What is communication


Communication science

1. Term: a) I.w.S .: The process of transmitting messages between a sender and one or more recipients.

b) I.e.S .: Exchange of messages or information between people. Language on the one hand and body language (non-verbal communication), including facial expressions, gestures, eye contact and spatial distance, are used as communication channels. In scientific analysis, the communicating people are usually called communicator and recipient, while the message that mediates between the two is also called a message or (general) sign. An abstract approach to the analysis of communication and sign processes is semiotics.

2. Content / content aspects: The term “communication” refers to the fact that communicator and recipient share something with each other. This common ground is first of all the “content” of the communication. Three content aspects can be analytically distinguished:
(1) Your relation to objects or facts (Display function),
(2) the reference to characteristics or intentions of the communicator (Expression function) and
(3) the relation to the reactions of the recipients (Roll call function). In addition, every message has one Relationship aspect. It defines and regulates the social relationship between communicator and recipient.

See also communication research, communication policy.


1. Term: Process in which information is exchanged with the aim of communicating about tasks. Specialists and managers spend most of their working time communicating. The efficiency of communication is influenced not only by the individual ability of the person but also by the communication structure.

2. Types:
(1) After the Content of the task, within the framework of which the communication is carried out: case-by-case (individualized), case-related and routine case-related (programmed) communication;
(2) after the formal regulation of the communication path: Official and unbound communication;
(3) after the organizational integration of communication partners: Internal and cross-organizational communication;
(4) after the triggering criterion: Formal (i.e. determined by the organizational plan) and informal (i.e. carried out in the context of interpersonal contacts) communication;
(5) after the receiver the information to be transmitted: individual communication and mass communication;
(6) after the Direction of information flow: One and two-way communication;
(7) after the timing of communication partners and the associated requirement for intermediate storage of the transmitted information: synchronous and asynchronous communication;
(8) after the organizational levelsto which the communication partners are assigned: Horizontal and vertical communication.