The Romans in Southwest Germany
The fall of the Roman Republic and the reign of Emperor Augustus (44 BC - 14 AD)
Roman history at the time of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan (81-117 AD)
Roman history at the time of the emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (117-161 AD)
Roman history at the time of the emperors Marc Aurel and Commudus (161-192 AD)
Building the Roman State
The army during the Roman Empire
Roman religion and philosophy
Origin and expansion of Christianity
Development of Christianity from Emperor Constantine I to the fall of the Western Roman Empire (306 - 476)
Coin system and long-distance trade in the Roman Empire
The survival of Roman culture
Roman proverbs and rules of life
The secret of the place Grinario
The Roman fort in Grinario
The village of Grinario
The people in the village of Grinario
Excavations in today's Köngen
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Coin System Bibliography
Economy in the Roman Empire
- From the beginning to the imperial era
UntilEnd of the 3rd century BC Chr. was the agrarian one City of Rome in the Lazio landscape compared to the one adjacent to the north Etruria and the one to the south Campania a fairly insignificant economic area. In Etruria there was already a highly developed one by that timeMetal crafts. While in Rome agriculture was still in the family business has already been carried out in Campania and southern Italy Large farmswhere Greeks worked. The farmers of Lazio sold their products (eggs, meat, chickens, vegetables, wine, oil) on the marketplaces of Rome. Foreign merchants(Greeks, Carthaginians, Phoenicians and Etruscans) offered bronze work, utensils and ceramics and exchanged raw materials in these markets. In the Lazio region, however, the demand was largely met through our own agricultural and artisanal production. in the Craft a beginning specialization emerged (weaver, potter, blacksmith, goldsmith, dyer, cobbler, tanner).
The increasing Expansion of the Roman dominion from the 4th century BC Chr. Led to a fundamental Change in the agricultural structure of Italy. Large areas of the conquered land was considered Roman "State country" (ager publicus) drafted and given to wealthy Roman citizens, in particularAristocrats, leased. In place of themany small farms of the free farmers now often stepped thegreat goodsthat with the help ofslaves were farmed.
The owners of large agricultural estates, mainly Senators and Knights, benefited fromExport of agricultural productsthat they are withHelp the slaves could create cheaply. Senators and knights were also the ones with the Delivery of war material and with theTroop catering earned a lot of money. Also the Income from construction companies (Temples, theaters, market halls, barracks, water pipes, sewers, etc.) flowed to this very small section of the population. Great fortunes were amassed in a few people; they led an exuberant, luxury life. All the others who did not belong to this small group were exposed to the constant danger that their little possessions would be reduced or even dissolved as a result of crises, wars and civil unrest. So it wasrural middle class in Italy almost completely affected by the dissolution.
The rural middle class had up toArmy reform of Marius in 107 BC Chr.(Creation of professional armies!) to provide most of the soldiers for the constant wars and could not carry out their duties at home for longer and longer periods of time. Many farms have been neglected. It was therefore easy for the rich citizens of Rome to dislodge the peasants and take over most of the state land.
In 133 BC Tried the Tribune Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in vain for one Social reform with land distribution to the impoverished lower class of Italy; he is slain. This is the beginning of 100 years of civil unrest and civil war. From 123 to 121 BC Chr. Sets Gaius Gracchuscontinued his brother's work. He secured the grain allocation to the "proletarians" and also won the knighthood for himself. But when he all Italians through a"Confederate Law" Wanted to grant Roman citizenship, he met resistance. He too is killed. The rich citizens of Rome had asserted their interests.
In the last two centuries of the Roman Republic (until 31 BC) the slave trade reached a sad high point. 209 BC 30,000 slaves were captured from Taranto, 167 BC. From Epirus 150,000 and 146 BC From Carthage 50,000. One reckons in the first century BC Chr. With three million slavessouth of the Apennines. Up to 10,000 slaves were handled every day on Delos, the largest slave market. The slaves were exploited to the point of "amortization", i.e. until they had worked their way to death.
