Why do teachers mean young children
Prof. Dr. Kurt Singer - guiding principles
1. Violence at school is not only caused by young people -
The abuse of power in individual cases by teachers can hurt students emotionally
There is a lot of talk about violence in schools today. Most people only think of the aggressiveness emanating from violent students. That is surprising; because young people say they are exposed to violent teacher behavior more often than violent classmates. Young people feel more threatened by teachers who are mentally hurtful than by hurtful classmates. Adults, too, talk less about aggressive classmates than about the aggressive teachers they suffered from. Even after years, quite a few remember with discomfort, fear or anger how they suffered from school humiliation. Some report how traumatizing injuries left them permanently impaired. Parents, teachers, students, school authorities, politicians: everyone knows the abuse of power in individual cases. But most of them silence emotionally hurtful teacher action. In this way, they contribute to the fact that school can become the fate of students for children.
2. Pupils complain of violence caused by teachers' words and of fearful lessons -
Offensive teacher behavior must not be accepted - improve the learning climate
Young people complain less about the school itself. They fear the power of those teachers who expose them with unsuccessful work, scorn them, laugh at them, publicly announce their grades, insult children with ironic remarks, call on them without being asked, “take them on” and put them in an embarrassing situation, disparaging themselves express the "stupidity" of individual children. Such individual cases of teachers threaten students with bad grades and discipline them by printing grades, attack them with short unannounced exams, leave the weak behind helpless, give punitive tasks despite the school law prohibition, ignore individual children. Even terms from the language of torture are uttered: “Then I have to tighten the music screw.” Pupils feel they have been treated unfairly, insulted, insulted, ridiculed, downplayed by teachers who claim to be power. Fear in class even has a special term: Fear of school. To scare children is psychological violence; it hinders young people in their ability to perform well.
3. Children need the right word - when teachers address them personally and
enable them to learn successfully, their self-esteem grows
The “good word” makes the students aware that we have made progress in learning and are accepted. Being noticed by teachers strengthens one's belief in oneself: one's self-image. Self-esteem is a prerequisite for performance. Teachers should be students recognize: look closely, the child not only as a student, but also as a whole person detect. Words of encouragement inspire and make you feel confident; they often have a long lasting effect. Children can learn well with teachers who encourage them. - Successful learning is an important prerequisite for learning. It is the job of teachers, not just constant performance measure up, but above all the children to be successful help - and all children, including the weak, according to their individual capabilities.
4. Exposure and insult in class can affect students emotionally and psychosomatically
make sick - we need to pick up the distress signals and help children
Humiliating children in class is emotional violence: through derogatory words from the teacher, humiliating gestures, malevolent criticism, shameful remarks, ridiculous remarks. That this is violence is also made clear by the consequences: Children and young people suffer from school anxiety, behavioral disorders, “stomach anxiety”, tension headaches, appetite and sleep disorders, nail biting and other psychosomatic symptoms. Many findings show that being hurt by a teacher can make you physically ill. The signs of illness are to be understood as psychosomatic emergency signals. Parents and teachers should take them in and help the students. Children experience this help too little: For decades we have been unmoved by the sentence that has been proven by numerous studies: "School makes you sick."
5. Not only students with behavioral problems disturb the class, but also behavioral students
Teachers - they make it difficult for children to learn
Since violence is often equated with physical violence, it is more accurate than teacher violence by Abuse of power to speak (Volker Krumm). This abuse of power through hurtful teacher behavior disrupts learning. Teachers rightly complain that lessons are disrupted by difficult students with whom they do not have an easy time. Pupils, on the other hand, complain that their learning is hindered by incompetent teachers, that they are annoyed with learning, that their performance is impaired, that their motivation to learn is reduced and that attention is disturbed; they would become discouraged, insecure, and frightened; there is antipathy not only towards the teacher, but also with regard to the subject. Indifferent teacher behavior that is experienced as hurtful has the opposite of what the task of the lesson is: to motivate the students through a helping relationship and to promote their productivity.
6. Pedagogical tact means: treat each other with respect - the learning climate of
Consideration respects the dignity of the student and the teacher
Treating each other with tact is based on respect for human dignity. The unequal situation between children and adults requires turning into children to think aboutTo show consideration and to instruct the students to be considerate. With teachers with a pedagogical tact, children can be sure that they will never be embarrassed, not called up unexpectedly, but only when they get in touch. Students are not laughed at and embarrassed, grades are not announced in front of others. Tactful teachers do not publicly criticize mistakes; they correct carefully so as not to devalue the student's work. Error-friendliness is the teaching principle: From mistakes learninstead of judging children. Tactful teachers avoid pointing out the mental and physical weaknesses of adolescents, and humiliating children with irony or with names of abuse and mockery.
