colony of Leopoldina.

In view of the fact that the conditions that had justified the establishment of the Vice Consulate at the time are no longer the same and that the Swiss colonies in the previous consular district of Caravellas are no longer of great importance, the appointment of a new Vice Consulate was refrained from and Caravellas with the Leopoldina colony Subordinate to consulates in Bahia.

159

L i m a. On December 9th, Mr. Robert Weiss, who was still managing the consulate on an interim basis, was relieved of his duties as consul in Lima.

The German consul, Mr S t rö m s dö r f e r, is currently taking care of the consulate business on a provisional basis.

L y o n. On September 5th, Mr. Edmund V e r n e t died.

who had served the fatherland very well as consul since 1875.

We entrusted Vice Consul J. R. S t r ü b i with the provisional administration of the consulate.

M a r s e i l l e. On November 8th we appointed Mr. Werner M o s e r, consul from St. Gallen, in place of Mr. Adolf H o f m a n n, whose dismissal was accepted with the best of gratitude for the services rendered.

P a l e r m o. Mr. August H i r z e l, from Zurich, was appointed consul on November 8th, in place of his father, Mr. Konrad H i r z e l, who had passed away in May, and who had ruled his office in an excellent manner since 1861.

Patras. The previous consul, Mr Albert H a m b u r g e r, was promoted to consul general and Mr Karl Georg M u l l e r, from Heidelberg, was appointed vice consul.

F e r n a m b u c o. On February 8th, we appointed Mr. Emil A m s t e i n, from Wyla (Canton Zurich) as consul in place of the resigning Mr. Oskar F a l k e i s e n.

S i d n e y. The consulate is still provisionally administered by the German consul, Mr. H. L. S ahl.

T u r i n. We have converted the Consulate General into a simple consulate because the city of Turin has long since lost its former importance; most of the states are only represented there by consuls.

On '15. August we appointed consul in place of the deceased consul general Mr. Ulrich Geißer, Mr. August B o s i o, from Zuz (Canton of Graubünden).

V a l p a r a i s o. We refilled the post of Vice Consul, which had been vacant since May 9, 1894, and on November 19 we transferred these functions to Mr. Louis Ernst Sin n, from Rossemaison (Canton of Bern). We have thus fulfilled the request of our Consul General, Mr. Zürcher, who convinced us of the need to add a Vice Consul to him, thus the consulate

lv \ J

not completely orphaned if he were sick or otherwise prevented.

Y o k o h a m a. On September 10th, Herrj | Dr. jur. Paul David R i t t e r, who until then had administered the Consulate General as Vice Consul, was promoted to Consul General.

o. The number of consular districts is 100, 9 of which are administered directly by the various embassies and two, those of Sidney and Lima, by foreign consular agents. Six districts are without representatives. We have a total of 127 consular posts, namely: 13 consulates general, 79 consulates, 9 independent vice consulates, 25 consulates dependent or attached to a consulate, 1 consular agency.

d. Consular allowances.

Forty-six Consulates General, Consulates and Vice Consulates have received the following compensations:

3.

4.

5.

6.

7; 8.

9.

10.

11.

Consulates General.

Buenos Aires (also embassy). Fr.

London (also diplomatic agency) ,, Yokohama ,, Rio de Janeiro ,, St. Petersburg ,, Brussels ,, Bucharest ,, Naples ,, Madrid ,, Lisbon ,, Valparaiso ,,

12.

13.

14.

15.

Paris Havre New York Rome

1.

2.

48,000. -- 35,900.

11,500.

9,000.

6,000.

6,000.

3,500.

2,500.

1,500.

1,000.

1,000.


12,500.

10,000.

9,000.

7,000.


Consulates and ViaeJconsulate.

Fr.

,, ,, ,,

161

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

21.

22.

23.

24.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

46.

Milan Vienna Lyon Stockholm Berlin Besançon.

Nice Moscow Montevideo Traiguen Washington Marseille Melbourne New Orleans Philadelphia Genoa Odessa Warsaw Sidney Algiers Chicago Hamburg St. Louis Tiflis Cincinnati Amsterdam Antwerp Bremen Livorno Riga Venice

Fr.

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, fl

,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, ,,, Total

4,500.

4,000.

4,000.

3,500.

3,250.

3,000.

3,000.

3,000.

3,000.

3,000.

3,000.

3,000.

2,000, 2,000.

2,000.

2,000.

2,000.

2,000.

3,000.

1,500.

1,500.

1,500.

1,500.

1,500.

1,500.

1,000.

1,000.

1,000.

1,000.

1,000.

1,000.

CHF 234,650.

Ad No. 3. In recognition of the excellent manner in which Consul General Ritter fulfilled his task, as well as in consideration of his heavy workload and the expensive life in Japan, we believed we should increase this compensation from CHF 10,000 to 11,500 .

Ad No. 7.For several years now, the Consul General in Bucharest had demanded an increase in compensation, which, given the heavy workload, could no longer be denied to him.

Btmdesblatt. 48th year vol. II.

11

162

Ad No. 12. The salary of the second secretary of the legation, who has held this post since 1893, has been increased by CHF 1,000.

Ad No. 17. Here, too, we believed we should allow an improvement of CHF 1000 to occur because the current secretary of the legation has already been in the service of the federal administration for six years.

Ad No. 19. An increase of CHF 1000 seemed appropriate because the business of this consulate is increasing from year to year.

Ad No. 20. The credit of CHF 4,000 earmarked for the embassy in Berlin was not exhausted because the post of legation secretary remained vacant until February 15.

The post of CHF 1000 taken up in earlier years for the consulate in Portland could be canceled in consideration of the new appointment of the consulate and the renouncement of the current titular of any kind of compensation.

e. In the course of the year, the seat of the consulate in the SÜ d a f r i k a n i s c h e n R e p u b l i k was relocated from Pretoria to Johannesburg.

f. As many Swiss consulates ignored the circular from the political department of March 10, 1894 (see Annual Report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 866) and the detailed lists of the years 1893 and 1894 for legalizations, certificates, Certificates, translations, transcripts, passports, visas, inheritance liquidations etc. had not sent in the office fees collected, a further circular was issued on June 10, 1895. However, not all of the consulates have replied so far, so that we are not yet in a position to present you with our report on the consequences of the postulate of the State Council.

