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Stephen Hawking

who is the man

behind the genius?

Broken heart

Like strokes of fate

make us sick

Ringing registers

Replaces the cell phone

finally the cash?

psychology

Under the spell of

memory

Science moves us

How it controls us - and why we cannot trust it

No. 2

February

march 2011

dossier

Commodity crisis

The fight about

the high-tech

Metals

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Photos by Su Blackwell; Private

EDITORIAL

Welcome!

As our author Christian Schüle

a story about remembering

suggested he did not report on

latest studies by neuroscientists

and psychologists, but told

of a smell: Whenever

he smells mowed grass, overpowers it

him the memory of his

first love - and that

how he was abandoned by her.

Why does a fragrance send us up

the journey into the past?

Schüle set out to search

after an explanation. All over

read the magic of memory

You in our cover story

(Page 16). - That buying one

Cell phones finance a civil war

can be one of the side effects

of globalization.

What researchers in Hanover

have to do with it explains that

Dossier on the raw materials crisis

(Page 71). -- Your TIME Knowledge editing

from the

editorial staff

5

time

knowledge

02 11

Su Blackwell has the little ones

Works of art for our cover story

about remembering

created. Almost two and a half

The British woman worked for weeks

with her team at the four

Paper sculptures.

Max Rauner accompanied Heiko

Biedermann into a tunnel

from GDR times. The miner

blows the way here

free for the first German ore mine

for decades.

www.rowohlt.de

What the eye

told us

The New York neurologist

and storytellers

explores the context

of visual perception and

Consciousness off.

Translated from the English by Hainer Kober

288 pages. Bound

€ 19.95 (D) / € 20.60 (A) / sFr. 30.50 (RRP)

© Dirk Reinartz


6 02 2011

CONTENT

The smell of mown grass is sometimes enough to evoke images from the past. page 16

title

Like the memory

influences us

time

knowledge

s 06 to s 07

It creates feelings of happiness, magical

Moments and also emotional pain -

and makes us human

who we are. Brain researchers and psychologists

are the secret of memory

on the track. They investigate, like ours

Brain stores and retains experiences,

which is why sometimes images and feelings

reappear from the past

- and why we don't always give them

can trust.

16 Under the spell of memory

Scientists fathom the puzzling one

Code of the ego.

20 Be a child again

Try using hypnosis

Therapists, the earliest

To bring back memories.

26 Unreliable Witnesses

Why there is no objective memory

and how psychologists want to recognize

whether witnesses are telling the truth in court.

Picture (left) Artwork Su Blackwell, photo Metz + Racine

Cover photo Alexandra Kinga Fekete, hair & make-up Stefan Kehl / Close up Agency, styling Edyta Kopcio / Perfect Props, models Eveline Hall / Deebeephunky and Mareike / Studio7


Photos Bernhard Edmaier; Timothy Archibald; Larry Sultan / Gallery Stock; Sebastian Arlt

Deep furrows shape the shape of the Alps. you

are not the only consequence of erosion. page 36

research

30 What was important, what will be important

32 Hawkings back man

Leonard Mlodinow staged

Stephen Hawking as the pop star

Science.

36 Gallery: open at the top

The Alps are still growing in

the height. Why?

46 The sky over Berlin

Hobby meteorologists vie

with supercomputers for the best

Weather forecast. Who wins?

health

50 What was important, what will be important

52 When the heart breaks

Also bring mental stress

healthy hearts out of sync.

58 Poison in the basin

How harmful is that to health

Water in swimming pools?

60 Between the chairs

Jürgen Windeler is Germany

top drug examiner.

Can he oppose the pharmaceutical lobby and

Enforce politics?

technology

64 What was important, what will be important

66 Cash registers ringing

Pay by mobile phone -

how the vision will come true after all.

82 Simply understand more:

Times table of protest

The main rules, facts and

Tips on demonstrations.

psychology

84 What was important, what will be important

86 My feelings and me

Create fear, anger, or shame

life is often difficult for us. How

can we get it under control?

Third part of the learning series.

92 Another reality

The photographer Timothy Archibald

tells in the interview how he access

found his autistic son.