7. Teachers who abuse their educational power, "are only isolated cases": the sentence is
true, but child-hostile - everyone is involved in the injustice of abuse of power
Teachers need educational power in order to be able to teach. However, personalities who claim power or those with traits of emotional sadism are in danger of abusing their power against the dependent students. The belittling saying: “These are only isolated cases” shows the indifference with which adult pupils are exposed to pedagogically unacceptable teacher behavior. As if the constitutional protection of human dignity did not apply to all citizens, including children and everyone individual Child. The few Cases of destructive teacher behavior disrupt learning many Children. Young people are inferior to “teacher-pupil” in the natural power imbalance. It is difficult for them to defend themselves against disparaging treatment. As long as individual cases of non-pedagogical teacher behavior are taboo, the speeches, according to which violence should be prevented in school, seem implausible. In contrast to other areas of society, so-called individual cases of non-pedagogical teachers in school are criticized at best, and it is regretted that such “black sheep” occur. However, the obvious educational and moral misconduct is only very rarely punished. That is why pupils need a lobby: parents, teachers who are committed to education, child-friendly politicians.
8. Non-pedagogical teacher behavior is declared a taboo; that hinders the
educational progress - taboos can make you stupid, we have to break them down
It can be observed again and again: If teachers violate basic pedagogical insights, the behavior that disrupts learning is covered by the school management, the teaching staff, the school authority. It should not leak out if a student is harmed by a person unsuitable for the teaching profession. This taboo acts like a pathogen in the school system. The bad example of an educator also relativizes basic moral values; it makes efforts to practice decent behavior with the students more difficult. When teachers break pedagogical tact, they override basic psychological insights for learning. Parents and teacher colleagues should break the taboo, which often hides criminal behavior in silence. The low level of knowledge of the pedagogy practiced in school and the didactic inadequacy are also caused by the silence of non-pedagogical teacher behavior.
9. Teaching is a "helping relationship" - being a teacher is a "helping profession" -
The teacher-student relationship determines how well children can learn
A friendly contact between teachers and students is one of the basics of learning. The human relationship strengthens the will to learn in children and helps to achieve job satisfaction. Lessons are not only from Learning content determined, but by the educational relationship. Pupils try harder when they sense the teacher's personal interest in them and when they see their teachers as authority recognize. The students' respect for the teachers is based on their human and intellectual qualities. If being a teacher is seen as a “helping profession”, the job description changes: “Teaching children to learn help"Is much more than" imparting material and skills ".
10. The abuse of power by individual teachers must be exposed and eliminated -
Treating students with respect is a democratic value
As long as the taboo of non-pedagogical teacher behavior is not lifted, humanity has little chance in school. In order to prevent violence and careless behavior, pupils, parents, teachers, school legislators and politicians must develop a new ethic of coexistence. This includes in the case of hurtful and learning disruptive teacher behavior:
Look: Don't look the other way and keep silent when abuse of power and emotional violence hurt children. The moral duty to help the weak, to translate into committed action and to stand up for the children.
To listen: Take the students seriously, give them the floor - but also listen to the difficult teacher. If you want to feel, you have to listen.
Perceive: Let yourself be touched by what children convey in terms of oppression, reluctance to learn, fears and needs; not appease, but think in and empathize. See also the non-pedagogical teacher in his need and help him without apologizing or tolerating the child-damaging behavior.
pity: If we perceive the fears and needs of children sensitively, compassion arises: the reluctance to see other people suffer. This gives rise to the humane impulse to protect children from hurtful teacher behavior.
Social courage: Dare to protest morally with civil courage. Risk the conflict and stand up for more humanity in schools with civic courage. The merciless sentence: “These are only isolated cases” should alarm us as an alarm signal and motivate us to help.
11. Take responsibility for school children -
Protect students from psychological harm with civilly courageous objection
Many are apathetic when students are humanly damaged. Parents and fellow teachers often lack the social courage to interfere. Instead of uncovering pedagogical inability, it is tolerated in order to avoid conflict. Through democratic interference, we should protect children from teachers who are unable to feel and who lack pedagogical and didactic skills. Not only the individual cases are more behavioral Teacher are guilty, but also parents, fellow teachers, authorities and educational politicians who do not stop child-harming behavior. It is particularly difficult for adults to stand up for schoolchildren with civil courage; because in many of them the fears of authority from their own school days are rooted. It takes courage to defend oneself against the authority at which the student has learned to adapt, instead of the courage to object. Compassion and compassion can become the strength to dare moral objection.