G. With reference to Art. 27 of the regulations for Swiss consular officers of May 26, 1875, all embassies and consulates were invited to no longer charge a fee for the authentication of the first copy of the first birth, marriage or death certificates.

ìi. The perception that in the consulate archives there is often only an incomplete list of the official sums of the w e i z e r i s c h e s ts, has prompted us to decree,

163 that this collection will no longer be sent to our consuls in loose sheets with the newspaper, but only after each volume has been completed and will be bound.

III. Foreign diplomatic missions and consulates in Switzerland.

  1. Diplomatic missions.
  2. The Republic of U r u g u a y has set up an embassy in Bern. On March 11th, Dr. Alberto Nin the letter certifying him as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the aforementioned State in Switzerland.
  3. On May 7th, Baron von S ei ler r, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Ö s t e r e i c h - U n g a r n, presented us with his letter of recall.

On June 7th, Mr. Karl Graf von K u e f s t e i n handed over the letter certifying him in the same capacity with the Swiss Confederation.

c. On August 8th, Mr. Baron von der P f o r d t e n, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of B ay er n, presented his letter of recall; on December 20, his successor, Count Eduard von M o n t g e l a s, presented his credentials.

d. Mr. James 0. Br o a d h e a d, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the E i n i g t e n S t a a t e n A m e r i k a s, met us on l. November handed over his letter of recall.

His successor has not yet arrived in Bern.

e. On November 25th, Dr. Clemens August B u s c h, who had represented Germany at the Confederation as Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary since 1892.

We deeply regret the passing of this diplomat, who has always been diligent in maintaining and promoting good relations between Switzerland and Germany.

His successor has not yet been appointed.

164 B. Consulates.

We have issued the exequatur to the following foreign consular officers: United States of America. On January 25th to Mr. Lyman C. B r y a n as Vice Consul in Basel.

France. On January 29th to Mr. Eduard A u d i s i o as consul in Basel.

On the same day to Mr. Emil J a c q u e m i n as consul general in Zurich.

Belgium. On June 7th to Mr. Jean B o i l l o t - R o b e r t as consul in Neuchâtel. (This post has been created.)

Brazil. On August 23rd to Dr. Pedro de C a s t r o P e r e i r a S o d r é as Consul General in Geneva.

Spain. On September 6th, to Mr. Fermin Saenz de Tejada as Consul General in Bern.

Russia. On September 10th to Mr. Theodor zur G o s e n as Vice Consul in Geneva. (Newly created item.)

Spain. On October 22nd to Mr. Manuel de S o t o as Honorary Consul in Zurich and to Mr. Henri S p a h l i ng e r as Honorary Consul in Geneva; both formerly held the office of honorary vice-consul.

Netherlands. On November 22nd to Mr. F. R a i s i n as honorary consul in Geneva.

On December 23, the former Vice Consul Mr. S. van W i e k e v o r t C r o m m e l i n as consul in Zurich.

Greece. On December 28th, to Mr. Francis De Cru e as Consul General in Geneva.

IV. Swiss auxiliaries.

On December 3, we sent all the federal estates the table of the 142 charitable associations and institutions (141 in 1894) that had received contributions from the Confederation and the cantons. 126 of these are exclusively Swiss companies. The assets of the latter are CHF 2,027,557. 86 and their total charitable expenses Fr. 453,846. 13th

(Federal Gazette 1895, IV, 646.)

165 The federal contribution was also CHF 23,000 this year; the cantons approved CHF 24.820.

V. Various shops.

  1. Since the Federal Chancellery is in current account transactions with the embassies and consulates, the accounting provided for in the new provisions on the home transport of people in need from abroad has been accepted by the Department of Foreign Affairs and transferred to the Federal Chancellery. This saves a lot of correspondence and sending money.
  2. "We have appealed against a judgment of the Swiss K o n s u l a r g e r i h t s h o f e s in Y o k o h a m a (cf.

Annual report pro 1894, Federal Gazette. 1895, 1. 869) because we found that there was no valid reason to annul the procedure followed by the consular court and to subject the matter to a new assessment.

c. In 1895, too, the Department of Foreign Affairs was repeatedly requested to mediate with regard to notices; However, it was limited to referring to Article 12 of the Federal Constitution, which forbids the federal authorities to interfere in such matters (see Annual Report pro 1894, Federal Gazette.

1895, I, 870).

d. Article 2 of the Italian law of July 22, 1894, no. 339, ie the so-called K lausel Antonelli (see our annual report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 870), has experienced an authentic interpretation, which the rights of owners of Italian Fully preserves bonds. Article 12 of the Italian law of July 18, 1895 on financial measures (provvedimenti finanziari) reads: “The provisions contained in paragraph 3, article 2, of the law of July 22, 1894, no. 339, are to be understood as that their application is only permissible in cases where the debtor has only generally promised to pay the income tax himself. Excluded from this, however, are expressly those contracts in which the debtor, prior to the publication of the law in question, assumed the obligation to bear any future increase in income tax or any other levy to be introduced in order to guarantee the obligee a net interest income

166 e. Frequent complaints, especially from Austria-Hungary, about the placement offices for young girls compelled the Department of Foreign Affairs to publish a warning in the Federal Gazette (1895, IV, 457) and to invite the young girls who were going abroad , above all from our representatives abroad and from the Swiss auxiliary companies to make the necessary inquiries.

f. The so-called Stra ßburger monument, which Mr. Baron Gruyer had donated in memory of the aid given to the population of Strasbourg by some Swiss towns in 1870 (Federal Gazette 1895, I, 871), was opened in Basel on October 20, 1895 solemnly inaugurated.

G. With regard to the monument to be erected on St. Gotthard in memory of the Russian soldiers who fell in 1799 (see Annual Report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, I, 871), we have to report that the government of Canton Uri has given permission to start work; the inscription has also been established and approved by us; it reads: "Aux vaillants compagnons d'armes du Généralissime Feldmaréchal Prince d'Italie, Comte Souworoff Rymniksky, qui ont péri au passage des alpes en 1799."

H. In 1895, too, numerous i n t e r n a t i o n a l e K o n g r e s s met; The following should be mentioned here: 1. The second General Conference of the States participating in the M e t e r C o n v e n t i o n of May 20, 1875, which was opened on September 6, 1895 in Paris. MEPs: Mr Lardy, Swiss envoy in Paris, and Professor Dr. Ad.

