How did the term old school come about?
The history of hip hop
The term 'HipHop' was coined in the 1970s, but only by Africa Bambaataa. Afrika Bambaataa coined the name "Hip Hop" for the street culture that flourished in the ghettos. But hardly any of the radio listeners knew about it at the time. Neither does the Sugar Hill Gang and their "Rapper's Delight" - the first rap record to reach a mass audience - scratch the surface of the phenomenon at best. The established media dismissed it as short-lived fashion: a black quirk like "blaxploitation" films or Afro hairstyles at best.
The term 'HipHop' is composed of the slang expressions 'hip' (known as: 'in to be') and 'hop', which means something like party. There is also the word 'rap'. This generally means 'hit, knock, knock'. At the beginning of the century, however, it became a slang expression for 'talking' or for 'gossiping, betraying'. So the original rapper was a traitor. Then in the '40s' 50s it meant 'rhythmic speaking'. This is how it is still used today: rap is all about rapping - as opposed to hip-hop. HipHop means the entire culture, which, in addition to music, also includes break dance, graffiti and the like. Hip hop is a way of life / attitude - rap is just an activity.
When this term first appeared in a rap song in 1979, it had long been a secret umbrella term in black street culture. At the beginning of the 1970s, a culture of its own developed in the New York ghettos, which was intended to reflect the resistance of blacks to white. Today hip hop or rap music has developed into one of the best performing markets in the music industry and into the global youth culture. Hip-hop began in the mid-1970s as a barely noticed party culture in the New York ghettos. The music was about conquering a space in which the members of minorities and the ghettos could live undisturbed and freely, listen to music and dance. In addition, hip hop was a youth movement within the ghettos and also became a verbal power struggle between young people. These power struggles also included the art of spraying graffiti, the contests between the disc jockeys and later the competitive battles among breakdancers and rappers.
An important person in the development of hip-hop was Clive Campbell, aka Kool Dj Herc, who brought the Jamaican tradition of street parties with him to New York. The fundamental principle for rap music developed from the way he put the records on: sampling.
Another important person for the creation was the DJ and amateur electronics engineer Grandmaster Flash. He improved the mixing technique and converted the mixer and turntable into his own instrument. Thanks to Grandamaster Flash, scratching, which is a rhythmic noise that is generated by moving the record back and forth while the tape head is in place, was built into the rap titles. Around 1980 the music industry began to take an interest in the hip-hop scene. What had long been available on cassette in the scene - the combination of rap, breakbeats and funk music - developed into a new style of rap in the studios of the record companies. With the success of the so-called old school rappers who belonged to the first rap generation, HipHop stepped out of its local context. Contrary to the assessment of many critics, rap music inexorably conquered the pop market. Soon, new rap scenes with their own sounds emerged in other major US cities (Los Angeles, San Francisco, Houston, Chicago, etc.). In the mid-80s, a new generation of hip-hop in the New School style emerged.
The New School style includes new and old rapiers:
Old rappers: Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Ice-T, Run DMC, Ice Cube, Nate Dog, Coolio, 2 Pac, B.I.G.
New rappers: Fabolous, Lil 'Wayne, Lil' Bow Wow, Lil 'Kim, Ja Rule, LL Cool J, DMX
The hip-hop movement is heavily dominated by men who usually hardly say a good word about women (excluding their own mother) - they often only appear as `sluts or prostitutes in rap lyrics. Nevertheless there were and are some female MCs, breakers, writers and DJanes. Among the rappers, Roxanne Shante, MC Lyte and Queen Lathifah were responsible for ensuring that women in hip-hop spoke up and demanded as much respect as their male colleagues. But there were also rappers like BWP (Bitches With Problems) or Boss who tried to be in no way inferior to men in gangsterism. Or - as at the moment Lil`Kim or Foxy Brown - to represent as many clichés as possible about men. Hip-Hop has always been considered tolerant and liberal, if only because of its Afro-American background, it should be raised above racist suspicions.
Gangs have been around since the 1950s - but back then these were cliques of friends who fought every now and then. In the 1960s, these groups usually joined the Black Power movement - albeit often only as 'followers'. After that was shattered in the late '60s, everything changed. Gangs emerged whose only aim was to conquer as wide a territory as possible by force - and others saw no other choice but to react with the same means. Gang fights, as they can still be found everywhere today, had become the norm. Often these gangs also form the lowest level of the drug mafia - but they are only used for dirty work because they are too loosely organized for 'bigger tasks'. Now one can think of a hundred explanations for this violence - no prospect of the future, ubiquitous racism, unemployment and so on. Of course, the conditions in the ghettos are extremely miserable - but of course that does not explain why these conditions should be exacerbated by senseless violence.
From the west coast: Outlawz, Ruff Ryders, D 12, Thug life, Underground Project, Wu-tang Clan ...
