Should society rethink orphanages
Family and family politics
is Professor of Sociology with a focus on "Theory and Empirical Social Structure" at the Institute for Empirical and Applied Sociology at the University of Bremen. His research areas are social structure research and the sociology of the life course, in particular the sociology of the family and forms of life.
Contact: [email protected]
Family development in the curriculum vitaePeople's family history is part of their résumé. Traditionally, it was described as a succession of individual phases of family development, which followed one another with great regularity and each made special demands on the lifestyle of the individuals (family cycle). After a couple had got to know and love, the traditional family cycle began with marriage and the establishment of a household of their own, as soon as the man could provide for the material basis of the family. The next phase was characterized by the birth of the first child (starting a family), which was followed by the births of second and further children (family expansion). After growing up, the children gradually left home. The parents entered the postparental phase ("empty nest" phase) when the last child had moved out of their household. The process ended with the death of one of the parents. A separation of the parents and a possible reorganization through remarriage or moving in together were not planned.
The departure of the children from the parental home or their marriage marked the beginning of the family cycle in the child generation. The sequence of family phases was therefore seamlessly passed on from one generation to the next. So the term of the cycle was quite appropriate. The family cycle also corresponded to an equally clear and reliable structure in the man’s professional area and income generation. The majority of CVs have never expired as neatly as this model of the family cycle intended, and that is certainly not the case today. Historically, the model best describes the period of the 1950s and 1960s, which was already known as the "golden age of marriage".
A look at the age phase between the ages of 18 and 35, which can be viewed as the time of transition to adulthood, shows this particularly clearly. The mere fact that this large age range has to be applied today is remarkable. It is becoming more and more difficult - also in people's self-image - to say exactly when one sees oneself as an adult. The traditional symbols or "marker events" of this transition, which, in addition to completing an apprenticeship and starting working life, also included marriage and the birth of a child, have lost their significance. Family development has lost its formerly self-evident anchorage in the résumé.
The sequence of phases and events, as provided in the traditional "normal biography" or in the family cycle, is less and less valid. The proportion of births out of wedlock is constantly increasing. In East Germany, illegitimate family formation has become the norm. Marriage is therefore no longer seen as a prerequisite for parenthood and parenthood is less and less an occasion to get married.
This corresponds to the fact that around half of the unmarried partnerships in the eastern German federal states were parent-child communities in 2003, in western Germany these made up only a quarter - and the trend is rising.
The relationship between private and professional life has become more complicated and, especially for women, less mapped out than it used to be. Lifestyles that could endanger the efforts of both partners to be gainfully employed are therefore unattractive. The change between family phases and employment phases is becoming ever faster for women. The three-phase model (vocational training and employment - family phase - return to work), which was diagnosed in the mid-1950s by the Swedish social scientists Alva Myrdal and Viola Klein, is now largely a thing of the past.
But new forms of "family cycles" have emerged with new regularities. Unmarried cohabitation with a partner is common in many countries, and illegitimate parenting has become normal in many places, not only in East Germany, but also in countries like Sweden, France and Great Britain. The age at which a family is started has increased. In the group of the highly qualified, marriage or starting a family at the age of 35 and over is no longer unusual. However, the birth of children is still relatively concentrated within an age interval that is not too large. Voluntary renunciation of marriage and family has also become a perfectly normal option on résumés. The widespread lack of marriage and children before the triumphant advance of the bourgeois family was still rather involuntary and was due to legal regulations.
Pacs - a French marriage alternative
The partners are assessed jointly for income tax, and in the event of inheritance or gifts, the same tax rates apply as for married couples. In principle, the separation of property applies, which the majority of the spouses also opt for. As in marriage, a Pacs partner can also be insured in the health insurance of the other. If he is a civil servant, the same rules apply to him in the event of a transfer as to a married person. If he is in a relationship with a railway official, he can travel on the state railway for free. However, there is no widow or survivor's pension. The Pacs does not result in any automatic right of residence, the partners are also not allowed to adopt children, and the health insurance companies do not bear the costs of artificial insemination for them. In certain cases, social welfare recipients can lose their right to state support.
The Pacs tends to replace marriage more and more in France. In 2007, for the first time in France, more children out of wedlock than legitimate children were born. [...]
Michael Kläsgen, "Love with notice", in: Süddeutsche Zeitung from August 26, 2008
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