12. Parents should insist on the children's personal rights - be recognized with criticism and seek understanding
Parents must identify educational injustices and teaching inadequacies and take responsibility for the children. This enables difficult teachers to rethink their behavior. Conflicts and contradictions should be made public and collective forms of dealing with conflicts should be practiced. With the fear "If we criticize teachers, the child has to pay for it", parents flee into a fainting attitude. Rather, the children atone for the fact that mothers and fathers keep silent about injustice at school. Parents should dare advocate for children: openly address the educational and psychological inability. In this way, they help to overcome grievances. Because the fates of teachers become the fates of students, it is important to protect the children from unsuitable teacher personalities and to protect them from their psychologically damaging actions.
13. There are many ways of resolving conflicts in dealing with
non-pedagogical acting teachers - "round tables" for parents, teachers, students, helpers
All those involved should perceive opportunities not to look away, resigned or trivialize teacher's behavior that disrupts learning. The aim is to turn the conflict into a togetherness, one common To find solution. It helps parents to become aware of all possible actions so as not to give up on themselves and their children in a feeling of powerlessness.
Look closelyinstead of looking away. Parents, fellow teachers and students should be as keenly aware of the current state of the non-educational situation as possible.
The Let the child talk freelywhat depresses it at school. To be interested in how they experience the frightening, overwhelming or offensive classroom climate. Listen to the children and take them seriously when they report on incidents that are depressing for them in class.
With the child, consider whether there is do something yourself can to improve the scary situation: whether he dares to go to the teacher and tell him how offensive his remark was. And to ask him not to laugh at it anymore.We should encourage children to take this step. For some, however, it can be overwhelming. In any case, the children need the courageous role model from their parents or from teachers who are interested in teaching.
The Parent talks with the difficult one Teacher Risk: Make yourself understood as parents, let the child's need and your own need be recognized. Do not rush to convict the teacher, but listen to the teacher's point of view, but at the same time insist on the student's personal rights. Share the child's experience, report how the teacher's behavior affects them at home and in class.
The Child in school consultation Allow yourself to be there in order to create greater openness and togetherness “at one table”. All participants have the opportunity to present their point of view.
Conversations with the parents concerned other student parents: about their experiences and observations; show solidarity in order to stand up for the children together. The first step, however, should always be to deal directly with the teacher in question.
Observations, own experiences of parents or colleagues, communication from students put down in writingso that a documentation the occurrence occurs that can be credibly confirmed. It is fair to give this documentation to the complaint teacher for comment.
The difficult teacher about all the next steps to inform - For example, about planned discussions with the school management, school authorities, about the fact that the conflict, if no solution is in sight, will be carried out in public at the school.
Conversations between the parents and the class teacher, the Liaison officer (Liaison teacher) and with open-minded teachers from the college. Point out the hurtful situations and ask for help to resolve the conflict.
Conversation between the parents and the principal on the basis of precise information about humiliating, tactless, overwhelming or suppressive teacher behavior, for which documentation has been drawn up.
Letters write to those involved as a helpful basis for discussion; They facilitate argumentation, they are intended to express the desire and willingness to resolve the conflict together to solve.
Conversations from Fellow teachers With the non-pedagogically acting colleague: individually or in a small group, demonstrate pedagogical action, clarify the conflict and make offers of help, collegial advice or conflict management with the help of a third party: mediation.
Conversations with School psychologist and Counseling teacher or School social workers: How can the children be helped, how can psychologists and counseling teachers get involved? Which offices can still be asked for help?
Open conversation in the Teachers conference and in School forum; seek an alliance for change; seek mutual collegial solutions. Through the confrontation, stimulate the teacher to perceive himself more clearly in his non-pedagogical actions and to change his behavior.
Conversations with Students from the class concerned, Conflict-processing discussions the student with the difficult teacher, together with a mediating trust teacher or a teacher who has the consent of the students as well as the teacher. Develop proposals and carefully monitor how they are implemented.
Class and school representatives include them in conflict management. Ask the student representatives to take action in the context of the Student Co-Administration responsible for the classmates. Obtain information from school officials about the right of students to exercise these rights.
Discussion in Parents Advisory Board. Discussions by parent representatives with the defendant teacher, the class teacher and the school management. Conversations with students in the class in which there is a conflict.
A Parents' meeting convenedto prepare this thoroughly. Search and choose a meeting leader from the start. She leads the conversation and ensures that all sides have their say. Agree on the first concrete steps to resolve the conflict.
