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who is the man
behind the genius?
Like strokes of fate
make us sick
Replaces the cell phone
finally the cash?
Under the spell of
Science moves us
How it controls us - and why we cannot trust it
The fight about
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Photos by Su Blackwell; Private
As our author Christian Schüle
a story about remembering
suggested he did not report on
latest studies by neuroscientists
and psychologists, but told
of a smell: Whenever
he smells mowed grass, overpowers it
him the memory of his
first love - and that
how he was abandoned by her.
Why does a fragrance send us up
the journey into the past?
Schüle set out to search
after an explanation. All over
read the magic of memory
You in our cover story
(Page 16). - That buying one
Cell phones finance a civil war
can be one of the side effects
What researchers in Hanover
have to do with it explains that
Dossier on the raw materials crisis
(Page 71). -- Your TIME Knowledge editing
Su Blackwell has the little ones
Works of art for our cover story
created. Almost two and a half
The British woman worked for weeks
with her team at the four
Max Rauner accompanied Heiko
Biedermann into a tunnel
from GDR times. The miner
blows the way here
free for the first German ore mine
What the eye
The New York neurologist
explores the context
of visual perception and
Translated from the English by Hainer Kober
288 pages. Bound
€ 19.95 (D) / € 20.60 (A) / sFr. 30.50 (RRP)
© Dirk Reinartz
6 02 2011
The smell of mown grass is sometimes enough to evoke images from the past. page 16
Like the memory
s 06 to s 07
It creates feelings of happiness, magical
Moments and also emotional pain -
and makes us human
who we are. Brain researchers and psychologists
are the secret of memory
on the track. They investigate, like ours
Brain stores and retains experiences,
which is why sometimes images and feelings
reappear from the past
- and why we don't always give them
16 Under the spell of memory
Scientists fathom the puzzling one
Code of the ego.
20 Be a child again
Try using hypnosis
Therapists, the earliest
To bring back memories.
26 Unreliable Witnesses
Why there is no objective memory
and how psychologists want to recognize
whether witnesses are telling the truth in court.
Picture (left) Artwork Su Blackwell, photo Metz + Racine
Cover photo Alexandra Kinga Fekete, hair & make-up Stefan Kehl / Close up Agency, styling Edyta Kopcio / Perfect Props, models Eveline Hall / Deebeephunky and Mareike / Studio7
Photos Bernhard Edmaier; Timothy Archibald; Larry Sultan / Gallery Stock; Sebastian Arlt
Deep furrows shape the shape of the Alps. you
are not the only consequence of erosion. page 36
30 What was important, what will be important
32 Hawkings back man
Leonard Mlodinow staged
Stephen Hawking as the pop star
36 Gallery: open at the top
The Alps are still growing in
the height. Why?
46 The sky over Berlin
Hobby meteorologists vie
with supercomputers for the best
Weather forecast. Who wins?
50 What was important, what will be important
52 When the heart breaks
Also bring mental stress
healthy hearts out of sync.
58 Poison in the basin
How harmful is that to health
Water in swimming pools?
60 Between the chairs
Jürgen Windeler is Germany
top drug examiner.
Can he oppose the pharmaceutical lobby and
64 What was important, what will be important
66 Cash registers ringing
Pay by mobile phone -
how the vision will come true after all.
82 Simply understand more:
Times table of protest
The main rules, facts and
Tips on demonstrations.
84 What was important, what will be important
86 My feelings and me
Create fear, anger, or shame
life is often difficult for us. How
can we get it under control?
Third part of the learning series.
92 Another reality
The photographer Timothy Archibald
tells in the interview how he access
found his autistic son.
The autistic Elijah has one with his father
touching photo project made. page 92
Forms in the chlorinated water of swimming pools
Substances that may be carcinogenic. page 58
The digital wallet has been around for a long time
promised. Is it finally coming? page 66
Dossier: Raw materials crisis
German companies are sounding the alarm: Industry
run out of raw materials. Soon it won't
Electronic parts more for cell phones, computers or
Be able to manufacture electric cars?