The autistic Elijah has one with his father

touching photo project made. page 92

Forms in the chlorinated water of swimming pools

Substances that may be carcinogenic. page 58

The digital wallet has been around for a long time

promised. Is it finally coming? page 66

Dossier: Raw materials crisis

German companies are sounding the alarm: Industry

run out of raw materials. Soon it won't

Electronic parts more for cell phones, computers or

Be able to manufacture electric cars?

72 Sold out

Geologists are supposed to make German industry out

help the raw material crisis.

75 Scarce raw materials for Europe

Where do the most important metals come from.

76 The treasure in the deep sea

The first companies mine metal from the sea.

78 Deep in the east

The high raw material prices make for a

The renaissance of mining in the Ore Mountains.

Rubrics

8 extremes

11 Pros & Cons

12 analysis

13 What are you working on right now?

14 What became of ...

Expert advice / short and sweet

15 Living with Science

70 puzzles / reader forum / imprint

101 Kiosk / Media

104 Buy / Don't Buy

106 I want to know:

Magdalena Neuner

topics announced on the cover

7


8 extreme

0.8 centimeters

probably the smallest frog

Zoologists recently entered the Atlantic world

Northeastern Brazil's rainforest discovered.

The flea toad Brachycephalus pulex

does not measure from mouth to rump

once an inch - and undercuts

so that the brand of other mini frogs that

Until now, researchers thought they were the smallest

including that recorded in the Guinness Book

Monte Iberia frogs. Although the search

is difficult, researchers always discover

more frog species in miniature format. photo

Iuri Ribeiro Dias


Photo Daniel Heuclin / Photoshot / NHPA

32 centimeters

the biggest frog in the world is that

Conraua goliath, the one with outstretched legs

even to a length of up to 80 centimeters

comes. He lives on large, clear ones

Rivers in the West African rainforest.

Some copies bring more than

three kilos on the scales. Before their greatest

However, this does not protect them from the enemy, on the contrary:

Among the residents of the area

the goliath frog is considered a delicacy. Because

People eat it and its habitat

destroy it, it is critically endangered.

9


10 02 2011

FORUM

Poultry in

olive oil

Beats continuously

this hummingbird with his

Wings to look at his

Nectar meal in the air

to keep in one place.

The vortex of air that he is doing

produced, researchers have

from the University of Montana

with a high speed camera

and olive oil

made visible: you

atomized the finest oil particles

and shone with them

a laser. The recordings

were on the computer

edited: you do

the air speed

measurable and show where

vortices, buoyancy and

Form resistances that

the bird slide or stand still

to let. The explorers

want to find out how

Birds within seconds

Speed ​​and direction

vary in flight.

small request

time

knowledge

s 10 to s 15

What does an anarchist traffic light do?

Professor Lämmer, you invented a traffic light

decides when it shows green. What happens there?

With us, the traffic controls the traffic lights, not the other way around:

Detectors measure whether many cars are approaching.

From this, our algorithms calculate a type

Print. Where the traffic presses the most, it will open

Switched green. Buses push harder than cars.

Isn't that where anarchy breaks out?

That was actually a problem in previous approaches.

But if green and red phases within

remain certain limits, that can be solved.

And what are the advantages?

The traffic light is equipped for all traffic situations. And the

Waiting times are shortened for all participants.

Can you prove it?

We have the area around the train station in Mitte

Dresden simulated on the computer, 13 complexes

Intersections, and with the conventional traffic light control

compared. The waiting times were shortened

with self-controlled traffic lights by more than half

for buses and trams to get more than one

Third for pedestrians and cyclists and at least

by nine percent for cars.

The only thing missing is the practical test.

We are on. In which city we do it

but I can't reveal it. The topic is sensitive.

Stefan Lämmer

teaches traffic science

at the technical

University of Dresden.

Photo Bret Tobalske


Illustrations by Anje Jager

pro Contra

Should we make our nuclear waste harmless?

high level radioactive waste can be reduced to less by irradiation

convert hazardous substances. EU-financed pilot plants cause controversy.

per nuclear waste from nuclear power plants radiates to

Partly for millions of years. This highly radioactive

Lots of people want to collect waste as quickly and permanently as possible

seal a repository. There is an alternative:

Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T). Underneath

one understands the chemical separation of the highly radioactive

Elements from a spent fuel assembly

and their irradiation with neutrons. The

This reduces the amount of highly radioactive substances

and the nuclear waste that is disposed of

develops less heat of decay. Thereby

the long-term safety of a repository is increased.

