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Things that invalidate the fast

Praise be to Allah ..

Allah, exalted be He, has prescribed fasting according to the most perfect wisdom.

He orders the fasting to perform his fast moderately, so that one does not harm oneself by fasting and does not take what opposes the fasting.

Because of this, there are two types of things that will invalidate the fast:

There are things that invalidate fasting in a form of exhaustion, such as intercourse, vomiting, menstruation, and cupping. The leakage of these things from the body is part of what weakens the body. Therefore, Allah, exalted be He, made them among the things that invalidate the fast, so that the fasting person would not be met by the weakness resulting from the fasting and the weakness resulting from the exiting of these things, so that through the Fasting does not suffer any harm and his fasting does not go beyond the limit of moderation.

One of the things that invalidates the fast is some kind of abundance, such as eating and drinking. If the fasting person eats or drinks, he will not receive the desired wisdom from the fast. From “Majmuu‘ Al-Fatawa ”(248/25).

Allah, exalted be He, has already united the fundamentals of the things that break the fast in His words:

“From now on, associate with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white and black thread of dawn is clearly different for you! Then fast until night! "

[Al-Baqara 2: 187]

Allah, exalted be He, mentions in this noble verse the basics of the things that break the fast, and these are eating, drinking and intercourse.

The rest of the things that break the fast, the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, set out in his Sunnah.

There are seven things that invalidate (break) the fast. These are:

1. Sexual intercourse

2. Masturbation

3. Eating and drinking

4. Everything that has the meaning of eating and drinking

5. Deliberate vomiting

6. The leakage of menstrual or puerperal blood from the woman

The first of these things is sexual intercourse: it is the most formidable thing that breaks the fast and brings with it the greatest sin. Anyone who deliberately and voluntarily engages in sexual intercourse during the day, in Ramadan, so that the two circumcised parts meet and the glans is inserted into one of the two openings, has invalidated his fast, regardless of whether he ejaculates or not. One must return repentant, continue fasting that day, make up for it, and make the severe atonement. The proof of this is the hadith of Abu Huraira, may Allah have mercy on him, where he said:

“A man came to the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, whereupon he said:“ I perished, O Messenger of Allah! ”He asked:“ And what made you perish? ”He replied,“ I fell in Ramadan about my wife. ”He asked,“ Can you find a slave to buy free? ”He said,“ No! ”He asked,“ Can you manage to fast for two months in a row? ”He said,“ No! ” The Prophet asked: "Can you feed sixty poor people?" He said: "No!" ... "

Narrated by Al-Bukhari (1936) and Muslim (1111)

Atonement is not required for any of the things that break the fast except for sexual intercourse.

The second is masturbation:

It is the induction of ejaculation through the hand and something else.

The proof that masturbation is one of the things that break the fast is the statement of Allah, exalted be, in the holy hadith (Hadith Qudsi) about the fasting: “He leaves his food, his drink and his desires for my sake. "

Narrated by Al-Bukhari (1894) and Muslim (1151).

Ejaculation (or climax) is part of the desire that the fasting person refrains from.

So whoever masturbates during the day, in Ramadan, must return to Allah in remorse, abstain for the rest of the day (i.e. fast) and make up for that day.

And if you start masturbating, hold back and have not ejaculated, you have to show remorse, but your fast is valid and you don't have to make up for that day because you haven't ejaculated. The fasting person should keep away from everything that arouses his desire and drives all bad thoughts out of himself.

As for the leakage of madhiy (fluid that leaks when aroused), the stronger opinion is that it does not break the fast.

The third is eating and drinking:

This is the introduction of food and drink, by mouth, into the stomach.

It is the same when you put something through your nose into your stomach, like eating and drinking.

This is why the Prophet said, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him:

“Exaggerate when breathing in (of water, Arabic: Istinschaq), except when you are fasting.” Narrated by At-Tirmidhi (788) and Al-Albani classified this in “Sahih At-Tirmidhi” (631) as authentic.

If the entry of water into the stomach, through the nose, had no effect on the fast, the Prophet, may peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, would not have forbidden the fasting person to exaggerate while inhaling. "

The fourth is everything that has the meaning of eating and drinking:

This includes two things:

1. Blood transfusions for the fasting person, such as bleeding profusely and being injected with blood. This breaks the fast as it is like eating and drinking.

2. Injections with a nutritious substance that make eating and drinking unnecessary because they are on the same level. By Shaykh ibn ´Uthaimin from “Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan” (p. 70).

For syringes that are not a substitute for eating and drinking but are used for treatment, such as penicillin, insulin, to provide energy to the body, or for vaccinations, it does not harm the fast, whether it is inserted through the muscles or veins .

From “Fatawa Muhammad ibn Ibrahim” (189/4). It is safer if all these syringes are used at night.

Dialyses that require the blood to be drawn out for purification, then put back into the blood again along with chemical and nutritious substances such as sugar and salts etc. are seen as things that break the fast.