Yourself make pedagogically competentIn order to be able to argue: study relevant literature, ask educationalists or other school-competent persons for advice.
The School rules and School laws study and apply to the current conflict situation, but also the Basic Law, the “rights of the child” of the United Nations, the civil code, the school's house rules, the constitution, the curriculum for political-pedagogical argumentation.
If necessary from Pediatrician Have the school-related psychosomatic illness certified, in the case of therapy, the Child and adolescent psychotherapist include in conflict resolution.
Application for retraining place the child offended by the teacher with another teacher in order to enable the child to start over; educational-psychological justification of the Application to change schools: the severely disturbed pedagogical relationship.
Appointment to the School board. Present carefully prepared documentation on incidents that violate the dignity of the child.
If nothing can be moved within the school: Create public with the help of the press and other media, the child protection association, Protestant and Catholic youth welfare, district youth council, politicians, citizens' initiatives. Alert all persons and institutions who work for the democratic rights of students and parents.
Supervision complaint, supported by the Education Act, School Regulations, Civil Service Law, Basic Law, Constitution and Children's Convention of the United Nations.
From Right of petition Make use of it, turn in writing with requests or complaints to the competent authorities, the representatives of the people and the state parliament. Visit the constituency representative.
To the Minister of Education personally write as brief a letter as possible, specifically pointing out incidents that violate the law or violate the students; ask them for help for the children.
Legal action in the event of violations of the children's personal rights in accordance with the applicable laws. Obtain advice from lawyers who are experienced in school matters and who are committed to helping children.
14. Behavioral teachers need help and they need to be limited -
It takes a common will not to accept any violence in school
If we want less violence in schools, we need to use less violence. Therefore the abuse of power by teachers must not be taboo. Actions directed against children must have consequences. Teachers who disrupt students in their learning development have to deal with their non-pedagogical behavior faced in correcting their hurtful actions supported, to further educational training and personal work Committed become. Colleagues, parents, parents' council, pupils and pupil representatives, school authorities, school psychologists, liaison teachers and school social workers can help: through crisis counseling, individual didactic counseling, educational training, collegial support, teacher-pupil-parent discussions, psychological teacher counseling, teacher groups, supervision, psychotherapeutic treatment. When non-pedagogical teachers refuse to acquire professional skills, they have to change professions. “There is no shortage of opportunities to reduce the number of teachers who are pedagogically unacceptable; there is a lack of will to accept no violence whatsoever at school, whoever exercises it, ”writes educational scientist Volker Krumm, whose main research area is the abuse of power by teachers.
15. Non-educational teacher behavior becomes state through non-educational decrees
decreed - Without social disobedience there is no educational progress
The taboo of non-pedagogical teacher behavior remains untouched because some school structures favor the absence of pedagogy. Certain official edicts in the Federal Republic of Germany interfere with learning more than they promote it: the censorship mischief leads to state-ordered injuries to young children, especially the weak; the tyranny of "matter" takes things more seriously than people; merciless early selection prevents all children from learning together and subjects them to rivalry; The dictatorship of the exams and unpopular tests fuel fear of school and prevent in-depth, practical, individual and sustainable learning. Often the “pathology of normality” occurs through school authority ordinances, for example when teachers demand the senseless “normal distribution” of grades within a school class. School can only become one educational Become a school when more democracy finds its way into it. Dedicated teachers want to act in a pedagogical and psychological sense. Often they have no choice but to refuse to obey non-pedagogical regulations.
16. Teachers' commitment to educational ethics - for the dignity of the student
and the teacher's - a code of honor could help teachers maintain their prestige
Teacher officials repeatedly complain about the low reputation of the teaching profession. The lack of recognition of this important profession is also related to the problem of abuse of power. Hartmut von Hentig, the founder of the Bielefeld laboratory school, recommends a "new oath": Just like doctors in the Hippocratic oath, teachers should make a commitment
to respect every child in their peculiarities,
to stand up for his physical and mental integrity,
to respect one's impulses,
listening to him, taking it seriously.
To teach students the art of communication and understanding,
to make them ready to take responsibility for the community,
and let them experience what the intended good life is like.
According to the oath
do the teachers set an example of how to cope with difficulties,
faces criticism from students and experts,
and opposes all conditions, including service regulations that hinder humane resolutions.
Such an oath would put a clear limit on teachers who are unsuitable for their profession. Pedagogically committed teachers would receive security and encouragement in their value-filled actions. This code of honor would form the basis for a educational Create school and raise the reputation of teachers.