That P&T works in principle was made in

Laboratory proven. European pilot plants, for

Example in Belgium and France, intended to show that

the technique can also be used for larger quantities.

With the help of transmutation one could even generate energy

win. Not in today's nuclear power plants,

but in fourth generation nuclear power plants,

which are currently still being planned. And if one

Society does not want to build new nuclear power plants,

one could also put the highly radioactive waste in plants

irradiate specifically for the purpose of transmutation

to be developed.

Waste recycling is an important goal in Europe.

P&T could finally do sustainable waste management

also make it possible for nuclear waste. Concetta Fazio

WWW.POLYBAND.DE

contra transmutation, i.e. conversion

highly radioactive waste in waste with a shorter half-life,

will not be dated to us any time soon

Free nuclear waste. We're talking about basic research,

which, if at all, will take several decades

will be ready for use. None of today's

Nuclear power plants worldwide will use this

Experience technology. Highly radioactive waste will be

leave them anyway. Already today there are worldwide

Tens of thousands of tons of it, and coming every year

about 12,000 tons. Hard to imagine that

our descendants will eliminate this inheritance

can - or want to.

The technology would also be a new nuclear one

Infrastructure with special nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants

for fuel assemblies require

including radioactive emissions into the environment that

yes, even with today's reprocessing, apparently

are inevitable.

Instead of technology-loving utopias, we need

finally concrete repositories for our waste. These

must be according to high security standards in long-term stable

geological formations are built,

to waste from the biosphere over very long periods of time

keep away. To leave them in interim storage

to hope for an undeveloped technology,

cannot be an alternative. Stefan Alt

© 2011 kabel eins, www.kabeleins.de

License by: MM MerchandisingMedia GmbH, www.merchandisingmedia.com

© 2011 polyband Medien GmbH. All rights reserved.

Captivating,

EDUCATIONAL,

DRAMATIC!

INCLUDED

30 MINUTES

BONUS

Per

Concetta Fazio coordinates

nuclear safety research

at the research center

Karlsruhe.

contra

11

Stefan Alt heads the working group

Nuclear disposal

at the Öko-Institut Darmstadt.


12 forum

analysis glossary

Better to annoy than

trust blindly

The number of

treatment errors not.

Time to do something about it yourself.

E.

Underground Health Commissioner John Dalli has

the problem not only in a nutshell:

»Arises in the European Union

every tenth medical treatment

a damage in the hospital

for the patient. Lots of these medical

Medical errors are avoidable. «The statement,

recently appeared in the world also kindled

a public discussion on patient safety.

And that's a good thing: Whether the wrong operated leg,

the infection with dangerous germs or mixed up

Medication - happen in the hospital

bad mistakes again and again. You know that

not just since Dalli's warning, and there is in Germany

also have made a lot of efforts to reduce the error rate

to reduce. A hospital hygiene law is to be introduced in the summer

come into effect. Also a seal of quality

is intended for hospitals that have a

low infection rate and a high standard of hygiene

to have. Numerous institutions have become

also prescribed for patient safety, such as that

Patient safety alliance. And many hospitals

have introduced bug reporting systems to it

provides a comprehensive medical error register

uniform federal statistics, various checklists and

Recommendations for action or the training concept, for example

Patient safety of the German Medical Association.

The effect of the commendable engagement is so far

but low - the number of proven medical errors

has hardly changed over the years.

The expert commissions and arbitration boards

at the medical associations show year after year

more than 2000 medical errors after, far more

do not even appear in the statistics.

It is no longer enough to just be the medical profession

trying to avoid the mistakes - the patient

have to take matters into their own hands,

do not want them to be victims of wrong treatment

become. The Swiss Foundation for Patient Safety

has now started an action that aims to do just that

Has. She is testing one in twelve Swiss hospitals

Brochure with recommendations for action for patients.

During the admission interview, the clinic staff will give you the hand

it out and encourages the patient, yes

report a suspected bug. In the brochure

you are advised to ask, for example,

whether doctors and nurses disinfect their hands

have exactly how the planned surgery

expire or what the new tablet on the bedside table

should effect. Patients should be careful

that physicians and nurses give them their real names

address or correct leg before surgery

to mark. True to the motto: Better to be annoying than

trust blindly.

That is the right approach for two reasons.

