What are values ​​and ethics

Values: 5 types + value list with 25 examples

Values, changing values, moral values ​​and ethical values ​​are just a few of the concepts from the field of values ​​that are constantly appearing in common parlance. But it is often not at all clear what exactly the terms mean. In the following we will show you what values ​​are, how they are created, what types of values ​​there are, and provide a list of the most important values.

Definition: what are values?

In the Economy try that Value of a good about measuring its scarcity. The scarcer a good is, the more it is in demand and the more valuable it is - according to economic value theory.

In the following we focus on values in an ethical sense. So is values another term for Moral concepts. They denote in common parlance Properties or qualities of objects, ideas, ideals, facts, patterns of action, character traits or goods, which are considered worthwhile and morally good within a community of values. Values ​​should create orientation and focus on meaningful importance.

Other synonyms for values ​​are Principle, ideals and Principles respectively Life principles.

How are values ​​created?

Values ​​are passed on over generations

Values ​​are usually passed on to the next generation passed on. They are mediated by parents, religion or society. By Reactions like confirmation, punishment or disregard, we learn which behavior is desirable in our society and which is not. Also through Observe From the behavior of others, one can deduce which values ​​are predominant.

Types of values

Values ​​can be divided into different categories depending on the context. you can relate to a single person or to a whole group. This group can be defined in different ways. For example, values ​​can refer to the common views or beliefs of a family or an entire society. Below you will find a selection of different types of values.

Core values

The preferred values ​​of a society give rise to thought patterns, beliefs and behavior patterns. The basic values ​​of a person or a society are called core values. A common catalog of basic values ​​within a society is Prerequisite for a functioning coexistence.

Core values ​​of the EU

As a rule, these basic values ​​of a society are difficult to determine because there are deviations within the group of people. The EU has the fundamental values ​​of the European Union in Article 2 of the Treaty on European Union set.

Core values ​​of the EU

These core values ​​are:

  • human dignity
  • freedom
  • democracy
  • equality
  • Rule of law
  • Respect for human rights (including minority rights)

Personal values

In addition to the underlying values ​​in a society, everyone has individual personal values. Sometimes you are more, sometimes less aware of the development of these values. You should therefore regularly think about which values ​​you want to live by and whether your actions correspond to these values.

In the course of life these can become individual Change values. This can happen with increasing age, changed life situations, new knowledge or strokes of fate. Maybe at a young age it is important to you to have success in your job and to earn a lot of money. After starting a family, you may find it more important to spend more time with your family. After a serious illness, health may come first.

There can also be existing values ​​with one another to compete. An example of this could be the values ​​of success and family. On the one hand, you might want to climb the career ladder and devote a lot of time to your job, but on the other hand, you also want to be there for your family and spend time with them.

So these two values ​​are in conflict with each other and you cannot fully pursue both. Accordingly, you have to make compromises in at least one of the values ​​so that they are compatible with each other. Make yourself aware of which value is where for you personally and adjust your actions accordingly.

Material values

In order to clarify what material values ​​are, we should first consider the distinction between the concepts of ideal and material value.

A ideal value is a subjective valuewhich, due to an emotional connection to the concrete or abstract object, represents a higher value than it actually has from a material point of view.

On the other hand he thinks material value just the value that is also talked about in the economy, i.e. the economic value. The material value can be measured quantitatively and corresponds to the exchange ratio of another economic object.

Material value versus ideal value of an heirloom

The difference can be easily illustrated using a specific example:

Your late grandmother left you a clock. The watch means a lot to you and you always wear it with you. One day you bump into someone while shopping and the watch breaks. You will get the watch replaced. However, you will only get the material damage reimbursed, i.e. the material value of the watch, which is 80 euros. However, you do not feel satisfied with this payment, as the watch was worth much more to you personally. The ideal value so lay for you above the material value the clock.

Examples of material values ​​are:

  • capital
  • Property
  • Makes
  • prosperity

Post-material values

Post-materialism comes from Latin and means something like post-materialism. Accordingly, post-material values ​​are those that are not the pursuit of the tangible material, but that Striving for what is behind, the superior, have as their subject.
So post-materialists put these abstract, higher values ​​above material values.

Examples of post-material values ​​are:

Christian values

Values ​​that are related to Christianity are called Christian values. In that case the Christian faith is the foundation for the social action resulting from the values. Accordingly, Christian values ​​and norms can usually be derived from the Bible. Religious people orient their way of life according to these values ​​in order to establish Life pleasing to God to live.

Examples of Christian values

Examples of Christian values ​​are:

  • Faith
  • compassion
  • Justice and justice
  • Enemy love
  • Charity
  • Ten Commandments

Also the Ten Commandments are values ​​of the Christian faith that are written down in the form of concrete norms. So the first commandment is the value of the Protection of religion with the appropriate norm “I am the Lord your God. You shall not have other gods besides me ”. The third commandment deals with the Protection of the holiday, with the norm “You shall keep the holiday holy”.

There are also Christian values ​​that coincide with the basic values ​​of a higher society. For example, the fifth and seventh commandments, whose norms say “you shall not kill” and “you shall not steal,” include the Values ​​of life and property. These values ​​are necessary for the functioning of a society, regardless of the Christian faith.

Value systems

Concrete values ​​that are highly regarded in a specific area can be combined into a complex. These Values ​​collections are called value systems. They can arise on an individual level, in interest groups or within a society.

