What are Canada's biggest problems


Dirk Hoerder
Canada: Immigration and Ethnic Groups

The historiography and sociology of Canadian immigration and acculturation has sought analytical accuracy and differentiated terminology in order to avoid implicit ethnic hierarchizations. Therefore, the classic threefold division into socially marginalized indigenous people applies ("native Canadians"), into hegemonic constituents of society ("charter groups") and immigrants (immigrants and ethnics) as a simplistic simplistic system. It marginalizes them native Canadians also in research and it implies a prominent special role for the French and British immigrants. What is to be achieved is an equal treatment of all ethnic, i.e. all culturally independent groups. The summary of many "indigenous peoples" as Indians, and the summary of the English, Scots, Welsh and Irish or the are rejected Acadians, Quebecois, and French immigrants in other provinces into homogeneous large groups. Only linguistically, there is a division into anglophone, francophone and allophone immigrant groups.

Despite its general character, this article follows a differentiated view. It will just be the position of the "native Canadians" defined in the ethnic diversity of Canada and portrayed early immigration; In a second part, immigration from 1880 to the 1940s is analyzed, then the present is dealt with and finally the development of ethnic identity in the course of acculturation is critically examined.

1. First Nations and Immigration, 1600-1880

The descendants of the original inhabitants, the Inuit[1] , the officially recognized (status) Indians and migrated to the cities non-status Indians, have formed their own umbrella organizations to express themselves politically. They call themselves, and these terms are adopted in science as "First Nations", to counter the hegemonic claim of the first immigrants - British and French - or as "Fourth World", to denote their socio-economic position, which is worse than that of the colonial so-called "Third World".[2] With the emergence of the fur trade and the advance of the mostly Scottish traders of the Hudson Bay Company and the French coureurs du bois from the valley of the St. Lawrence River there were numerous connections between immigrant men and Indian women. The resulting children and their mostly French-speaking descendants are known as Métis. They too continue to be economically and socially disadvantaged and have only had the right to vote since 1960. They fight for self-determination and self-administration.

The European settlement of Canada began by French settlers (1) on the Atlantic coast in Acadia and (2) in the St. Lawrence Valley after Basque fishermen had long visited the coast of Newfoundland in the summer months.[3] The immigrants of Acadia (today the Maritime), south of the St. Lawrence Gulf, suffered from the rivalries of the great European powers from the start, because imperial wars between Great Britain and France were also waged on the North American continent. After several British occupations, Akadien finally became British in 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht). The French-speaking Catholic settlers were deported to New England and Louisiana in 1755. In Louisiana, today's goes Cajun-Culture for

Part of this forced migration back. The New England deportees returned in later years. As a result, New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province to this day.

The core of the French settlement was and remained the St. Lorenz valley, Nouvelle France, Lower Canada, called Quebec in different historical periods. The crown planned to export the feudal system: Seigneurs were given land on the river and were supposed to be dependent there habitants to settle. The latter's willingness to act as coureurs du bois Becoming self-employed in the wild prevented this system from developing. In 1763 the area became British, but in contrast to Acadia in 1774 the population was granted self-government rights. A religious agrarian society developed in which the influence of the Catholic Church was stronger than that of the provincial government until the 1960s. Internal migration brought surplus rural labor into mining in the north of the province from around 1900. Modernization and industrialization did not begin until the "silent revolution" and the suppression of ecclesiastical supremacy in the 1960s. The high population growth - with originally low immigration of only around 60,000-70,000 French from 1600 to 1763 - led to high rates of emigration to the USA as early as the 19th century, both to the Great Lakes area and from the middle of the century to the New England textile industry. A French-Canadian part of the population has survived there to this day. With the settlement of the prairie areas, internal migration to the west also took place, together with a small amount of new immigration from France[4] led to the formation of French-speaking groups in the provinces west of Quebec.