H i r s c h, director of the observatory in Neuchâtel.

2. The fifth association of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n s t a t i s t i s c h e n I n s t i t u t s in Bern, from August 26th to 30th, 1895. At the request of the Central Committee of the Swiss Statistical Society, we invited all states where members of the institute are to this meeting.

3. The sixth i n t e r n a t i o n a l e t i e r a r z t l i c h e K o n g r e ß in Bern, from September 16 to 21, 1895. The conference negotiations took place under the honorary presidency of Federal Councilor D e u c h e r, head of the Swiss Department of Agriculture.

4. The fifth i n t e r n a t i o n a l e con g r e ß for prisons in Paris, from 30 June to 10 July 1895. MEPs:

167

Prof. Dr. Karl S to o ß in Bern and Dr. G u i l l a u m e, Director of the Swiss Statistical Bureau.

5. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l e V o g e l s c h u t z k o n f e n z in Paris, from June 25 to 29, 1895. Deputy: Dr. Viktor F a t i o in Geneva.

6. The third i n t e r n a t i o n a l e C o n g r e ß for Z o o l o g i e, in Leyden, from September 16 to 21, 1895. Members: Professor Dr. Th. S t u d e r in Bern and Professor Dr. Emil Yung in Geneva.

7. The fifth session of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n E i s e n b a h n k o n g r e s e s in London, from June 26 to July 10, 1895. Members: Mr. Johann T s c h i e m e r, technical inspector of the Swiss railway department, and Mr. control engineer Franz S c h u l e.

8. We also mention the following congresses: I n t e r n a t i o n a l e r K o n g r e ß for the c h u t z of children in Bordeaux; VI.

i n t e r n a t i o n a l e r G e o g r a p h e n k o n g r e ß in London; I n t e r n a t i o n a l e r P h y s i o l o g e n k o n g r e ß in Bern; I n t e r national conference for the standardization of methods for testing building and construction materials in Zurich; Fifth C o n g r e ß t o c e m p u n g des M i ß b r a u c h s g e i s t i g e r g e g e n k e in Basel; C o n g r è s i n t e r n a t i o n a l d 'a c t u a i r e s in Brussels; XL i n t e r n a t i o n a l e r A m e r i k a n i s t e n k o n g r e ß in Mexico.

i. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n F r i e d e n s b u r e a u was also granted a contribution of CHF 1,000 for the year 1895. 'Ever. In the S c h i e d s g e r i h t s n g e l e n h e i t z w i s c h e n F r a n k r e i c h and V e n e n e z u e l a regarding the complaints of the French national F a b i a n i (compare our annual report pro 1894, Federal Gazette 1895, however, the evidence procedure is not yet completed, I, 874) There are still some witnesses residing in Caracas and Curacao to hear about the purpose for which the arbitrator used the mediation of the United States of America. The hearing of the witnesses will be carried out by the representative of that State in Caracas. The office of arbitrator in the matter pending between France and Chile, concerning the distribution of the sums resulting from the exercise among the creditors of Peru (Bundesbl.

1895, I, 875), is due to the Federal Supreme Court, and we therefore allow ourselves to refer to its annual report.

168

VI. Citizenship permits.

  1. In the course of 1895, the political department had to deal with 1187 applications for naturalization permits (1114 in 1894), of which 372 went back to previous years.

Of these 1187 applications, 689 were approved (713 in 1894); 31 rejected (14 in 1894); 20 withdrawn by the applicants (26 in 1894): l canceled at the request of the party concerned; 446 · had not yet been completed on December 31.

1187 If it was not possible to deal with such a large number of applications, the reason is that the applicants have not yet provided the necessary IDs.

In 1895, too, Germany delivered more than half of the applicants for Swiss citizenship.

Of the 1187 applications submitted in the financial year, 656 were from Germans; 253 applicants were French, 145 Italians, 61 Austrians, 30 Russians, 6 citizens of the United States of America, 5 Turks, 4 Belgians, 3 English, 3 Romanians, 3 Spaniards, 3 Dutch, 3 Liechtensteiners, 2 Danes, 1 Portuguese, 1 Luxembourger . In 9 cases it was not possible to determine the nationality.

Of these applicants: 143 minors, 325 single (not including minors), 583 married, 81 widowed, 8 divorced.

In 47 cases the civil status could not be established.

1187 The 1187 applications include 1773 children, 1024 boys and 749 girls, so that the total number of civil rights applicants rises to 3543, namely:

169

1,187 self-employed applicants, 583 applicants' wives, 1,773 children.

3543 The 689 permits issued in 1895 are distributed among: 400 Germans, 169 French, 67 Italians. 23 Austrians, 11 Russians, 4 Romanians, 3 citizens of the United States of America, 2 Belgians, 2 Danes, 2 Dutch, 1 Spaniard, 1 Liechtensteiner, 1 Turk.

These permits extend to 1233 children, 707 boys and 526 girls, and 403 married women.

The total number of persons to whom the permits issued in 1895 refer was 2325, namely: 689 self-employed applicants, 403 married women, 1233 children.

2325 (2318 in 1894).

The domicile certificates issued to persons admitted to acquire Swiss citizenship are distributed among the cantons as follows: Geneva 188, Zurich 126, Baselstadl, 112, Bern 53, Waadt 35, Neuchâtel 30, Ticino 26, St. Gallen 21, Thurgau 17, Schaffhausen 13, Luzernll, Graubünden 9, Solothurn 9, Aargau 8, Freiburg 7, Appenzell A.-Rh. 7, Baselland 6, Wallis 4, Schwyz 4, Glarus l, Uri 1.

b. Of the 689 permits, 17 are in favor of widows who were originally Swiss and only acquired foreign citizenship through their marriage.

c. With regard to naturalization in the cantons, we refer to the following compilation of the information provided to us by the cantonal governments:

Cantons

Zurich Bern Lucerne. . . .

.

Uri Schwyz Obwalden Nidwaiden CHarus Zug Freiburg Solothurn. . . .

.

Baselstadt Baselland Schaffhausen Âppenzell A.-Rh. . . .

Appenzell I.-ßh. .

.

St. Gallen Graubünden Thurgau Ticino Vaud Valais Geneva

.

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

. .

.