A friendship is based on shared values

In the following you will find some examples of value systems with a selection of associated values:

  • Democracy: Equality, freedom, justice
  • Success:Discipline, determination, reliability
  • Family: Caring, charity, security, affection
  • Friendship: Honesty, appreciation, helpfulness, sympathy
  • Prosperity: Success, security, freedom, health

Change in values

Values ​​are usually passed on to subsequent generations. In contrast to attitudes, values ​​are more stable, nonetheless vary the prevailing values ​​in some societies constantly. This change in values ​​is known as a change in values.

In developed liberal societies For example, a change from the prevailing values ​​of "wealth" and "property" to the values ​​of "self-realization" and "communication" can be observed, i.e. a Change from material to post-material values.

Values ​​that seem to be decisive for one's own existence are generally quite stable. As already mentioned, the values ​​of an individual person can also change in the course of life. Then that person goes through you personal change in values.

Conflicts of values

Certain values ​​can conflict with one another

Apparently there are values ​​that are or are in conflict with other values each other at least partiallyexclude. The relationship between the values ​​‘Prosperity’ and Sustainability ’is often cited as an example. In the short term, these values ​​appear to be incompatible, since it appears that pursuing prosperity neglects sustainability and maintaining sustainability suffers from prosperity.

However, attention must be paid to what level one is at the contemplation. While prosperity and sustainability short term seem to rule out they are long term compatible, since no prosperity can be achieved without sustainability. On the other hand, there are also values ​​that generally seem to be compatible with each other, but get into conflict in certain situations.

In the case of value conflicts, a distinction is made between the general conflict of abstract values ​​in themselves and between the concrete normative conflict of goalsthat arises situationally. A large part of all conflicts, especially political, business, interpersonal and self-conflict, arise because of different values.

In addition to value conflicts within a society, there is again the personal conflict of valuesnamely when different values ​​of a single person partially contradict each other and are not completely compatible with each other.

Hierarchy of values

So there are situations in which you cannot pursue all values ​​equally. Accordingly, a Consideration occur, whereupon the values ​​are ranked in their importance. What this weighting looks like depends on the particular situation or culture.

Again, there is a distinction between Values ​​within a society, which are classified according to their importance for living together and the Weighing up an individual's personal values.

values ​​and standards

Corresponding norms can be derived from values

Values ​​can be turned into social Norms, so concrete rules for social action, derive. While values ​​are thus general goal orientations of action, norms are the rules for action that arise from them.

Depending on the importance you can choose between Must, should and can norms distinguish. While compliance with some standards is imperative, some are expected and others welcome.

Examples:

You have to Pay for goods that you take from the supermarket.

You should Be polite to the cashier.

You can Bring your own bag for your groceries instead of using a plastic bag.

In order for norms to be adhered to, society exercises a social control on their members. The more important a norm is for the functioning of society, the stricter it is to enforce compliance. Compliance can be achieved through a strong internalization about the education or through Threats of penalties be secured in the event of non-compliance. Each society determines the institutions that exercise these sanctions, such as the police in a whole country or the leadership position in a company.

Example:

Value: honesty

Norm: "You shouldn't lie.” / “You should always tell the truth.

Ethical values ​​and moral values

Ethics refers to the philosophical discipline that deals with the study of morality. ethics so is the Science of morality. A moral is a A system of standards that focuses on correct action and that is universal. Moral therefore means morally good, i.e. according to a norm. Ethical, on the other hand, means moral science.

So usually is from moral values talking about Values ​​that are considered correct in a society and are a prerequisite for well-groomed social interaction. The adjective ‘ethical’, on the other hand, only describes dealing with morality. In addition, the adjective is neutral. So one cannot speak of unethical behavior, but one can speak of immoral behavior.

In reality, however, the terms are often used synonymously. One speaks of ethical values, although one actually means moral values.

List of values

Below is a list of examples of moral values ​​with their corresponding norms.

valuestandard
recognition "You should treat others with appreciation and appreciation!"
Humility "You should be satisfied with what is available to you!"
gratitude"You should appreciate the positive feeling that people or things give you!"
honesty "You shouldn't lie!"
empathy"You should empathize with the situation and attitudes of other people!"
freedom "You shouldn't deprive anyone of freedom and opportunities!"
friendliness "You should communicate with others as if they were your friend!"
peace
"You should solve conflicts without violence!"
justice "You should treat everyone equally!"
health "You should strive for physical and mental integrity!"
courtesy"You should show courteous and civil behavior!"
humor
"You should make others laugh!"
integrity"You should act according to your values!"
creativity"You should create and invent things!"
Life "You should not kill!"
loyalty"You should behave faithfully and supportively towards people and groups!"
compassion "You should take part in the situation of others!"
sustainability"You should honor and protect nature!"
punctuality"You should keep to the agreed times!"
respect
"You should respect other individuals!"
solidarity "You should pay attention to your membership in a community in your actions!"
security "You should strive for a state free from dangers and risks!"
tolerance"You should tolerate differences!"
responsibility"You should fulfill the tasks and duties you have taken on in such a way that they take the best possible course and take the resulting consequences on you!"
reliability "You should act safely and trustworthily and fulfill what has been promised!"

Denial of binding values

A person who denies all moral values ​​becomes nihilist called. The associated worldview, nihilism, rejects the validity of any order of being, knowledge, value and society. Accordingly, the individual has absolute priority, since virtually everything is allowed to him and nothing is forbidden.

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