Immigration from Great Britain began later and initially concentrated entirely on the areas on the Atlantic coast ceded by France, the present day Maritime (Atlantic provinces). After the American Declaration of Independence in 1776, many left the

So-called loyalists the new states and settled north of the Great Lakes (today's Ontario) as well as in Quebec and in the Atlantic provinces. The further immigration of Anglophone groups consisted of English, Scots and Ulster Scots[5] together; later came Welsh and, in large numbers, Irish. The Anglophone group was therefore multiethnic in itself and did not define itself as a unit around 1900. As early as 1851, the Anglophone population exceeded the Francophone population by a ratio of 2: 1. However, the assimilation of the Francophones hoped for by Great Britain never took place.[6]

British-influenced immigration from 1750 onwards also brought other population groups to Canada, especially from the small German states. Because of their origin, after which they also named their settlement in Nova Scotia, they were called Lunenburg-Germans. Of the Hessian troops deployed in the war against American independence, 2,400 remained in Canada. Among the anglophone loyalists were also Dutch-Americans and Jewish-Americans, who became the base of these ethnic groups in Canada.

Black immigrants deserve special mention. The very small group of people who immigrated early was enlarged as a result of the American War of Independence by fleeing loyal free blacks and slaves brought by their owners. They lived in Halifax or the surrounding rural areas, around 40,000 around 1840. With the abolition of slavery in the British Empire in 1833, black people brought to Canada were also set free. The Afro-Canadians received growth from slaves who had fled the USA (Underground railroad), which mostly settled in Ontario. As the

Asian immigrants arriving at the end of the 19th century were discriminated against because of their skin color. Today becomes the expression for these people "visible minorities" used.[7]

Furthermore, Mennonite immigrants came from Pennsylvania and later from Russia in the first half of the 19th century. Land scarcity or persecution forced these immigrants, who originally came from Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland, to migrate again (secondary migrations). The Mennonites arriving from the USA formed colonies in Ontario, those later coming from Europe in the prairie provinces. Since they like the group of Russian Doukhobors arriving from 1899[8] by ethnicity and characterized by religion, they are referred to as ethno-religious groups.

Irish immigration skyrocketed from the mid-1840s. Irish men and women had arrived before the famine began. Some of them came from Protestant areas and established themselves as farm families in Canada. The Irish-Canadians are therefore a more heterogeneous group than the Irish who immigrated to the USA. The impoverished migrants of the 1840s and 50s traveled from Irish ports or from Liverpool on small, mostly poorly equipped ships, so that the death rate on the crossing was extremely high (so-called coffin ships).[9] They settled in Quebec City and Montreal or emigrated to the USA as unskilled workers.

As for some of the Irish men and women, Canada was just a point of passage for many newcomers of other ethnicities. Immigration figures can therefore only be estimated for the 19th century. Newcomers were registered in the seaports, but not along the open land border with the United States. People of many ethnic groups moved to the New England Territories, the Hudson River Valley in New State

York, the areas south of the Great Lakes, or the prairies. However, prior to the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway, settlers for western Canada also had to travel on US railroad lines. Finally, especially towards the end of the century, American citizens, some of the descendants of immigrants, came across the border into Canada.[10]

In 1867 the three Atlantic provinces, Quebec and Ontario merged to form the Dominion of Canada; British Columbia in the west joined a little later. With the political unity of Canada no de facto unity was connected, as the eastern part of the country (Maritime, Quebec, Ontario) was separated from the west by the sparsely populated prairie territories (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta).

2. Mass immigration 1880-1945

From 1880 the composition and the volume of immigration changed. It rose from an average of 30,000 annually to over 100,000, fell in the 1990s, then rose rapidly from 1903 to 400,000 men, women and children in 1913. Immigration regulations were also changed in the 1880s and 90s. The period of the free entry ended with the first restrictions on Chinese immigrants in 1885. The policy of selective immigration should bring culturally and economically desirable immigrants into the country. But it was not until 1896, thirty years after the merger of the provinces, that Home Secretary Clifford Sifton proclaimed a new immigration policy. Instead of being restricted to Western and Northern European "preferred nations" he demanded immigration from "stalwart peasants in sheepskin coats", also from Eastern Europe. This opening up to southern and eastern Europeans, who were viewed as a foreign "race" in contemporary thinking, did not mean the dismantling of prejudices. For political and economic reasons - Canada's unity and economic strength - settlers were needed for the West. These were not available in sufficient numbers from Western and Northern Europe. Behind this request was

Social Darwinism continues: healthy peasants should come, not proletarians living in urban slums, who already accounted for the largest share of immigration to the USA. This was expressed very clearly at the time:

"So long as Britons and northwestern Europeans constitute the vast majority there is not so much danger of losing our national character. To healthy Britons of good behavior our welcome is everlasting; but to make this country a dumping ground for the scum and the dregs of the old world means transplanting the evils and vices that they may flourish in a new soil. "[11]

Sifton portrayed the Ruthenian, Ukrainian and Polish peasants, who came mainly from the Habsburg Empire, as vigorous and hard-working in order to include a new reservoir of people in the settlement of the Canadian west, where the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885 can.