72 Sold out
Geologists are supposed to make German industry out
help the raw material crisis.
75 Scarce raw materials for Europe
Where do the most important metals come from.
76 The treasure in the deep sea
The first companies mine metal from the sea.
78 Deep in the east
The high raw material prices make for a
The renaissance of mining in the Ore Mountains.
11 Pros & Cons
13 What are you working on right now?
14 What became of ...
Expert advice / short and sweet
15 Living with Science
70 puzzles / reader forum / imprint
101 Kiosk / Media
104 Buy / Don't Buy
106 I want to know:
topics announced on the cover
probably the smallest frog
Zoologists recently entered the Atlantic world
Northeastern Brazil's rainforest discovered.
The flea toad Brachycephalus pulex
does not measure from mouth to rump
once an inch - and undercuts
so that the brand of other mini frogs that
Until now, researchers thought they were the smallest
including that recorded in the Guinness Book
Monte Iberia frogs. Although the search
is difficult, researchers always discover
more frog species in miniature format. photo
Iuri Ribeiro Dias
Photo Daniel Heuclin / Photoshot / NHPA
the biggest frog in the world is that
Conraua goliath, the one with outstretched legs
even to a length of up to 80 centimeters
comes. He lives on large, clear ones
Rivers in the West African rainforest.
Some copies bring more than
three kilos on the scales. Before their greatest
However, this does not protect them from the enemy, on the contrary:
Among the residents of the area
the goliath frog is considered a delicacy. Because
People eat it and its habitat
destroy it, it is critically endangered.
10 02 2011
this hummingbird with his
Wings to look at his
Nectar meal in the air
to keep in one place.
The vortex of air that he is doing
produced, researchers have
from the University of Montana
with a high speed camera
and olive oil
made visible: you
atomized the finest oil particles
and shone with them
a laser. The recordings
were on the computer
edited: you do
the air speed
measurable and show where
vortices, buoyancy and
Form resistances that
the bird slide or stand still
to let. The explorers
want to find out how
Birds within seconds
Speed and direction
vary in flight.
s 10 to s 15
What does an anarchist traffic light do?
Professor Lämmer, you invented a traffic light
decides when it shows green. What happens there?
With us, the traffic controls the traffic lights, not the other way around:
Detectors measure whether many cars are approaching.
From this, our algorithms calculate a type
Print. Where the traffic presses the most, it will open
Switched green. Buses push harder than cars.
Isn't that where anarchy breaks out?
That was actually a problem in previous approaches.
But if green and red phases within
remain certain limits, that can be solved.
And what are the advantages?
The traffic light is equipped for all traffic situations. And the
Waiting times are shortened for all participants.
Can you prove it?
We have the area around the train station in Mitte
Dresden simulated on the computer, 13 complexes
Intersections, and with the conventional traffic light control
compared. The waiting times were shortened
with self-controlled traffic lights by more than half
for buses and trams to get more than one
Third for pedestrians and cyclists and at least
by nine percent for cars.
The only thing missing is the practical test.
We are on. In which city we do it
but I can't reveal it. The topic is sensitive.
teaches traffic science
at the technical
University of Dresden.
Photo Bret Tobalske
Illustrations by Anje Jager
Should we make our nuclear waste harmless?
high level radioactive waste can be reduced to less by irradiation
convert hazardous substances. EU-financed pilot plants cause controversy.
per nuclear waste from nuclear power plants radiates to
Partly for millions of years. This highly radioactive
Lots of people want to collect waste as quickly and permanently as possible
seal a repository. There is an alternative:
Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T). Underneath
one understands the chemical separation of the highly radioactive
Elements from a spent fuel assembly
and their irradiation with neutrons. The
This reduces the amount of highly radioactive substances
and the nuclear waste that is disposed of
develops less heat of decay. Thereby
the long-term safety of a repository is increased.