. . . .

. .

108 37 4 0 0 0 0 1 3 8 11 90 9 19 5 0 32 2 9 19 28 25 5 31 121

567

Date of approval by the Federal Council

Cantons' fees

1893 1894 1895 maximum 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1

0 4 0

1

0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 7

56 20 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 31 4 6 3 0 13 2 3 8 9 10 1 14 83

42 17 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 8 55 5 12 2 0 16 0 5 11 16 15 4 17 31

minimum

of the municipalities maximum minimum

100 500 600

1150 3600 1500

100 360 500

300 300 400 800 300 150 800 1200 Free of charge 400 200 150 75 500 300

1400 ?

1300 1950 800 1500 1200 1000

1400 ?

125 300 200 500 100 200

400 50 600 600 500 1200 300 80 600 200 200 1000 700 300 200 50 Free of charge.

2000 850 2000 1000 1000 1400 1800 1000 1000

150 800 500 50 200 500 500 300 50

500 500 600

°

Rejected naturalization applications 1 j

Number of naturalizations

l |

Naturalizations in the cantons in 1895.

55 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 1 13 4 0 1 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 31

156

171

In dealing with a number of applications, we have resolved certain fundamental questions, some of which may be mentioned here: 1. We have recognized that in general the minor child of a foreigner who does not want to give up his nationality acquire Swiss citizenship through emancipation can, provided that it otherwise fulfills the legal requirements for obtaining the Federal Council's permit and submits an authentic copy of the emancipation certificate.

2.We responded to the request of a cantonal government that mere poverty could not constitute a reason for the Federal Council to refuse to grant acceptance or resumption of Swiss citizenship. The Federal Council only had to check whether the requirements of Article 2 of the Federal Act of July 1876 on the granting of Swiss citizenship and the waiver of the same apply; everything else is a matter for cantonal legislation.

3. According to the Federal Act of June 22, 1881, Article 10, Paragraph 2, the personal capacity of foreigners to act is based on the law of the state to which they belong. However, it is not uncommon for cantonal authorities, when dealing with applications for citizenship, to judge the question of whether a person to be accepted into citizenship is to be regarded as a minor or of age, according to Swiss law, and accordingly every foreigner who has not yet reached the age of 20 has to be treated as a minor or, if he has exceeded this age, as an adult.

A cantonal government was obviously in the wrong when it demanded that the daughter of German parents, who had reached the age of 20 but had not yet reached the age of 21, should obtain a special permit from the Federal Council because she was of age. We drew the government's attention to the fact that the authorization granted to the parents also extended to the daughter, who was still a minor under German law, which is the only applicable law here.

It will therefore not be superfluous to state the age at which one comes of age in the various countries: 16 years in Turkey; 21 years in France, Germany, England, Italy, Russia, United States of America, Romania, Portugal, Sweden,

172

Belgium, Luxembourg, Greece, Brazil and most of the South American countries; 22 years in the Argentine Republic; 23 years in the Netherlands; 24 years in Austria-Hungary, Norway and Denmark; 25 years in Spain, Bolivia, Chile and San Salvador.

4. In 1893 we had given a foreigner permission to acquire cantonal and communal citizenship. Since the applicant had proven by submitting excerpts from the civil registry office that he was married and the father of two minor children, it was noted in the document that the permit also applied to the wife and minor children in accordance with Article 3 of the Federal Act of July 3, 1876 extended.

Later, however, the wife objected to the fact that they wanted to force her to become a Swiss citizen and demanded the revocation of the Federal Council permit, insofar as this concerned her, by asserting and proving that she was already at the time when her husband obtained the permit he lived apart from the table and bed.

We believed we should comply with this request for the following reasons: Even if federal legislation does not expressly provide for annulment in civil rights matters, it does not mean that the civil rights granted to a foreigner, contrary to the law and the essential requirements contained therein, are absolutely valid be.

In the present case the husband had written his request for naturalization in such a way that the competent authorities had to assume that the marital relationship had not undergone any changes and that the husband was authorized to exercise marital violence with all its effects. Article 3 of the federal law of July 3, 1876, which reads: “The naturalization extends to the applicant's wife and minor children. . . "actually presupposes that the marital relationship continues unchanged and that the husband has marital power over his wife in all its extent and with all its effects.

If this requirement is missing, Art. 3 does not express its effects, and the Federal Council approval granted to the husband is to be regarded as null and void as far as the wife is concerned.

173

VII. Options.

  1. During the year 1895 we received 158 declarations of options (109 in 1894) and 128 provisional option registrations for Switzerland (87 in 1894).
  2. Of the cases of a general nature that we had to deal with in the year under review, the following may be mentioned here! ·: 1. A cantonal government's request as to whether the children of the divorced Swiss-born wife of a Frenchman should acquire the right for To opt for Swiss nationality if her mother is re-admitted to Swiss citizenship was answered in the negative. Indeed, the right of the option rests on the premise that the opting party is the child of the French (Article 1 of the Agreement with France of July 23, 1879); However, this requirement does not apply if only the mother becomes Swiss while the father remains French; the children naturally follow the nationality of the father under whose power they are.

It would be different if it was a question of the children of the wi t w ee of a French. In this case there is no doubt that the underage children have the right to choose Swiss nationality from the naturalization of the mother and holder of paternal power.

2. Three sons of French naturalized in Switzerland had complained to us that they had been arrested in France as refractors, although they had validly opted for Switzerland. They were immediately released at our suggestion; two of them even received compensation for the loss they suffered.

3. The perception that some cantonal military directorates continue to administer service books to the sons of French people who have been naturalized in Switzerland, even before they have opted for Switzerland, prompted us to bring our circular of July 6, 1894 to mind. According to this, the sons of French citizens naturalized in Switzerland, if they were minors at the time of naturalization, are to be treated as French as long as they do not fulfill the formalities provided for in Art. 2 of the Agreement of July 23, 1879, i.e. H. have properly opted for Switzerland during their twenty-second year of age.

174 Finally we want to mention the Swedish law of October 1, 1894. This stipulates that the foreigner who was born in Sweden and lives there continuously up to the age of 22 will become a Swedish citizen, provided that he does not renounce Swedish citizenship with the royal governor of the province in the course of the last year and thereby more credibly Way proves that he is a citizen of another state.