Immigration to Canada increased because most of the agriculturally usable area in the USA was settled. While the historian F. J. Turner in the US over "the closing of the frontier" lamented, Sifton raved about "last best west" in Canada. In addition, there were immigration restrictions in the USA from 1917. On the side of the emigration areas, the railroad networks had been developed in such a way that there were connections from the tsarist empire to the transit ports of Bremen and Hamburg. The shipping companies were able to sell tickets from the starting village to the destination and plan the trip efficiently.[12] Added to this were the effects of earlier emigration on Europe, the global agricultural crisis of the 1880s. European emigrants had settled on the plains of southern Russia, the USA, Argentina and Australia and the resulting rapid influx of

increased grain production led to a fall in world market prices. The following agrarian structure crisis (push factor) in turn forced millions of men, women and children to emigrate. Next to the people who migrated from the rural sector of Europe to the industry of the USA ("proletarian mass migration"), 3.7 million immigrants arrived in Canada's ports from 1880 to 1914. It is estimated that around 2 million of them emigrated to the USA, so that the net immigration was much lower.

Many migrants came with families. Only the abridged version of Sifton's utterance in historiography is male-centered. He argued: "A stalwart peasant in sheepskin coat with a stout wife and a dozen children is of good quality." Canada did not need individual men as proletarian migrant workers, but rather families willing to settle in the agricultural sector, as workers in the sense of unpaid family work, for the reclamation of land and the management of farms. As part of the family economy, the arriving families planned in the same way. In order to maximize income while maintaining intangible values ​​such as family relationships, language habits and traditional cultural practices and values, families and neighbors had to migrate together or sequentially to the same destination.[13]

A large number of ethnic groups were involved in the migrations.[14] As mentioned, Mennonites left Russia from around 1870 because their privileges there had been revoked and settled in Manitoba.[15] From 1875 after volcanic eruptions, peasant families came from Iceland and settled north of Winnipeg. In view of the persecution in the tsarist empire, Jews immigrated, some of whom settled in the west, but mostly in the cities. Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians came from the US prairie, largely in secondary migration.

The main migration area was Eastern Europe: 170,000 Ukrainians, 115,000 Poles and 10,000 to 20,000 Russians, Hungarians and Romanians settled in western Canada.[16] The Vegreville District in Alberta is still one of the central Ukrainian settlement areas. The Ukrainian-Canadians organized themselves politically and covered the entire spectrum from active left farmers 'and workers' organizations to conservative nationalist positions. Due to its weight, the group was able to influence the further development of this concept into multiculturalism in the 1960s, when the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was supposed to define the rights of the two official cultures.[17] The experiences of the Ukrainian immigrants have been portrayed in novels and historical works by Ilya Kiriak, Vera Lysenko and Myrna Kostash.[18]

During this period, comers developed "of German ethnic origin" to the largest group after the Anglo- and Francophone residents. However, they were and still are extremely heterogeneous to this day. German-speaking ethno-religious groups also include people of Dutch and Swiss origins. Second, German-speaking Austrians, Swiss and Luxembourgers are often "incorporated". After all, the majority of secondary migrations came from Eastern Europe or, in the case of the Mennonites, from Pennsylvania. More than a third of the newcomers around the turn of the century no longer spoke German as their mother tongue when they entered the country. The so-called German-Canadians were and are in themselves a mosaic. This - the persecution by Canadian authorities in the First World War and, after National Socialism in the Second World War, the conscious turning away from Germanness among some of the immigrants - explains why the next largest groups, Ukrainians and Italians, could organize themselves more easily on an ethnic basis.