That P&T works in principle was made in
Laboratory proven. European pilot plants, for
Example in Belgium and France, intended to show that
the technique can also be used for larger quantities.
With the help of transmutation one could even generate energy
win. Not in today's nuclear power plants,
but in fourth generation nuclear power plants,
which are currently still being planned. And if one
Society does not want to build new nuclear power plants,
one could also put the highly radioactive waste in plants
irradiate specifically for the purpose of transmutation
to be developed.
Waste recycling is an important goal in Europe.
P&T could finally do sustainable waste management
also make it possible for nuclear waste. Concetta Fazio
contra transmutation, i.e. conversion
highly radioactive waste in waste with a shorter half-life,
will not be dated to us any time soon
Free nuclear waste. We're talking about basic research,
which, if at all, will take several decades
will be ready for use. None of today's
Nuclear power plants worldwide will use this
Experience technology. Highly radioactive waste will be
leave them anyway. Already today there are worldwide
Tens of thousands of tons of it, and coming every year
about 12,000 tons. Hard to imagine that
our descendants will eliminate this inheritance
can - or want to.
The technology would also be a new nuclear one
Infrastructure with special nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants
for fuel assemblies require
including radioactive emissions into the environment that
yes, even with today's reprocessing, apparently
Instead of technology-loving utopias, we need
finally concrete repositories for our waste. These
must be according to high security standards in long-term stable
geological formations are built,
to waste from the biosphere over very long periods of time
keep away. To leave them in interim storage
to hope for an undeveloped technology,
cannot be an alternative. Stefan Alt
© 2011 kabel eins, www.kabeleins.de
License by: MM MerchandisingMedia GmbH, www.merchandisingmedia.com
© 2011 polyband Medien GmbH. All rights reserved.
Concetta Fazio coordinates
nuclear safety research
at the research center
Stefan Alt heads the working group
at the Öko-Institut Darmstadt.
Better to annoy than
The number of
treatment errors not.
Time to do something about it yourself.
Underground Health Commissioner John Dalli has
the problem not only in a nutshell:
»Arises in the European Union
every tenth medical treatment
a damage in the hospital
for the patient. Lots of these medical
Medical errors are avoidable. «The statement,
recently appeared in the world also kindled
a public discussion on patient safety.
And that's a good thing: Whether the wrong operated leg,
the infection with dangerous germs or mixed up
Medication - happen in the hospital
bad mistakes again and again. You know that
not just since Dalli's warning, and there is in Germany
also have made a lot of efforts to reduce the error rate
to reduce. A hospital hygiene law is to be introduced in the summer
come into effect. Also a seal of quality
is intended for hospitals that have a
low infection rate and a high standard of hygiene
to have. Numerous institutions have become
also prescribed for patient safety, such as that
Patient safety alliance. And many hospitals
have introduced bug reporting systems to it
provides a comprehensive medical error register
uniform federal statistics, various checklists and
Recommendations for action or the training concept, for example
Patient safety of the German Medical Association.
The effect of the commendable engagement is so far
but low - the number of proven medical errors
has hardly changed over the years.
The expert commissions and arbitration boards
at the medical associations show year after year
more than 2000 medical errors after, far more
do not even appear in the statistics.
It is no longer enough to just be the medical profession
trying to avoid the mistakes - the patient
have to take matters into their own hands,
do not want them to be victims of wrong treatment
become. The Swiss Foundation for Patient Safety
has now started an action that aims to do just that
Has. She is testing one in twelve Swiss hospitals
Brochure with recommendations for action for patients.
During the admission interview, the clinic staff will give you the hand
it out and encourages the patient, yes
report a suspected bug. In the brochure
you are advised to ask, for example,
whether doctors and nurses disinfect their hands
have exactly how the planned surgery
expire or what the new tablet on the bedside table
should effect. Patients should be careful
that physicians and nurses give them their real names
address or correct leg before surgery
to mark. True to the motto: Better to be annoying than
That is the right approach for two reasons.