This right to waiver does not apply to anyone born to a foreigner who has made use of this right himself.

Through notices in the Federal Gazette, we have drawn attention to these provisions, which Swiss citizens living in Sweden can make.

II. Department.

Commercial department.

I. Commercial contracts and foreign customs relations.

The dominant event of the year under review was the provisional trade-policy agreement with France, which took place on June 25 in the form of an exchange of notes in Bern. The details of this agreement can be found in our message of July 29, 1895 (Federal Gazette 1895, III, 673). For the sake of continuity in the annual records of the business reports, we remind you of the essentials. The understanding comprised the following: 1. France reduced its minimum tariff of January 11, 1892 by way of autonomous legislation in the manner agreed in the negotiations in Bern, and applied this reduced tariff to Swiss products instead of the General tariff applied since January 1, 1893.

17 & 2. Switzerland, however, cancels its differential tariff for French products, which came into force on January 1, 1893 (A. S. n. F., Vol. XIII, page 236) and treats the latter as those of the other countries, i. H. according to the general usage tariff.

3. By means of an additional article to the convention of February 23, 1882 on neighbors' borders, the customs duties for sawn timber are mutually halved for an annual quantity of no more than 15,000 tons.

e. In communications with the Gex region, the special regulation agreed in 1892, but not in force at the time, applies.

The French government bill regarding the agreed reduction in the minimum tariff was passed by the Chamber on July 8 with 513 votes to 11, and by the Senate on the 11th of the same month with 253 votes against 2. It is dated August 16. A decree of the same day ordered the application of the reduced tariff to Swiss goods. The federal decree authorizing the Federal Council to treat French products according to the general usage tariff (AS n.F. XV, 204) was approved by the National Council on August 15 with 109 against 18, by the Council of States on August 16 with 26 against 10 Voices collected.

On the same day the Federal Council decided (A. S. after F. XV, 206),.

on the basis of this authorization and after consulting the aforementioned French tariff law, the treatment of French products according to the working tariff from August 19th. At the same time, the treatment of Swiss products began in France according to the reduced minimum tariff.

The amendment concerning the halving of timber tariffs received its implementation from August 29th. It was mutually agreed that the halving of the tariffs in the sense of the convention had to extend to the following tariff positions: French tariff.

T

m

*} No. 128

Half an inch per ton.

Fr.

Common wood, sawn: 80 mm thick. and above. . 5. - with a thickness of less than 80 mm. and over 35mm. 6. 25 with a thickness of 35 mm. and under . 8. 75

176

Swiss tariff.

Construction and lumber, common, sawn lengthways (cut goods), except for fournier: 138 oak, except for barrel wood. . . . 2. - 139/140 boards and battens made of hardwood and softwood. 3. 50 141 beams, thresholds, etc., other than oak. . 3. 50 For the purpose of maintaining the annual maximum amount of 15,000 t. it was agreed that vouchers (vouchers) for each 5 q. to distribute. Those interested in Switzerland have been invited by the Swiss Official Gazette of Commerce to register their need for vouchers for the rest of the year.

Registrations far exceeded the available quantity, as was to be expected. The vouchers were initially allocated provisionally, with special consideration of the smaller requests. A second, definitive partition was made in mid-November. Vouchers from the first distribution that had not yet been used and whose eventual use those concerned were in the dark had to be returned in favor of those exporters who still had a secure need. This organization has proven to be useful.

As regards the conditions of the duty-free zone of Upper Savoy and the Gex region, our autonomous resolution of February 23, 1895, with a few exceptions, gave the products of these regions the same treatment they had before the beginning of the Tariff war · enjoyed. They approved this resolution on April 6th, after viewing our message of March 19th (Bundesbl. 1895, II, 19 et seq.).

The same remained in force until August 19, i. H. until the commercial understanding begins to take effect. At this point the differential treatment of the zone ceased to exist, insofar as it had not already been abolished by the aforementioned resolution. With the exception of the special privileges contained in the special convention of 1881, which was still valid until the end of 1912, "on the relationship between the canton of Geneva and the duty-free zone of Haute-Savoie", our general usage tariff came into force again for this area for the small market trade with honey, which we had added to the benefits of the aforementioned special convention by our resolution of February 23, in order to equate the area of ​​Haute-Savoie with the Pays de Gex on this point, came about as a result of the replacement of that resolution by that of 16 August in repeal;

177

· However, we restored it for the time being in order to leave the zone after the agreement all the privileges which it had immediately before it.

Various simplifications and easing of traffic, which the understanding with France indirectly entailed, include, among other things, that a special control stamp (Poinçon Charançon) is affixed to Swiss gold and silver goods, as on those of other contracting states, when they are imported into France. If the goods with this stamp are exported from France, the reimbursement of the import taxes for the control of the fineness will be made.

On the Swiss side, the special service of the two control offices for gold and silver goods in Chaux-de-Fonds and Geneva, where all watches and cases imported into Switzerland were cleared through customs during the customs war, was canceled on January 1, 1896.

Of course, as a result of the agreement, the formality of the certificates of origin for goods from the contracting countries was no longer relevant.

There have been no significant changes in our contract relations with other countries. On September 21, 1895, we concluded an agreement with the German Reich regarding the Baden Bnclave community B ü singen, on the Rhine, in order to grant this small area, which is mainly dependent on traffic with Schaffhausen, some tariff relief friendly neighborly considerations are required. It also regulates the legal relationships in this area with regard to the arrest and transportation of those prosecuted.

They approved this agreement in the December session after viewing our message dated November 15 (Bundeabi. 1895, IV, 433). The ratification exchange took place on January 1, 1896: According to Art. 3, the agreement entered into force immediately.

The following compilations provide a general overview of our r e r h a n d e l s r e r a g e s, as well as our h a n d e l s r e r k e r s:

Federal Gazette. 48th year vol. II.

12

Swiss trade treaties, in force on February 1, 1896.