Eastern European immigration was received very critically by many Canadians. The Galicians, as they were called, were generally regarded as problem cases that were difficult to integrate into Anglophone society. (Compare the term used in Germany since the 1960s: "the problem of foreigners".) Church organizations started one "mission approach", to convert the newcomers to Protestantism and Canadian ways of life, to raise them to civilized ways of life, as contemporaries put it. The political interest in the settlement of the West, the railways economic interest in land sales and transportation, and the readiness of the churches to engage in some of the foreign customs ("charitable but prejudiced" judged Jean Burnet) prevented immigration restrictions. James S. Woodsworth, in particular, changed Canadian thinking about alien races. As the imperial propagandist in England, Rudyard Kipling, put it: "The stranger within my gate / He may be true or kind / But he does not talk my talk - / I cannot feel his mind", So Woodsworth returned to the biblical text (Lev. 19:34): "The stranger that sojournes with you shall be unto you as the homeborn among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself." Many prejudices remained in public opinion and were directed towards southern Europeans, i.e. the Italians who immigrated[19] extended.

More serious than discrimination against "Galicians" The resentments against the Chinese, Japanese and Sikhs were also undifferentiated as "Orientais" designated. They were employed as unskilled workers in railway construction, as lumberjacks, in wood processing and fishing. Japanese families also bought small farms. Although a total of only around 70,000 people immigrated from Asia by 1920, extremely racist attitudes crystallized from them. So-called gentlemen's agreements with Japan reduced immigration. Later immigration was brought to an almost complete standstill by transport and administrative regulations that were impossible to meet. As a result, the men present could not have re-entered after their temporary return, as they were replacements

could not send relatives or friends to take the job, they stayed in the country and brought women to join them to raise families. This created permanent ethnic communities in place of the colonies of temporary migrant workers. (Similarly, the FRG's recruitment ban after 1973 prevented "guest workers" from temporarily emigrating and accelerated family reunification.) In 1907 there was violence against Asian immigrants in Vancouver, and in 1914 there was an international incident when Asians who had legally arrived were not allowed to leave their ships . While the Japanese and Sikhs mostly stayed in British Columbia, many Chinese migrated inland and opened small restaurants.[20]

In the first years between the wars, immigration remained at a high level with more than 100,000 immigrants per year. This changed with the onset of the global economic crisis. Parliament passed restrictions, and from 1931 to 1941 only 150,000 immigrants totaled. Only family members were admitted to enable immigrant men to reconstitute their families, and farmers with enough capital to immediately set up on a farm. The migrants of the twenties stayed mostly in the cities, in Canadian terminology the "second wave" called.

Although immigration was encouraged and served national goals from 1896 to 1930, large parts of the Anglo- and Francophone population, including numerous administrators and politicians, were hostile to the new ethnic groups. The racist attitudes against that Orientais have been mentioned. With regard to Europeans, the Galicians also Italians as inferior or criminal. Hunkies and dagos they were called.[21] Three negative developments are to be named separately: the Red scares, the

Imprisonment of Japanese Canadians during World War II, treatment of Jews during the fascist era.[22]

With the end of the First World War and during the brief post-war depression, living conditions for workers deteriorated. At the same time, the demobilized soldiers poured into the labor market. When employers in Winnipeg refused to negotiate collective agreements with unions or raise wages in 1919, workers responded with a general strike. Eastern European immigrants were active in this. The labor movement had developed, especially Finns, Jews, Ukrainians and Russians had organized themselves in a socialist or communist manner.[23] Fearing that there might be a Bolshevik revolution in Canada (Red Scare or as has been formulated for several years: White Fear), In 1919 the government used militia against the striking workers and passed Section 41 of the Immigration Act to enable the deportation of "dangerous" foreigners. Anti-worker and anti-union attitudes persisted in Canada for a long time, there was no continuous left-wing tradition, and unions were slow to gain a foothold.[24] In this situation came reform movements and parties, often farmers and workers, and immigrants native-born united, particular weight. Above all that should be mentioned Commonwealth Cooperative Federation, Forerunner of today's New Democratic Party, which was able to attract many immigrant votes and soon also won seats in parliament.[25]

During the First World War not only German-Canadians but also members of many other groups were interned. Behind this was the bureaucratic statement that all immigrants from enemy states, i.e. from Germany and Austria, were to be regarded as hostile foreigners. Polish and Ukrainian immigrants in particular were bitter about this assignment. During the Second World War, internment was used in a targeted manner for racist purposes.[26] The entire Japanese-Canadian population was deported to camps, similar to the United States. It was not until the 1980s that the government acknowledged that these people had been wronged. Japanese-Canadian literary works deal with the psychological consequences of imprisonment in the camp.[27]

