How developed is Pakistan


China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) - the new Silk Road

On April 20, 2015, Pakistan and China signed a billion-dollar deal that will develop the Sino-Pakistani economic corridor for the benefit of both countries. With a 26 billion euro investment program, China wants to revive the old Silk Road. This new Silk Road stretches 3000 km from Gwadar Port in the southwestern province of Baluchistan of Pakistan to the northwestern autonomous region of Xinjiang China. This project reflects the geostrategic and political interests of China. China is thus aiming for direct access to Central Asia and the Middle East, so that the trade route no longer has to take the detour via the Strait of Malacca, a strait in Southeast Asia - past its rival India - as before.

In return, China is investing in numerous infrastructure and energy projects along the economic corridor in Pakistan. Against the background of the dramatic energy shortage, which is affecting not only the population but also the industrial sector, any investments in the energy sector are more than welcome in Pakistan. Motorways, railways and energy pipelines for oil and gas transport are to be built. Pakistan hopes this massive investment will turn the country into an economic regional center. International and Pakistani media as well as the Pakistani government call this super deal a “game and fate changer” for the region.

Despite the euphoria, China has raised concerns about the security situation in Pakistan. Chinese workers in Pakistan have been kidnapped by nationalist separatists in the past. China is also concerned that separatist groups from Xinjiang, where an oppressed Muslim minority live, could ally with Pakistani militants. The corridor is also said to run through Pakistani Kashmir, where there is still mutual fire between the border patrols of India and Pakistan.

As early as 2003, the responsibility for the construction and management of the Gwadar port was handed over to a Chinese company, which was heavily criticized by the population and political representatives of Beluchistians. Baluchistan's nationalists have been accusing the central government for years of not including them in the decision-making processes for mega-projects and of not allowing the population of the province to participate in economic progress.

Pakistan traditionally exports the following products: textiles / clothing (e.g. leather), which accounts for more than half of total exports; Foods such as rice; Chemical products, raw materials, petroleum and others. The main trading partners for export are the USA, the United Arab Emirates, China, Afghanistan, Great Britain, Bangladesh and Germany. It is noticeable here that, although it is a neighbor and an important emerging country in this region, little trade is still being carried out - obviously because of the long-running Indo-Pakistani conflict. The new government has set itself the goal of improving trade relations and thus also political relations.

Pakistan - also due to the withdrawal of the USA - has come closer to its most important ally, the People's Republic of China. China has announced that it will invest around 50 billion euros in the Sino-Pakistani economic corridor as part of the new Silk Road. However, experts point out that economic growth requires political stability. The growing tensions in the country, in turn, endanger this stability. Senator Akram Dashi stated that the military ultimately risked this to advance its own interests. "The military will try everything to keep Sharif out of politics. This means that the military is not ready to accept that civil political parties are in charge of the country."

Free trade agreement planned with Turkey

Pakistan and Turkey plan to sign a free trade agreement in 2019. This was announced after a state visit by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to Pakistan at the end of 2016. According to press reports, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif praised Erdogan's charismatic leadership and assured him of “Pakistani solidarity”. However, according to reports from the Turkish educational organization PakTurk, 450 people (teachers and their families at the international schools and colleges) had been asked to leave the country within three days immediately before Erdogan's visit. The organization teaches more than 10,000 students in Pakistan and is associated with the Gülen movement. The Pakistani Ministry of the Interior declined to comment, according to press reports. Erdogan commented on this decision as "very gratifying" and as a sign of Pakistan's fight against terrorism.

GSP Plus for Pakistan

The European Parliament has approved a preferential trade status for Pakistan. Germany has given Pakistan a lot of support in this regard. The so-called GSP Plus Status (Generalized System of Preference), which came into force on January 1, 2014, allows the duty-free export of over 90% of Pakistani products to the EU. The EU is Pakistan's largest trading partner. While on the one hand this status promises an increase in Pakistani exports of $ 1 billion, on the other hand this free trade is conditional on the implementation of international conventions on human rights, good governance, workers' rights and environmental standards.