On the one hand, it is good against patient fears. A
Forsa survey at the end of 2009 showed that there were more than
half of all Germans before going to a clinic
fears that at the top of the list is 65 percent
Fear of malpractice. Are the patients active?
involved, they no longer feel defenseless
delivered. On the other hand, doctors and nurses become
more mindful. If that's the safety in hospitals
improved, everyone helped. Ragnhild Schweitzer
Some pathogens that are
spread in the hospital,
are against antibiotics
resistant and therefore
just difficult to deal with.
The consequence can be serious
Be infected, some patients
even die from
especially old people and
those with a susceptible
Immune system. example for
is a dangerous germ
Staphylococcus aureus bacterium,
better known under
its abbreviation MRSA.
and arbitration boards
Sit in these institutions
independent experts who
Patients and doctors free of charge
advise on suspicion
Medical malpractice. You appraise
the cases and try
to settle them so that
those involved do not
have to go to court.
When doctors shake hands
disinfect, do that with
an alcoholic agent.
It will be thorough on everyone
Surfaces of the hands rubbed
and not dried off.
This removes pathogens
so effective that they don't
to be more widespread
- and is much better than
just wash your hands.
You can do this yourself to avoid mistakes
“Have your hands
disinfected? ”This simple one
Question to the doctor can
Schmitt or Schmitz?
Listen, ask and
correct ensures that
one is also meant.
Don't swallow everything
comes on the bedside table,
but rather with any means
ask what it is for.
Illustrations by Anja Haas
Photo MPI for Chemical Ecology
what are you working on at the moment?
Desert ants "
In the Tunisian salt desert
study biologists, like ants
find the way home.
Markus Knaden marks the observation field.
Once a year the dried up
Salt lake near Menzel Chaker in Tunisia
Laboratory. Observe at up to 50 degrees
we here, like desert ants after foraging for food
find their way back to the nest. Usually the entrance is
just a tiny hole in the ground. Still find it
the ants there by almost the shortest route. With
Paint we paint a grid on the sand,
to then die with a terminal block and box paper
Track the route of the animals. Of course there are others
Methods like GPS and video tracking. But because of
the accuracy and because the devices in the heat
quickly giving up the ghost, we end up again and again
at the box paper. Recently we were able to show
that ants not only, as previously thought, about one
Kind of pedometer in place and out in the sun and
orientate towards landmarks such as plants and stones,
but also of smells. You remember the position
certain smells and their removal to the
Nest. To test this, we have the sand around the
Entrance around dripped with various fragrances.
When we changed the arrangement of these tracks
the ants could no longer find the hole. Back
in Jena, let's examine ants we brought with us,
which system prevails, if about
contradict visual stimuli and smells. With the help of
We try to use dyes to stimulate neuronal activity
to make different brain areas visible.
Sometimes our insights find their way into
other research fields. Some robots orientate
still modeled on the ants:
using landmarks and compass.
They just can't smell it yet.
Bad Homburg v. d. height
Shipbreaking # 13 (Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2000) © Edward Burtynsky,
Courtesy Stefan Röpke, Cologne + Nicholas Metivier, Toronto www.altana-kulturstiftung.de
As a child he watched
his grandfather birds and
got enthusiastic about them early on
Biology. Today is Markus
Knaden behavioral biologist
at the Max Planck Institute for
chemical ecology in Jena.
Researched there and in Tunisia
he the desert ant Cataglyphis
what became of ...
... the victory over
A broken dream: In the
In the seventies, they wanted that
abolish cancer death.
"It is time to defeat this disease."
US President Richard Nixon 1971
How can you learn that
to ask the right questions?
he started war on cancer
40 years ago with Richard
Nixon's speech on the state of the
Nation: January 22, 1971
he announced a national
Effort to »this
to conquer gruesome disease «. end of
Year he stalled with the National Cancer
Act the budget of the National Cancer Institute
considerably on. The "war on cancer" was henceforth
Faith, a nation, the people
can send to the moon, will too
Defeating cancer seems pretty naive today.