Attitudes towards Jews were similarly racist. Just like other Eastern Europeans, they were not considered "whites" in North America at the turn of the century. "You are a real white man," was considered a condescending compliment from Anglo-Saxon Canadians to these immigrants. In many parts of the country, but especially in Quebec, virulent anti-Semitism developed in the 1930s. For the European Jews exposed to persecution by the Nazis and extermination in the concentration camps, the attitude "none is too many" applied: even a single refugee admitted would be too many. German-Jewish intellectuals who were in Great Britain at the beginning of the Second World War were brought to Canada and temporarily interned there. This is one of the darkest chapters in Canadian immigration history.[28]

In summary, immigration has been encouraged by the government. The focus was on settlers, while the immigration of workers to the urban centers was economically necessary, but was viewed critically from the start. Racist attitudes combined with general xenophobia and fear of workers' self-organization. However, counter-movements arose in the 1930s. J.S. Woodworth and the Canadian

Commonwealth Federation included immigrants in the political process. Watson Kirkconnell, rector of a college in Winnipeg, resorted to the literatures of the European original cultures in order to show the narrow-minded public that the newcomers did not arrive without culture, but had their own forms of expression. The translations that Kirkconnell published ranged from Icelandic to Ukrainian poetry.[29]

In an eclectic but informative volume, Kate described A. Foster Our Canadian Mosaic (Toronto 1926). She coined the term that became formative for the Canadian self-image. Not a melting pot - melting pot -, but a variety - mosaic - characterizes Canadian society. It was followed by John Murray Gibbon, at times representative of the Canadian railways in Europe, with his Canadian Mosaic. The Making of a Northern Nation (Toronto 1938). It was not until three decades later that a critical analysis of the social stratification and the disadvantaged position of many immigrant groups followed: the vertical mosaic[30]. The respect for immigrant cultures expressed in Foster's and Gibbons' works may be interpreted as a forerunner of later multiculturalism. In the immediately following war years from 1940-1945, acculturation of the newcomers and growing acceptance by the "native-born" but a nationalist one Canadian-All Conglomerate.

3. Developments since 1945

Immediately after the end of the war, the migration of people abducted as forced laborers by the National Socialist German state, soldiers of the auxiliary troops and liberated concentration camp prisoners, the so-called Displaced Persons. Canada took in tens of thousands but had not had an active immigration policy since 1929. It was not until 1947 that Prime Minister Mackenzie King made a policy statement

which was followed by an immigration law in 1952. According to this, immigrants should be admitted within the framework of upper limits to be set annually, but carefully selected. Immigration is a privilege, admission is based on domestic political and economic interests. The ban on Chinese immigration was lifted in 1923, but the preference for European immigrants was retained (preferred nations). At the end of the 1950s, 85% came from Europe, 30% of the total immigration was British. This should change radically. In 1981 about 35% of the migrants came from Asian countries, 12% from South and Central America, and 8% from Africa. At the end of the 1980s, the European share of immigration fell to below 30%.

In this "third wave", 2.5 million people reached Canada in the 15 years after the war. The hike had an urban character. Montreal has become a magnet, especially since the economic situation improved in the 1960s. Toronto developed into an immigration metropolis - in 1971 less than 43% of the population was born in Canada. Western cities like Calgary and Edmonton were also attractive destinations. Vancouver became the most important destination for transpacific immigration. By the mid-1960s, there were British, Italians, Germans and German speakers, Dutch, Poles and Jews. The Italian ethnic group in particular grew and developed a similarly pronounced group consciousness as the Ukrainian immigrants before.