States

Discount

Enactment

Duration

publication

  1. S. n.F. XI, 341 Belgium July 3, 1889 December 29, 1889 1 year after Bulgaria was denounced. Through Kotenaas; aasch between then representatives of France to Sofia and the Bulgarian government, from January 31st, 18 th, Prankreich and Switzerland were assured of treatment on the level of the most favored nation.
  2. S. n. E. XI, 427 Congostaat November 16, 1889 and April 1890 10 years of Denmark. .
  3. February 1875 July 10th 1875 1 year after denunciation I, 668 Germany, HandelsverXII, 505 contract December 10th, 1891 February 1st, 1892 December 31st, 1903 Agreement regarding the Baden community of Büsingen. . . . September 21, 1895 January 1, 1896 1 year after notice XV, 345 Ecuador June 22, 1888 XI, 210 October 21, 1889 10 years France, provisional regulation of trade relations (note exchange / B.-B. 1895, III, 673 exchange) June 25, 1895 Without a definite duration August 19, 1895 \ AS n.P. XV, 204 Keglement regarding the Gex landscape (exchange of notes July 23, 1892) June 25, 1895 August 19, 1895 Without a definite duration AS n. E1. XV, 208 Neighborhood borders February 23, 1882 May 16, 1882 1 year after termination VI, 468 - additional article. . . June 25, 1895 August 29, 1895 Without definite duration, XV, 218 inches. Ratio between Geneva and the free zone January 1, 1883 30 years of Upper Savoy. . June 14, 1881 VI, 515 Greece June 10, 1887 June 10, 1887 1 year after Kündunsr XI. 357

States

Discount

Enactment

Duration

Great Britain . . . .

Hawaiian Islands.

. . .

Italy

September 6, 1855 July 20, 1864 April 19, 1892 February 6, 1864 April 26, 1867

March 6, 1856 February 26, 1869 June 19, 1892 February 6, 1864 April 26, 1867

1 year after termination 1 year after termination January 1, 1898 *) \ Under revision for a long time.

December 10, 1891 August 19, 1875 March 22, 1894 December 10, 1891 July 23, 1873 March 3, 1893 December 26, 1872 October 30, 1883 June 10, 1880 July 13, 1892 November 6, 1885

  1. February 1892 December 31, 1903 1 year after notice October 1, 1878 December 31, 1903 August 1, 1894 February 1, 1892 December 31, 1903 October 27, 1874 1 year after notice 1 year after notice May 13, 1893 1 year after notice October 30, 1873 February 7, 1885 1 year after notification June 10, 1880 1 year after notification January 1, 1894 December 31, 1897 November 18, 1887 10 years

Additional convention. . .

Liechtenstein (treaty with Austria-Hungary). .

Netherlands Austria-Hungary. . .

Russia Salvador Serbia

. . . .

South African Republic.

publication

  1. S.

.

  1. S.
  2. S.

,,

V, 271 IX, 497 n.F.XII, 029 VIII, 683 IX, 57

  1. S. n.F. XII, 564 III, 522 XIV, 326 XII, 564 I, 196 XIII, 422 A. S. XI, 376 A. S. n.F. VII, 744 V, 172 XIV, 2 X, 284

TUrkel. The contract of April 29, 1861, together with the conventional tariff, expired on March 13, 1890.In its place, a declaration dated March 22, 189 D has been issued by the Porte, stating that Swiss trade in the door is the treatment at the foot of it in the most favored category, provided that the Turkish trade in Switzerland receives the same treatment.

Ver. United States of America November 25, 1850 November 8, 1855 1 year after termination A. S. V, 201 *) Possibly, if the contract is not canceled at this point in time, until December 31, 1903.

Switzerland. Trade according to the contractual relationships (excluding unprocessed and minted precious metals).

Import.

1890. 1891. 1892. 1893.

1894.

Million francs.

239

289 207 127 102 4 729

286 204 134 86 4 714

222 -- 135 68 7 432

233 -- 142 76 9 460

140 80 11 470

approx. 57 29 34 32 approx. 9 10 approx. 6 approx. 177

52 31 47 24 10 7 6 177

52 41 49 20 9 11 5 187

53 38 55 21 10 9 5 191

51 35 56 23 9 6 5 185

23 23

171 62 233

103 55 158

95 50 145

Recapitulation.

714 432 460 177 187 191 651 891 619 23 233 158 914 852 809

470 185 655 145 800

approx. 20 approx. 20 729 177 906 20 926

1890.

1891.

1892.

1893.

1894.

Million francs.

Collective agreements.

Germany (France) Italy Austria- Hungary Spain

178 122 50 39 10 399

160 124 47 36 12 379

157 -- 45 37 11 250

164 -- 43 40 9 256

38 39 12 243

132 83 14 12 10 16 13 280

130 72 14 11 11 18 12 268

133 76 13 10 9 18 12 271

134 80 18 10 8 15 11 276

131 72 22 12 8 17 11 273

approx.

approx.

18 18

20 20

101 28 129

73 36 109

72 29 101

States with collective agreements, States with most-favored nation-nationals.

399 280 679 18 697

Recapitulation.

379 250 256 268 271 276 521 532 647 20 109 129 667 650 641

243 273 516 101 617

Main beneficiary agreements.

Great Britain and Colonies. . . . c a.

United States Bass Country Belgium. . . .

Netherlands and colonies. . . .

. approx.

Balkans.

. . .

Other states approx.

approx.

States without treaties.

France Other states

States without treaties Total

Total

00

O

Export.

154

Swiss trade between parts of the world (excluding unprocessed and minted precious metals).

1890.

Ein f n. Hi r.

1891. 1892. 1893.

Million francs.

867 15 7 35 2 --

850 14 8 40 2 --

731 15

926

914

1894.

695 Europe

5 --

697 12 35 59 5 --

852

808

800 total

39 62

12 Africa 31 Asia 58 America 4 Australia - indeterminable. . . .

1890.

  1. usi 1misi-.
  2. 1892 .

1893.

Francs.

millions

5 5 7 542 5 . .

4 . 28 29 2

3

--

--

515 5 28 97 2 3

Total 697

667

650

. . .

.

.106 . . .

.

.

.

88

500

5 28 104 2 2

641

1894.

491 6 26 91 2 2

617

182

II. Adequacy in international trade.

Of greater importance was a decree due to the judicial confiscation of an item of Swiss health crepe in the business premises of the company Hohl & Syz in Barcelona.