On the one hand, it is good against patient fears. A

Forsa survey at the end of 2009 showed that there were more than

half of all Germans before going to a clinic

fears that at the top of the list is 65 percent

Fear of malpractice. Are the patients active?

involved, they no longer feel defenseless

delivered. On the other hand, doctors and nurses become

more mindful. If that's the safety in hospitals

improved, everyone helped. Ragnhild Schweitzer

Dangerous germs

Some pathogens that are

spread in the hospital,

are against antibiotics

resistant and therefore

just difficult to deal with.

The consequence can be serious

Be infected, some patients

even die from

especially old people and

those with a susceptible

Immune system. example for

is a dangerous germ

the methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus bacterium,

better known under

its abbreviation MRSA.

Expert commissions

and arbitration boards

Sit in these institutions

independent experts who

Patients and doctors free of charge

advise on suspicion

Medical malpractice. You appraise

the cases and try

to settle them so that

those involved do not

have to go to court.

Hand disinfection

When doctors shake hands

disinfect, do that with

an alcoholic agent.

It will be thorough on everyone

Surfaces of the hands rubbed

and not dried off.

This removes pathogens

so effective that they don't

to be more widespread

- and is much better than

just wash your hands.

You can do this yourself to avoid mistakes

“Have your hands

disinfected? ”This simple one

Question to the doctor can

Prevent infections.

Schmitt or Schmitz?

Listen, ask and

correct ensures that

one is also meant.

Don't swallow everything

comes on the bedside table,

but rather with any means

ask what it is for.

Illustrations by Anja Haas


Photo MPI for Chemical Ecology

what are you working on at the moment?

"I follow

Desert ants "

In the Tunisian salt desert

study biologists, like ants

find the way home.

Markus Knaden marks the observation field.

Once a year the dried up

Salt lake near Menzel Chaker in Tunisia

Laboratory. Observe at up to 50 degrees

we here, like desert ants after foraging for food

find their way back to the nest. Usually the entrance is

just a tiny hole in the ground. Still find it

the ants there by almost the shortest route. With

Paint we paint a grid on the sand,

to then die with a terminal block and box paper

Track the route of the animals. Of course there are others

Methods like GPS and video tracking. But because of

the accuracy and because the devices in the heat

quickly giving up the ghost, we end up again and again

at the box paper. Recently we were able to show

that ants not only, as previously thought, about one

Kind of pedometer in place and out in the sun and

orientate towards landmarks such as plants and stones,

but also of smells. You remember the position

certain smells and their removal to the

Nest. To test this, we have the sand around the

Entrance around dripped with various fragrances.

When we changed the arrangement of these tracks

the ants could no longer find the hole. Back

in Jena, let's examine ants we brought with us,

which system prevails, if about

contradict visual stimuli and smells. With the help of

We try to use dyes to stimulate neuronal activity

to make different brain areas visible.

Sometimes our insights find their way into

other research fields. Some robots orientate

still modeled on the ants:

using landmarks and compass.

They just can't smell it yet.

Sinclair house

Löwengasse 15

Entrance Dorotheenstrasse

Bad Homburg v. d. height

Shipbreaking # 13 (Chittagong, Bangladesh, 2000) © Edward Burtynsky,

Courtesy Stefan Röpke, Cologne + Nicholas Metivier, Toronto www.altana-kulturstiftung.de

markus knaden

13

As a child he watched

his grandfather birds and

got enthusiastic about them early on

Biology. Today is Markus

Knaden behavioral biologist

at the Max Planck Institute for

chemical ecology in Jena.

Researched there and in Tunisia

he the desert ant Cataglyphis

fortis.


14 forum

what became of ...

... the victory over

the cancer?

A broken dream: In the

In the seventies, they wanted that

abolish cancer death.

"It is time to defeat this disease."

US President Richard Nixon 1971

expert advice

How can you learn that

to ask the right questions?

D.

he started war on cancer

40 years ago with Richard

Nixon's speech on the state of the

Nation: January 22, 1971

he announced a national

Effort to »this

to conquer gruesome disease «. end of

Year he stalled with the National Cancer

Act the budget of the National Cancer Institute

considerably on. The "war on cancer" was henceforth

the speech.

Faith, a nation, the people

can send to the moon, will too

Defeating cancer seems pretty naive today.