Far-reaching changes in immigration law and in the ethnic composition of the newcomers justify speaking of a "fourth wave" afterwards. Since the immigration figures have remained at a consistently high level, a continuity of the third "wave" is assumed in Canada itself. In the 1960s a process of rethinking about "race", a term without any scientific content, and ethnicity began. 1962 took the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism started its work, and new immigration regulations came into effect that same year.[31]

Since 1962, immigrants from all over the world have been able to enter Canada - within the framework of the total annual quota - without having relatives in Canada. Similar changes in US and Australian law point to changing attitudes towards people of different skin colors among whites around the world. Immigrants were required to provide evidence of education and other qualifications required in Canada. A 1966 white paper called for immigration to achieve population growth and economic expansion. In addition, "cultural enrichment" by immigrants was sought. With a fundamental law of 1967 - repeatedly amended in later years - a point system was created to filter out those who favor Canadian society from applicants. Points are awarded for educational level, professional ability, capital carried, age, relationship to Canadian citizens. Since family reunification makes up the majority of immigration, this system is less socially discriminatory than it appears. A total of four "categories" have been created: independent - Economic citizen with capital or sought qualifications; dependent relative - dependent relatives, sponsored relatives - non-dependent relatives; the family pays for their livelihood if necessary, so that the state does not have to pay social benefits; refugees - Refugees from political persecution, war or environmental disasters.

Since this law was passed, people have come from all over the world. Blacks from the Caribbean have developed their own ethnic culture; 200,000 West Indian immigrants are counted in Toronto. Chinese immigration has developed particularly from Hong Kong. The five Chinese ethnic quarters in Toronto are home to the third largest group of immigrants after residents of British and Italian origin. In 1981, 40% of the entire Canadian population described themselves as British, 28% as French, and 1.7% as native Canadian; the rest are descendants of immigrant groups of different cultures.

Regionally, the province of Ontario is the main catchment area with dynamic economic development. In Quebec, immigration has decreased since French monolingualism was sought. Violent

Conflicts over the language of instruction in schools combined with pressure to assimilate are the result of separate immigration legislation. 90% of immigrants live in Montreal. The Italian group is particularly strong there. Immigration is low in the Atlantic provinces due to poor economic development. In many areas there, the total emigration was temporarily higher than the influx. Immigration to the agrarian prairie provinces ended with the beginning of the global economic crisis. Only Alberta (mining, oil) still has immigration. Since immigration from the Pacific has outstripped the transatlantic, since Asia caught up economically with Europe, Vancouver has become the new center of immigration.

While societal consensus on immigration has been reached, subliminal and open prejudices remain against them among parts of the population "visible minorities" available. In recent years, in view of the rapid increase in refugee movements around the world, a heated discussion has flared up on the question of whether more people should be admitted outside the point system for humanitarian reasons or whether the entry criteria for refugees should be tightened. Despite all the criticism, Canadian immigration law - similar to the most recent US law - can be regarded as exemplary.

4. Acculturation and ethnic identity

After the arrival of the immigrants in the recipient culture, a process of confrontation with, transformation through, and attitude towards the new culture begins. This process has been termed assimilation when unconditional inclusion is assumed; as integration, if certain state measures to aid integration are meant; as acculturation, when there is a self-determined approach to the new structures within the framework of existing constraints, in which elements of the original culture are retained and in some cases change the recipient culture. Acculturation processes are determined - on the part of the immigrants - by the planned length of stay,

by degree of organization (institutional completeness) the ethnic community and demographic factors such as age, marital status, individual or family migration, gender ratio. On the part of the recipient society, openness or segregation, labor market structure and discriminatory behavior are of particular importance. Added to this are the characteristics of migration: voluntary (settlement or labor migration) or involuntary (refugees), determined by internal norms (religious group migration) or determined by others (slave transport). Acculturation processes usually extend over several generations, from the first to the immigrants, about the second and later, the ethnics.

Language is considered to be inextricably linked with culture. For the two different hegemonic cultures in Canada, bilingualism has therefore been anchored in public institutions since 1969. For immigrants, a tension arises from clinging to the old culture, i.e. the old language, while at the same time wanting to integrate into the new society to such an extent that the economic goals of migration can be achieved. The new language must therefore at least be sufficient for taking up work, and in the second generation also for going to school. Since language teaching often takes place from immigrant mother to child, i.e. from the point of view of the recipient society foreign-language mother to child, a culturally preserving role of women has been derived from this. This interpretation overlooks the fact that school feedback about the new culture and behavior of the peer group mainly from children to mothers, so a constant negotiation (negotiating) about steps towards a new culture between the second generation and the immigrant women. Overall, according to my hypothesis, many conscious and unconscious steps of acculturation take place within the family. But it is precisely this private sphere that has often been referred to as the refuge of old values. More research is needed here.