In Spain, in order to encourage the establishment of factories, in addition to patents for inventions, so-called manufacturing patents are also granted, which entitle the owner to manufacture any item, even if it is not new, throughout Spain for 5 years. A company that had acquired such a patent for health crepe mistakenly believed that these articles could not be brought into Spain without their permission and therefore obtained the above-mentioned seizure. If the courts had upheld this view, it would also encourage industrialists in Spain to solve manufacturing patents for other fabrics, embroidery, machines, clocks, colors, etc., and the greater part of our exports to Spain would be on one principle of international trade and the natural prerequisites of any commercial contract, the interpretation of a patent law has been paralyzed. We therefore felt compelled to protest against the judicial act in question through diplomatic channels. The Spanish government recognized the fundamental justification of this objection by giving us the declaration that the A r t i k e l G e s u n d h e i t s k r e p p could still be imported via the customs offices of the Kingdom and that the sale of this life was free throughout Spain. With reference to the special case of Hohl & Syz, however, it declared itself incompetent in its capacity as executive power to intervene in the course of the courts, pointing out that the latter had been called upon by the Hohl & Syz company itself; the company also had to wait for their decision and submit to it. Since then, the Court of Appeal in Barcelona has ordered the repeal of the sequester and has been confirmed by the Court of Cassation. It can be assumed that the material question still to be decided, whether the case of the appropriation of a patent exists, will be decided in the negative in accordance with the fundamental declaration of the government.

III. International exhibitions.

· O * Switzerland was not officially represented at any international exhibition in the year under review. Some Swiss houses took part

183 attended the international exhibition organized by the Philomatic Society in B o r d e a u x. Awards received: G v a n d p r i x: Factory of Maggis Food, Kepmtthal (Zurich).

E h r e n d i p l o m: Académie de Neuchâtel and Adolf Bühler, Maschinenfabrik, Utzwil.

G o l d e n e M e d a i l l e: Photochrom Zurich; Les Fils de R. Picard, fabricants d'horlogerie, La Chaux-de-Fonds; Schoen, oculariste, Genève; Carl Bürgin, furniture nail factory and metal foundry, Schaffhausen; Alfred Zehnder, dispatch of Birmenstorfer Bitterwasser.

S i l b e r n e M e d a i l l e: Vannerie de Moutier; Cornaz Frères, marchands de vins, Lausanne; Martini & Cie., Manufacture of iron goods, Frauenfeld; Kirsch & Fleckner, fabricants de vitraux, Friborg; Flury, S. P., Weinhandlung, Chur; Louis Mosset, fabrication d'absinthe et liqueurs, Couvet.

B r o n z e n e m e d a i l l e: La Suisse romande illustrée (Journal), Vevey; Joh. Badertscher, iron, glass and utensils dealership, Langnau; Louis Morand, distillery, Martigny-Croix; Masera brothers, timber trade, Winterthur.

O u n c o n k u r r e n ce: Aktiengesellschaft der Maschinenfabriken von Escher Wyß & Cie., Zurich; Berneralpen-Milchgesellschaft Stalden (Bern); Société Farine lactée Henri Nestlé, Vevey.

In t e n a t i o n a l e n special exhibitions we mention the following: P ar i s: 1. Exhibition for lithography, to celebrate the invention of lithography a hundred years ago.

2. Working exhibition.

W i e n: International machine and equipment market.

A m s t e r d a m: Hotel and Travel Exhibition.

L o n d o n: Culinary exhibition.

In September we were invited by the French ambassador in Bern to officially participate in the W e l t a u s t e l u n g i n P a r i a ordered by the decree of the President of the Republic of July 13, 1892 for the year 1900.

We have provisionally thanked the ambassador for the invitation and informed him that we will inform him of our decision after the usual investigations have been carried out.

184

IV. Commercial Vocational Training.

The number of trade schools subsidized by the Confederation or soon to be subsidized is 13 today and has more than doubled since our last report. A completely new business school was built in B e l l i n z o n a and inaugurated in autumn. The head of our Department of Foreign Affairs, Federal Councilor Lacheual, attended the celebrations. The school, whose management and teachers are entitled to the highest hopes, is installed in a special new building that meets all modern requirements, which is in every respect to the credit of the Canton of Ticino. It is of particular interest that the school is based on five annual courses, of which the last two are to be carried out in the form of a model bank (banco modello). In A a r a u, a new three-class commercial school will be opened in the spring as a department of the canton school in the latter's new building. In autumn, the third year course foreseen in the law of February 19, 1892 "sur l'instruction publique secondaire" began in Lausanne. The commercial departments of the Cantonal School in C hur, the Realschule in Lucerne and the Industrial School in Zurich will be established Currently converted into three-class commercial schools with separate lessons in the commercial subjects.In St. G allen, the three-class mercantile department of the cantonal school, which has existed since 1842, is also being reformed in various ways and enriched by several subjects.

Our wishes regarding the separation of lessons, the addition of certain subjects and the division into large classes have been taken into account in a gratifying manner by all schools up to now.

The parallelization of strong classes is now carried out everywhere.

Of the older commercial schools, only the one in B a s e l is still without a federal subsidy. Since it already had three annual courses before the federal decision on the promotion of commercial education and, for the time being, no reforms associated with additional expenditure are to be introduced, it has, in accordance with the principle of our regulations, that the already existing burdens of the cantons etc. are not reduced by the federal subsidy may experience, no claim to federal support and so far no such.

The number of students is included everywhere in the increase. The main focus of the school management is on improving the attendance of the upper classes.

185 aim. This can best be done, as is actually the case, by gradually winning over the merchants, pupils who have completed a three-class business school, a shortening of the previously usual apprenticeship period or a small salary after your first or second Grant years of apprenticeship. The less well-to-do parents who make sacrifices for their sons to attend school for a longer period of time do not wrongly expect a certain consideration of the greater productivity that the better schooling results in.