From “Fatawa Al-Lajnah Ad-Daa`ima” (19/10).

The fifth is drawing blood through cupping:

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

"Those who cup and those who cup break their fasts."

Narrated by Abu Dawud (2367) and Al-Albaani classified this in "Sahih Abi Dawud" (2047) as authentic.

What also belongs to cupping (falls into the same judgment) is donating blood, as this has the same effects on the body as cupping.

Accordingly, the fasting person is not allowed to donate blood unless there is a needy person, then it is allowed. The donor breaks his fast anyway and has to make up that day.

By Ibn ´Uthaimin from “Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan” (p. 71).

But whoever bleeds heavily, his fast is valid, since this happens without will. From “Fatawa Al-Lajnah Ad-Daa`ima” (264/10).

As for the leakage of blood when pulling a tooth, having an operation, doing a blood test, etc., this does not break the fast, since it is not cupping and is not included in the meaning as it is not in the body have the same effects as cupping.

The sixth is deliberate vomiting:

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

"If you vomit, you don't have to make up for the fast, and if you vomit on purpose, you have to do it."

Narrated by At-Tirmidhi (720) and Al-Albaani classified this in "Sahih At-Tirmidhi" (577) as authentic.

Ibn Al-Mundhir said:

"The scholars agree that the fast of those who vomit on purpose is invalid."

From "Al-Mughni" (368/4).

So anyone who deliberately vomits by sticking their finger in their mouth, pressing them on their stomach, deliberately smelling a hideous smell, or constantly looking at something that makes them vomit, has to catch up on the fast.

If the stomach turns, however, there is no need to prevent vomiting, as this is harmful. From “Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan” by Ibn ´Uthaimin (p. 71).

The seventh is the leakage of menstrual and puerperium blood:

The Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, said:

"Isn't it the case that when her period starts, she neither prays nor fasts?"

Narrated by Al-Bukhari (304).

Whenever the woman sees the menstrual or puerperal blood, her fast will be void, even if it happens just a moment before sunset.

And if the woman feels that the menstrual blood is moving, but does not come out until after sunset, then her fast is valid.

If the menstruating woman's blood stops flowing at night and she then intends to fast, but then dawn breaks before she has washed, the scholars generally agree that her fast is valid.

From "Al-Fath" (148/4).

It is better for the menstruating woman to remain in her natural form and be satisfied with what Allah has written for her and that she not take something that prevents the bleeding and that she accept what Allah has given her Breaking the fast in menstruation and making up for it. Such were the mothers of the believers and the women of the Salaf.

From “Fatawa Al-Lajnah Ad-Daa`ima” (151/10).

In addition, it has been confirmed by medicine that these obstacles cause much harm, and many women suffer from menstrual disorders due to it. But if the woman does this (anyway) and takes something that stops the period and thereby makes her pure, then her fast is valid

These are the things that invalidate the fast. All of these, with the exception of menstruation and the puerperium, only break the fast if three conditions are met:

- That one knows about it and is not ignorant,

- that one makes them aware and has not forgotten

- and that you do this voluntarily and not be forced.

For benefits, let's mention a few things that don't break the fast:

Enemas, eye drops, ear drops, pulling teeth, and treating wounds do not break the fast.

From "Majmuu‘ Fatawa Schaikh Al-Islaam "(233/25, 245/25).

Medicinal tablets that are placed under the tongue to treat asthma attacks, etc., as long as you don't swallow what gets down your throat.

Everything that is inserted into the vagina, such as suppositories, lotions, the colposcope, or the fingers for medical treatment.

The introduction of a magnifying lens or a coil, etc. into the uterus.

Everything that is inserted into the urinary canal, whether in a man or a woman, such as a catheter, magnifying optics, a dark dye for the purpose of X-rays, medicine or a washing solution for the urinary bladder.

Tooth drilling, pulling molars, brushing your teeth, whether with the Siwak or with toothbrushes, as long as you don't swallow what gets into your throat.

Mouth rinses, gargles and mouth sprays as long as you don't swallow what gets down your throat.

Oxygen gas and anesthetic gas, as long as the sick person is not supplied with nutritious fluids.

Everything that comes into the body through absorption by the skin, such as oils, ointments (cream) and healing patches for the skin, which contain medicinal and chemical substances.

Inserting a catheter into the artery for diagnostic images, for treating the coronary arteries, or for other muscles.

Insert magnifying optics through the stomach wall to examine the intestines or perform a surgical procedure (operation) on them.

Taking samples from the liver or other muscles as long as they are not accompanied by fluids.

Insertion of an endoscope as long as it is not accompanied by the supply of fluids or other substances.

Introducing medical instruments or substances into the brain or spinal cord.

And Allah, exalted be He, knows best.

See also “Majaalis Ramadaan” by Shaykh Ibn ´Uthaimin, and the booklet “Sab´un Mas`alah fi As-Siyaam”, which is available in the book section here on this page.