From the east coast: Bad boys, Run DMC, NAS, B.I.G, P. Diddy, Busta Rhymes, Onyx, Twister ...
Labels: Death Row Records, Cash money Records, Bad Boy Records, Shady Records, Murder Inc., BMG ...
West Coast vs. East Coast
Since the mid-80s there has been a - sometimes more, sometimes less strong - battle between the east and west coasts. It was just about someone wanting to portray themselves as the very best and portray everyone else as failures. At first this only ran within the framework of the usual dissent - very pronounced e.g. between NWA (Niggaz With Attitude) from the west coast and Tim Dog from N.Y .. Over time, however, there were also more serious clashes - including deaths. It has also been speculated that the murder of Tupac '2Pac' Shakur goes back to this conflict, and the death of Biggie 'Notorious B.I.G.' Smalls was a revenge for it.
West Coast: 2 Pac, Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Ice-T, Ice Cube, Nate Dog, Coolio, DMX, etc ...
Eastcoast: Fabolous, Lil 'Wayne, B.I.G., Lil' Kim, etc ...
In the hip-hop trend, wide jeans that are worn as low as possible and sweaters with swanky symbols and labels are very popular. If you calculate how expensive a typical outfit consisting of branded trousers, sneakers, sweater, lanyard and cool cap has to be. The hip-hop style is often associated with US sportswear. This style of clothing is certainly not an expression of solidarity with hip-hop culture. What applies to their clothing is also made clear in their language. It's about tearing cool sayings. Every opportunity is used to stand in the center with a typical expression and to arrive well with the others.
It matters what others think of you. In the scene you often get the impression that women live in the shadow of men. Hardly a music video goes by without scantily clad girls who move their flawless bodies to the rhythm of the beats and show themselves in clear poses. While the male rapper can define himself through gold chains, dollar bills, cars and other status symbols, women are limited to their bodies, which they have to present accordingly. Wealth that is aggressively shown to the hip hop opera shows how clever and creative he is, that he knows exactly how to make money. Sometimes it is understandable that in all these videos the impression comes across as women are lined up next to expensive clothes and bodies, as if they were another jewelry of the man with which he can raise his reputation with others.
Hip Hop in the USA
It all started in the New York Bronx in the early 1970s. A failed modernization policy destroyed the district and those who could afford it quickly turned their backs on the Bronx. From then on, the others had to live in an apocalyptic urban landscape of empty factory buildings and filthy backyards. The young residents of the ghetto found their own form of expression of protest against these conditions: they drew attention to themselves and their problems with graffiti, breakdancing, rap and the legendary block parties.
In 1979 the first rap record, 'Rapper's Delight', was released by SUGARHILL GANG, which sold over 2 million copies and aroused the record industry's interest in the new music.
The first phase in the history of rap music, also stylistically definable, is known as old school and is a phenomenon on the east coast of the USA. Its most important representatives include KOOL DJ HERC, GRANDMASTER FLASH & THE FURIOUS FIVE and AFRIKA BAMBAATAA.
In the early eighties hip hop fell into a stylistic crisis: many of the pieces published during this period were very similar, since all rappers worked with the same rhythm machines, which were limited in their range of variation. Sales dropped and it looked like rap was just a fashion stunt for a while.
At the same time, the first affordable digital samplers hit the market. Finally, the DJs could do without the synthetic beats and sample complex drum loops, which made the music sound more natural and musically more complex. With the success of RUN DMC, especially among white youths, and the legendary hip-hop label DEF JAM, the real success story of rap and its famous representatives of the New School such as PUBLIC ENEMY, KRS ONE, BEASTIE BOYS and LL COOL J.
Rap music took a completely different development on the west coast of the USA with its center in Los Angeles. West Coast rap made headlines primarily through texts that described the violent life in the ghettos. As is so often the case, however, the work was mistaken for its author. Because not all rappers who talked about violence were also violent themselves. West Coast rap was mainly influenced by ICE T, DR DRÉ, WARREN G., ICE CUBE, and CYPRESS HILL.
At the end of the 80s, hip-hop fashion that addressed violence found its countermovement through groups such as DE LA SOUL, A TRIBE CALLED QUEST, or QUEEN LATIFAH. They wore wide, colorful clothes (Afrocentricity) and advocated peaceful coexistence without violence and drugs. This is how the hip hop movement found its way back to its origins. In the 90s, hip hop finally became the defining genre of pop music. WU TAN CLAN, COOLIO, FUGEES, BUSTA RHYMES, BEASTIE BOYS - HipHop has become an indispensable part of the charts.
Hip Hop in Germany
The history of German hip hop began when the great breakdance fashion died down again in the mid-1980s. All over Germany there were a few left for whom hip hop had become more than just a hobby. An intensive exchange began. People met in youth clubs or rented cellars to rap, or had spontaneous hip-hop parties (jams), to which more and more visitors flocked. Hip Hop found its way out of the youth centers and was celebrated without media hype.