Incidentally, we grant students with no means of means, who are characterized by hard work, behavior and intelligence, ti p e n d i e n for attending the upper classes. We also facilitate theoretical and practical training in foreign schools and commercial buildings for those wishing to devote themselves to the teaching profession. We ensure that none of our scholarship holders take up a teaching post without having acquired the amount of knowledge and ability through prolonged practice that gives them the necessary security and full authority in front of the students as well as the school authorities and the merchants. The oldest scholarship holder, formerly a student at the commercial school in Basel, completed the three annual courses with federal aid, as well as the specialist teacher course at the royal commercial school in Venice and last autumn received the teaching diploma for Italian secondary schools as the third among twelve applicants; At the moment he is with our support in a bank in Brussels as a volunteer. Another scholarship holder attended the upper courses of the Institut supérieur de commerce in Antwerp after completing the commercial school of the technical center in Winterthur and last summer received the diploma of this school with distinction. The same is currently as a trainee in a bank in Paris and also attends the lectures at the Ecole libre des sciences politiques. Two younger scholarship holders, one from the business school in Bern, the other from the one in Solothurn, are taking the third course at the business school in Neuchâtel, mainly for the purpose of fully acquiring the French language, and intend to do one for the purpose of training as a business teacher to take a similar path as the above, as did a third-grade student at the technical center in Winterthur. A scholarship holder with a French tongue, after earning his first class diploma from the commercial school in Neuchâtel last autumn, chose the higher commercial school in Leipzig to continue his studies and to perfect his German language.

186

The commercial apprenticeship examinations, which, as we mentioned in last year's annual report, were organized in 1894 with our help from the Central Coruite of the Swiss Commercial Association, are in Aarau, Basel, Bern, Lausanne, Lugano, Neuchâtel and St. Gallen in the reporting year and Zurich was held for the first time. Out of 158 candidates, 149 received their diplomas. The requirements for these first exams were kept as modest as possible, but will now be increased slightly from year to year until they represent the full extent of the knowledge and skills that VOD can expect from a young tradesman who is entitled to a paid job . Apart from this practical goal, the apprenticeship examination provides the prospective businessman with a means of self-knowledge and encourages learning, while on the other hand it prompts some principals to pay more attention than before to the training of their apprentices, because obtaining the diploma is not just for the latter, but also for themselves, is a matter of honor. As a result, exams will also be held in Bellinzona, Biel, Lucerne and Winterthur.

A f i n a n z i e l l e r s i h t can currently only be given for the commercial schools. The associations of young merchants do not close their accounts until the spring, and until we have the latter, we only grant advances, because the invoices tend to deviate considerably from the budgets of many associations due to the fluctuating number of courses and course participants. The financial circumstances of the H a n d e l s c h u l e n were as follows:

187 teaching

ilonorare and teaching aids.

Contributions total ijoa state and l would spend.

Parish ?.

Fr.

Fr.

25,490

Chaux-de-Fonds Geneva. . . .

Lausanne. . , Neuchâtel. . . .

Solothurn. .

Winterthur. .

26.367 41.490 7, S40 49.294 14.009 23.994

29,944 35,009 54,172 11,965 68,122 17,596 28,095

1895 1894 1893 1892 1891

188,584 154,200 146,035 121,499 66,342

244,903 201,136 183,812 156,744 98,590

Fr.

Buudes pupil.

subsidy.

School fees.

Fr.

Fr.

18,359 3,085 23,409 2.

26,980 14,192 4,015 5,300 30,073 23,049 12,346 250 3,300 17,295 133,762 113,197 108,:<42 89,326

47,891 38,589 26,860

8,500 11,600

13,000 2,650 15,000 5,000 7,500 63,250 49,350 46,800 38,500 22,916

65 !}

35 124 59»)

149 50*)

60 542 432 6) 406 c) 407 6)

Liability rates.

Federal tuition subsidy.

Äu fees.

%? every student meets et 0 /% - -. '°. -. the state and educational community of the entire educational community.

honorai-, expenses.

expenditure.

^ onorare.

strage.

Fr.

Fr.

.

.

.

.

85 75 76 66 72 80 85

33 44 31 33 30 35 31

46 50 48 50 50 40 43

392 753 334 e) 330 280 400

Average 1895 1894 1893 1892 1891

77 77 79 77 67

33 32 32 32 30

47 43 43 43

374 357 360 298

Bern Chaux-de-Fonds Geneva Lausanne. .

Neuchâtel. .

Solothurn. .

Winterthur. .

460

1000

437 6 ) 460 352 468 507 466 453 385

') Including 9 interns. 2) Contribution of the Bureau for Gold and Silver Control. s) Including 33 interns. *) Including 14 interns. 5) The students of the business school in Lausanne do not appear in this number of students, because the same was only eligible for subsidies at the beginning of the school year 1895/96 as a result of the opening of a third annual course. 6) For the reason given under 5), these ratios cannot yet be compared with those of the other schools.

188

Y. Official Gazette of Commerce.

The paying subscribers have increased by 248 in the past year; their total number at the end of the year was 3531. The number of subscribers is gradually approaching that in the first year of the publication of the paper (1883), which was the highest at 4300; it was lowest in 1887 with 2542. The total circulation in the reporting year was 5400 copies. 1,220 copies are given free of charge to the debt enforcement and bankruptcy authorities, 540 copies to the cantonal commercial register offices, members of the Federal Assembly, embassies and consulates, commercial schools and young merchants' associations, federal administration offices, etc. Without this large number of free copies, the paper would result in a not inconsiderable surplus of income. The P r i v a t i n s e r a t e have increased by 73 pages, the income for them by CHF 5961. The total income for private advertisements in the reporting year was CHF 20.710, 1894 CHF 14.749, 1883 (first year of publication) CHF 3449.

The total income (including the fifth of the trade register fees due to the federal government and the contributions that the banknote inspectorate and the intellectual property office credit to the commercial gazette for the publication of their notices) amounted to CHF 76.121. 30, the total expenditure to CHF 69,721. 05. The excess of the income is thus around CHF 6400.

VI. Commercial travelers.

In 1895 ID cards were issued to 19,118 commercial travelers (1894: 18.653; 1893: 21.316). 14,562 travelers represented Swiss, 4,556 foreign houses, including 3,246 German ones. Among the articles, the food and luxury goods, with 5891 travelers (wine 2807), and also textile goods, with 3390 travelers, are most strongly represented.

1556 t a x p f l i c h t i g e cards were purchased, 562 of which were collectively (i.e. those which are for several travelers in the same house and which can be used alternately by one or another of these travelers). The income from patent taxes amounted to CHF 221,700 (1894: 209,200; 1893: 310,650). The license to carry goods was granted to 93 trading houses, mostly for watches, gold and silver goods, precious stones and plastering goods.

189 The following compilations contain more detailed information: 1895.

1894.

1893.

Total number of travelers. . . . 19.118 18.653 21.316 N a t i o n a l i t ity of the travelers, resp.