With the exception of the ethno-religious groups in Canada, who quite consciously seek separation from secular, "modern" society and therefore mostly settle in closed agrarian colonies, the first process of change takes place immediately after entering the new society.

society instead. The newcomers have to adjust quickly to the working conditions of the new world, otherwise economic and i.e. physical survival is not assured. Only after the livelihood can be earned, there are opportunities to consciously control the retention of old forms of behavior. This first phase - accommodation - often means the loss of parts of the old norms and practices.[32] This phase can be cushioned by living in ethnic communities in which special shops enable the maintenance of eating habits in which religious and cultural customs can be cultivated together. First of all, immigrants are therefore looking for a specific job market (labor market segment) and secondly, a shared apartment for fellow countrymen (community).

Since the definition of ethnic identity is not only made by group members themselves, but also through ascription (often negative characteristics) on the part of the recipient society and through interaction with other immigrant groups, there is a need to make culture visible. Material cultural products - painted Easter eggs, embroidered festive clothing, public celebrations - thereby acquire a meaning that they did not have in ancient culture. This setting of characters is called invented identity[33] or, called secondary identity. It can be retained when the transition to the new society has been completed in all other areas. this is the symbolic ethnicity, which is important in Canada to participate in multiculturalism advancement programs. (In the Federal Republic of Germany, the preservation of displaced persons status over generations is comparable.) A study in Canada, 1982, on the importance of folkloric performances by ethnic groups showed that they were primarily intended to appeal to members of other groups and were less used for the self-realization of one's own identity.[34] So culture serves to encourage coexistence and interaction. The aspect of mediation (sharing) becomes the primary goal and thus a didactic

The focus is on a tical approach that does not include the preservation of culture, but rather a response to the forms of perception of the foreign-ethnic audience. Ethnic culture is always culture in flux.

Maintaining ethnic identity is often measured through self-assessment. When asked, "What ethnic group do you feel you belong to?", Out of 100 responded in 1973 ethnics 17.3% with information about their group (e.g. German, Chinese), 44.5% with a double name (e.g. German-Canadian or Chinese-Canadian), 35.4% with Canadian.[35] With the inclusion of scale values, differences in degree from group to group in identification with the initial culture and the recipient culture can also be determined.

In Canada, the policy of multiculturalism has been aimed at facilitating inclusion: tolerance and respect for immigrant cultures should be expressed in order to prevent discrimination and secondary minority formation. In the case of older immigrant groups that were largely acculturated, however, the development of a clientele culture was encouraged. Ethnic functionaries receive the cultural organizational structures in order to be able to participate in the support programs. Similar to the Canadian immigration law, however, despite this restriction, the policy of multiculturalism can also be regarded as exemplary.


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[Footnote references]

Footnote 1: The word "Eskimo", which comes from the language of the Cree, means "eater of raw meat". It is hardly used anymore.

Footnote 2: The term "Indian" is still used in laws, but during the debates about a new constitution in 1991/92, the term "First Nations" was also officially introduced.

Footnote 3: Arrival of Samuel de Champlain in 1603, founding of Montreal in 1608, from Port Royal in 1610.

Footnote 4: Since the population development in France began to stagnate as early as the middle of the 19th century, there was hardly any emigration. In other European countries, a balance between birth and death rates was not reached until the turn of the century or later.

Footnote 5: Scottish immigration to the Ulster areas occurred on a large scale at the beginning of the 17th century after the expulsion of Irish "rebels". Their descendants are called Northern Irish.

Footnote 6: The increasing use of the English language only began with industrialization in the 1960s and the replacement of ecclesiastical influence with state influence. Added to this was the fact that immigrants developed into English and mostly did not make French a second language. In response, an aggressive language policy was initiated to drive back English influence.

Footnote 7: Robin W. Winks, The Blacks in Canada. A History, Montreal 1971.

Footnote 8: Doukhobors are a pacifist Christian sect. Their way of life, which is unusual from an Anglo-Canadian point of view, has led to clashes with law enforcement officers.

Footnote 9: The immigrant quarantine station, Great Isle, below Quebec City, had to dig mass graves.

Footnote 10: Marcus Lee Hansen, The Mingling of the Canadian and American Peoples, Toronto 1940.