But 40 years ago no one suspected how complicated it was
the disease is in truth. And
believed with the introduction of chemotherapy
one the tried and tested remedy for tumors
to have already found. By the year 2000
cancer mortality should be halved.
Nothing came of it.
In the fight against individual types of cancer
the campaign achieved great success, with many
others progress stagnates. After all
Cancer mortality is falling in the
Industrialized countries for about ten years gradually,
although due to increasing life expectancy
more people get sick. The
experience decisive phase in the cancer war
we probably only now: In large research projects
are responsible for all types of tumors
Gene defects tracked down to
to develop targeted drugs. The
So war goes on. Ulrich Bahnsen
Sybille Martensen, by email
Questions are guides to possible answers. And since you don't know the answers beforehand, you give
there are also no rigid rules according to which one could formulate a correct question. Albert Einstein
for example, asked himself: What would the world look like if I could ride a ray of light? On the
At first glance an absurd question, but with the theory of relativity it leads to a highly interesting answer
led. Good questioners have the courage to question supposed certainties. This can sometimes
even a brainstorming session can help, in which all questions and answers are allowed. Important: Lead
Do not submit your questions with the comment "I have a stupid question". If after a short time
If you know the answer yourself, a question may be superfluous. Holm Tetens
Prof. Dr. Holm Tetens teaches philosophy at the Free University of Berlin. He is a specialist in argumentation theory.
Do you have a question for science? Send this to [email protected]
short and good
Researchers have a bacterium
found that made of sugar
and nitrogen among others
Hydrogen makes and of it
produced ten times more
than other microorganisms.
The aim is to use hydrogen as a
Substitute for fossil fuels
to be produced in bioreactors.
About 30 percent of all breast cancers
prevent: by more
Exercise and renunciation
on hormone replacement therapy.
That resulted in a three year old
Study in Germany.
Anyone during a recession
was born, suffers in
Age even stronger among the
Consequences of strokes of fate
or diseases as anyway
beautiful. They could be to blame
harsh conditions during
be of brain development.
A large breakfast helps
not when losing weight. A
new study found that people
at noon and in the evening
eat the same amount of calories,
no matter if they ate a lot of breakfast
have or not. Many calories
beat in the morning
therefore rather negative.
Illustration Anje Jager
live with science
Panic before puberty
Andreas Sentker is
Editor of TIME Knowledge
and Head of Knowledge
the TIME. In every issue
he discovers science in
our everyday life.
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every day I expect the first signs:
the pimples, that rebellious look
that suddenly occurring, complete
Inability to make decisions, the break-in
appalling stupidity in a straight line
An educational biography in the making
e. Or maybe the length of stay will be before
the deodorant shelf in the supermarket is crucial
Be a clue: my son is going through puberty. since
science has embraced this phase of life
panic seizes me at the thought.
At the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in
Frankfurt has the psychologist Peter Uhlhaas clear
Parallels found between schizophrenia and puberty.
The Frankfurters are actually looking for answers
on the question of how the world is represented in our brain
is. There is something for every surrounding and object
a nerve cell representing him for which
So grandmother a grandmother neuron? The answer
reads: no. The reaction to the grandma is a pattern
of neurons firing in unison, a grandmother's rhythm.
But with schizophrenics it works
Organ out of step. And that is with adolescents
apparently the same.
Puberty does not seem to be limited in time
Comparable to schizophrenia, maturation more crucial
Parts of the brain are only now beginning. The
The reward system is being readjusted and reacts in phases
only on very rough stimuli. And the maturation
of the forebrain, seat of rationality, is evident
only completed at the age of about 20 years.
And how do you raise adolescents? Capitulate
and wait until the spook is over and the desperate
Clutter in the brain is cleared up again? What
reassured me: Forget about all new knowledge
even brain researchers in everyday life that their children in this
Phase are demonstrably insane - and
just take them seriously as people. ——
Know what weather is coming
Stretch this umbrella
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s 16 to s 28
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