The first German-language raps appeared on record in the early 1990s. The Stuttgart-based DIE FANTASTISCHEN VIER became the SUGARHILL GANG of the German hip-hop scene at the latest with the mega success of 'Die da'. The media became aware of the new genre of music, which also worked in German. The FANTASTISCHEN VIER were viewed rather critically by the scene and classified as "fun-and-medium-sized rap".
ADVANCED CHEMISTRY's 'Fremd im own Land' was also a great success for the first underground band. The line of text 'I have a green passport with a golden eagle on it - but I'm a stranger here' opened the way to many political discussion groups and gave the debate on discrimination and xenophobia in Germany a new direction.
The hip-hoppers of the first hour celebrated themselves on a programmatic sampler as the "old school", as those who made hip-hop possible in Germany (LSD, CUS, NO REMORZE, ADVANCED CHEMISTRY, CORA E., STF, TEC ROC et al). They felt that the "New School" had passed over them and that their role as the forefathers of German Hip Hop was not recognized. The new school, so the allegation, just wants to have fun and doesn't take hip hop seriously. The allegations were directed at a new generation of rappers who played much more relaxed and self-assured with the genre (FETTES BROT, DER TOBI UND DAS BO, MAIN CONCEPT; MASSIVE TÖNE, MC RENÉ, ALEKSEY and others).
Stuttgart, Hamburg, Berlin and Frankfurt are the innovative centers of the German-speaking hip-hop scene, grouped around the successful labels FOUR MUSIC and YO MAMA. But hip-hop in Germany cannot be determined geographically, as many cities now have their own sizes that demonstrate the dazzling range of German hip-hop: KINDERZIMMER PRODUCTIONS from Ulm, MAIN CONCEPT from Munich, KÖNIGSDORF POSSE from Cologne, ZM JAY from Chemnitz and HALB 7 RECORDS from Dessau, to name just a few.
Another facet of German hip-hop are groups like CARTEL or KANAK ATTACK from Berlin, whose texts critically deal with the life of second and third generation Turkish youth in Germany.
Hip Hop in France
France is now the largest hip hop market outside of the United States. The French rappers showed early on that they wanted to go a way emancipated from the US role models in street prose. The hip hop scene grew mainly in the French suburbs of the big cities. In Paris at the beginning of the 80s block parties were celebrated in the banlieues, there was dancing, rapping and spraying. The hip-hop phenomenon quickly found its own French interpretation.
In 1984 there was a hip hop show on the TV station TF1, which was moderated by Sidney and Laurence Touitou and which quickly achieved cult status in the banlieues.
In 1987 Dee Nasty's first hip hop album ("Paname City rapping") was released in France. NTM, ASSASSIN and SOLAAR rapped and freestyled in French on the show "Deenastyle" on Radio Nova. At the time, this Parisian radio station was the only station in France that played the sounds up and down the street.
In 1990 the song compilation "Rappattitude" was released, on which the "first generation" of French rap was represented. In 1992 MC SOLAAR released its first, very successful album, which also received great international attention. MC SOLAAR and SOON E MC belonged to the legendary 501 posse from Paris. In contrast to American rap, their rap was very playful and offered almost poetic resistance. More and more groups followed and made a name for themselves: ARSENIK, LA FONKY FAMILY, MENAGE A 3, KDD, DOC GYNECO and many more.
In 1995 French hip hop found its way into the cinemas with the soundtrack for the socially critical film "HASS" ("La Haine") by Mathieu Kassovitz.
In 1997 the album "11'30" was released, which is directed against racism and on which numerous rappers such as Ministère A.M.E.R, ASSASSIN and KABAL are represented.
The socio-political dimension of hip hop is also evident in the protest organization "Movement de l'immigration et des Banlieues" (MIB), which calls for autonomous resistance by young migrants from the suburban ghettos and is supported by rappers like IAM and ASSASSIN.
Hip Hop has become an integral part of French music and youth culture.
1970 - 1980
An important person in the development of hip hop was Clive Campbell, aka Kool Dj Herc. The music was about occupying a room in which members of minorities and the ghettos could live, listen to music and dance freely and undisturbed.
Around 1980 the music industry began to take an interest in the hip-hop scene.
One of the rappers at the time is Granmaster Flash who was mainly to be found behind the turntables.
Contrary to the assessment of many critics, rap music inexorably conquered the pop market!
In the beginning of the 90s the HIP HOP really started to live, with its "STARS" e.g. Tupac Amaru Sharkur and Notorious B.I.G. who were later shot and became very famous for their songs. In the mid-90s after the death of the two rappers, it was mainly about big money.
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