Footnote 11: Quoted in Kenneth McNaught, The Penguin History of Canada, London 1988, pp. 192-193.

Fn.12: Cf. Dirk Hoerder, "The Traffic of Emigration via Bremen / Bremerhaven: Merchants 'Interests, Protective Legislation and Migrants' Experiences", Journal of American Ethnic History, 13.1993.

Footnote 13: On family economics see Louise A. Tilly, Joan W. Scott, Women, Work & Family, New York 1978.

Footnote 14: Carl A. Dawson, Group Settlement: Ethnic Communities in Western Canada, Toronto 1936, is the classic sociological study.

Footnote 15: Frank H. Epp, Mennonites in Canada, 1786-1920. The History of a Separate People, Toronto 1974.

Footnote 16: N. F. Dreisziger et al., Struggle and Hope: The Hungarian-Canadian Experience, Toronto 1982; T. F. Jeletzky, eds., Russian Canadians: Their Fast and Present, Ottawa 1983; Henry Radecki, A Member of a Distinguished Farnily: The Polish Group in Canada, Toronto 1976.

Footnote 17: Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, Report, Book IV: Cultural Contributions of the Other Ethnic Groups, Ottawa 1970.

Footnote 18: Myma Kostash, All of Baba's Children, Edmonton 1977.

Footnote 19: Roberto Perin, Franc Sturino, Eds., Arriarsi. The Italian Immigration Experience in Canada, Toronto 1992.

Footnote 20: Norman Buchignani, Doreen M. Indra with Ram Srivastava, Continuous Journey. A Social History of South Asians in Canada, Toronto 1985; Hugh Johnston, The East Indians in Canada, Ottawa 1984; Anthony B. Chan, Gold Mountain: The Chinese in the New World, Vancouver 1983.

Footnote 21: Doug Daniels, "The White Race Is Shrinking: Perceptions of Race in Canada," Ethnic and Racial Studies 4, 1981, 353-56.

Footnote 22: English immigrants were described as racially desirable. Prejudices, however, developed against them remittance men, who were sent to Canada by their wealthy families and performed there with little work of their own, similar to the better-wise men in the present. There was one among employers "no English need app / y "movement because of the high level of organization and class awareness among English immigrant workers. Before the turn of the century, orphaned English children were brought to Canada to find families; after World War I, unemployed, laid-off English soldiers were provided with land there.

Footnote 23: Michael G. Karni, ed., Finnish Diaspora I: Canada., Toronto 1981.

Footnote 24: Donald Avery, "Dangerous Foreigners": European Immigrant Workers and Labor Radicalism in Canada, 1896-1932, Toronto 1979.

Footnote 25: Richard Allen, The Social Gospel in Canada, Ottawa 1975. See also Ross A. McCormack, Reformers, Rebels and Revolutionaries: The Western Canadian Radical Movement 1899-1919, Toronto 1977.

Footnote 26: Eric Koch, Deemed Suspect: A Wartime Blunder, Toronto 1980.

Footnote 27: Ken Adachi, The Enemy That Never Was: A History of the Japanese Canadians, Toronto 1976; Joy Kogawa, Obasan, 1991.

Footnote 28: Irving Abella, Harold Troper, None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948, Toronto 1982. Erna Paris, Jews. An Account of Their Experience in Canada, Toronto 1980.

Footnote 29: Watson Kirkconnell, The European Heritage: A Synopsis of European Cultural Achievement, Toronto 1930 and numerous other publications.

Footnote 30: John Porter, The Vertical Mosaic: An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada, Toronto 1965.

Footnote 31: See Jean R. Burnet with Howard Palmer, "Corning Canadians": An Introduction to a History of Canada's Peoples, 39-54; Stephen Gloverman, ed., The Immigration Dilemma, Vancouver 1992.

Footnote 32: This has been verified for women from four ethnic groups who came to Chicago's urban labor markets from rural areas at the turn of the century. Christiane Harzig, Peasant Maids, City Women (in press), Ithaca 1994.

Footnote 33: Kathleen N. Conzen, et al., "The Invention of Ethnicity: A Perspective from the USA," Altre italie (April 1990), pp. 37-63.

Footnote 34: Burnet, "Corning Canadians", p. 215.

Footnote 35: Quoted in Bumet, ibid., P. 219. Remaining group "without information".

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