But 40 years ago no one suspected how complicated it was

the disease is in truth. And

believed with the introduction of chemotherapy

one the tried and tested remedy for tumors

to have already found. By the year 2000

cancer mortality should be halved.

Nothing came of it.

In the fight against individual types of cancer

the campaign achieved great success, with many

others progress stagnates. After all

Cancer mortality is falling in the

Industrialized countries for about ten years gradually,

although due to increasing life expectancy

more people get sick. The

experience decisive phase in the cancer war

we probably only now: In large research projects

are responsible for all types of tumors

Gene defects tracked down to

to develop targeted drugs. The

So war goes on. Ulrich Bahnsen

Sybille Martensen, by email

Questions are guides to possible answers. And since you don't know the answers beforehand, you give

there are also no rigid rules according to which one could formulate a correct question. Albert Einstein

for example, asked himself: What would the world look like if I could ride a ray of light? On the

At first glance an absurd question, but with the theory of relativity it leads to a highly interesting answer

led. Good questioners have the courage to question supposed certainties. This can sometimes

even a brainstorming session can help, in which all questions and answers are allowed. Important: Lead

Do not submit your questions with the comment "I have a stupid question". If after a short time

If you know the answer yourself, a question may be superfluous. Holm Tetens

Prof. Dr. Holm Tetens teaches philosophy at the Free University of Berlin. He is a specialist in argumentation theory.

Do you have a question for science? Send this to [email protected]

short and good

nature com

communications,

dec. 2010

Future fuel

Researchers have a bacterium

found that made of sugar

and nitrogen among others

Hydrogen makes and of it

produced ten times more

than other microorganisms.

The aim is to use hydrogen as a

Substitute for fossil fuels

to be produced in bioreactors.

cancer

epidemiology,

dec. 2010

Cancer screening

About 30 percent of all breast cancers

to

menopause stopped

prevent: by more

Exercise and renunciation

on hormone replacement therapy.

That resulted in a three year old

Study in Germany.

economic

journal,

nov. 2010

Crisis children

Anyone during a recession

was born, suffers in

Age even stronger among the

Consequences of strokes of fate

or diseases as anyway

beautiful. They could be to blame

harsh conditions during

be of brain development.

nutritional

journal,

january 2011

Diet myth

A large breakfast helps

not when losing weight. A

new study found that people

at noon and in the evening

eat the same amount of calories,

no matter if they ate a lot of breakfast

have or not. Many calories

beat in the morning

therefore rather negative.

Photo AP


2/11

Illustration Anje Jager

live with science

Panic before puberty

Andreas Sentker is

Editor of TIME Knowledge

and Head of Knowledge

the TIME. In every issue

he discovers science in

our everyday life.

www.zeit.de/shop

* Flat rate shipping costs € 4.95

T

every day I expect the first signs:

the pimples, that rebellious look

that suddenly occurring, complete

Inability to make decisions, the break-in

appalling stupidity in a straight line

An educational biography in the making

e. Or maybe the length of stay will be before

the deodorant shelf in the supermarket is crucial

Be a clue: my son is going through puberty. since

science has embraced this phase of life

panic seizes me at the thought.

At the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in

Frankfurt has the psychologist Peter Uhlhaas clear

Parallels found between schizophrenia and puberty.

The Frankfurters are actually looking for answers

on the question of how the world is represented in our brain

is. There is something for every surrounding and object

a nerve cell representing him for which

So grandmother a grandmother neuron? The answer

15

reads: no. The reaction to the grandma is a pattern

of neurons firing in unison, a grandmother's rhythm.

But with schizophrenics it works

Organ out of step. And that is with adolescents

apparently the same.

Puberty does not seem to be limited in time

Comparable to schizophrenia, maturation more crucial

Parts of the brain are only now beginning. The

The reward system is being readjusted and reacts in phases

only on very rough stimuli. And the maturation

of the forebrain, seat of rationality, is evident

only completed at the age of about 20 years.

And how do you raise adolescents? Capitulate

and wait until the spook is over and the desperate

Clutter in the brain is cleared up again? What

reassured me: Forget about all new knowledge

even brain researchers in everyday life that their children in this

Phase are demonstrably insane - and

just take them seriously as people. ——

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02 2011

TITLE

time

knowledge

s 16 to s 28

Fascinated