17.Teachers are role models for morally valuable action -
The “golden rule of ethics” also applies in schools
If we want less violence in school, we need to use less violence. Teachers are role models for this; They can let children experience the attentive interaction with their neighbor directly: through the way they deal with the students. By setting an example, they support adolescents in developing a sense of socially valuable action, the attitude of sympathy and willingness to help. Teachers turn out to be authority through their moral role model, their ability to relate, their willingness to help, their factual knowledge with which they convincingly represent their subject and their teaching competence. This also applies to the search for ways to prevent violence in school and to deal with one another in a helpful and respectful manner. The golden rule of ethics also humanizes coexistence in school: "What you don't want someone to do to you, don't do it to anyone else."
18. Student policy proposals for more humanity in teaching and for
Supporting the moral courage of young people - political interference
Raising awareness of human rights issues in schools
When it comes to the subject of “abuse of power by teachers”, everyone could become aware that the rights of the child are being neglected. The fact that hurtful teacher behavior is repeatedly hushed up must not only become an educational and human problem, but also a political problem.
Personal rights must also be student rights
Violations of personality inflicted on students by teachers should not be taboo. Children who suffer from the abuse of power by teachers also need the help of politicians. The basic right “Human dignity is inviolable” must also apply to schoolchildren.
Strengthen student rights
Students must be enabled to express their interests and to implement them in the context of school assignments. Children and young people are able to democratically have a say in the choice of learning material, the teaching method and coexistence at school. They need a right of co-determination in all matters relating to teaching and school life that affect them. This strengthens their self-reliant action.
That is indeed stipulated by law. But it should go into the consciousness of teachers, students, parents and politicians in a more concrete way. Embarrassing children, insulting them, hurting them in their honor, laughing at them, devaluing themselves: these are not only non-educational offenses, but can also be criminal offenses.
Enable students to evade the psychological violence of teachers
Changing teachers and schools, or choosing a different teacher can be a relief for both sides if there is an incompatibility between teacher and student that disrupts learning and cannot be resolved.
Give children the right to criticize teachers
Criticism should not be possible one-sided from teacher to student, but also vice versa. The pupils should learn to present criticism in a constructive way, they should practice the possibilities of critical participation in the pupil-teacher relationship. Criticism always includes self-criticism and supports the students in the important democratic virtue of critical ability.
Protect the fundamental rights of students through student representatives
In the case of certain groups of dependent citizens, federal commissioners ensure that democratic rights are observed: military commissioners for soldiers, women's commissioners for women, foreigners commissioners for foreign citizens, federal commissioners for patients. “Child representatives”, where they are available - mostly on a voluntary basis - cannot take sufficient care of school issues, especially since they often follow the taboo of not criticizing teachers. Students are in a dependent position; they would need an ombudsman who would protect their constitutional rights. A student representative could counterbalance the lobbies of teachers.
Provide students with free legal protection
Teachers have multiple legal protections from professional associations, appointing authorities and private individuals.Schoolchildren need institutions that give children and young people legal advice and support them when they are treated illegally. They need the same legal protection that their teachers enjoy.
Create neutral instances for student help
More facilities must be created such as: contact telephone, independent student advice centers, psychosocial care. If children are brought into need through school, they should be able to seek advice from impartial sources.
Let democratic action be experienced in practice
Students need to experience democracy in the place where they spend most of their time: at school. Teachers should guide them to participate democratically: The students have to know their rights, learn how to prepare and hold a class representative election and how they can fulfill the tasks of student co-administration, how they can achieve more democracy for more humanity in everyday school life.
For teaching and dealing with children: lifelong learning from teachers
Being a teacher is a helping profession. Teachers are insufficiently trained in dealing with children and young people in a way that helps to resolve conflicts and promote development. That is why they require intensive training over their entire working life - as is customary in other helping professions. Teaching competence is an important prerequisite for being careful with children and young people. Training teachers in such a way that they can teach children well would be in keeping with the dignity of the student.
19. Human rights - Children's rights - Nonviolent upbringing is law -
Students should learn about their rights
The United Nations Declaration states: “No child shall be subjected to any arbitrary or unlawful damage to his or her honor or reputation. Discipline in school must be maintained in a way that is consistent with the human dignity of the child. It has the right to freely express its opinion on all matters affecting it. The adults take into account the opinion of the child… ”Article 1 of the Basic Law states:“ Human dignity is inviolable. ” Since the year 2000, non-violent upbringing has been child rights in the Federal Republic of Germany. It prohibits "corporal punishment, emotional harm and other degrading measures".
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