From the End of the 4th century BC Chr. were all over Italy for the new cities rapidly growing population established. At the same time, previously almost uninhabited regions were filled with farms, estates and villages. Than yourself around 300 BC Chr. the city of Rome could no longer be adequately nourished from its hinterland, the grain increasingly came out Campania and - during the 3rd century AD also from theGallia Cisalpina and Sicily. At the beginning of the 2nd century comes as a grain supplier for the city of Rome North africa added.
Thesuccessful wars in the west and east of the Mediterranean against Carthage, Macedonia and the Seleucid Empire led to the fact that the political supremacy of Rome on the economic superiority of the Greco-Hellenistic world with their unified economic area and yourssingle currency bumped. Only at the beginning of the Second Punic War (218 - 201 BC) did Rome also lead an orderly one with the silver denarius Single currency a. With the Roman rule, the previous "world currency", the Greek drachma, gradually changed.
Rome used the lucky constellation of the unified economic area found and pulled the entire long-distance trade per se. The previous trading centers of Marseille, Naples, Syracuse, Rhodes and Byzantium were pushed back. With Carthage and Corinth, the most dangerous rivals became 146 BC. Chr. Completely destroyed.
The dominance of Rome in the economic area around the Mediterranean is due to the new social groups of knights and freedmen. As these groups were excluded from state offices, they shifted activity to the economic sector. It was mainly the knights who took over the big long-distance trade and money transactions individually or on the way through participations. Favored by the intensification of the monetary economy, they carried out those administrative and economic tasks which the Roman Republic was unable to carry out with its administrative apparatus. This included the Supply of the armies.
In the Large farms in agriculture in Italy was especially the Wine and oil production enormously increased. In the 2nd and 1st centuries BC Because of the quality, but also because of the cheap production costs (slaves!), Wine and oil from Italy beat all competitors out of the field.
Large handicraft companies in Italy there was especially in the Leather processing and inTextile industry. This gave the specialized craftsmen the opportunity to work together with other specialists. Slaves with manual skills were also employed. Unskilled slaves were also trained in these companies and, if necessary, loaned out to other companies.
The roman economy reached high levels in the first century AD that lasted until the third century AD. This bloom was based on onewell organized agriculturewho knew how to take advantage of climatic conditions, as wella stable state and one flourishing trade. In addition to the spoils of war and the income from the provinces, wealth was based on advanced technology, division of labor, trade, reliable institutions and a state power that guaranteed peace and security.
The Food production was the central point of all economic activity. Famine was due to both crops destroyed by the wars and bad weather conditions. For the long-term development of agriculture these short-term events did not matter. In order to avoid bottlenecks in the supply and in their consequence social unrest, the grain prices were regulated or grain to the needydistributed. Rome gave grain to 200,000 residents free of charge over long periods of time. The annual grain requirement of the capital Rome amounted to 500,000 tons or 1,400 shiploads (about 370 tons per ship).
After thisCollapse of the Roman Republic In the first century AD, the "Pax Augusta" (the 'Augustus Peace') enabled a period of further economic growth, especially for long-distance trade. The countries on the periphery of the Roman Empire were included as full trading partners: in the west Spain, Gaul, Britain, Scotland and Germania, in the south and east Mauritania (Morocco / Algeria), Numidia (Tunisia), Abyssinia (Ethiopia), Nubia, the coasts of Arabia on the Red Sea and the southern Russian area up to today's Kiev. The entire large economic area was under the leadership of Rome and Italy.
Rome became the center of an intense one Long distance trading, which extended through intermediaries to all of Europe with the exception of the northeast, to Africa to the areas of Central, East and West Africa, to Asia to the Middle and Rear of India, Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and China. This long-distance trade was a prerequisite a high level of development in the banking industry (e.g. cashless payment transactions) and thecommercial accounting. The scope of theTrade in bulk goods by land was relatively low because of the high transport costs. The only means of transport in the country were carts and wagons pulled by donkeys, horses, camels and oxen. The long-distance goods were transported by sea. The sea routes ran in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Black Sea and the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.
Italy exported its products such as oil, wine, glass and metal goods, bronze utensils and fine clay dishes, the so-called "terra sigillata", mainly to the newly won sales markets of the border countries and border provinces.
- Oil and wine were exported "all over the world". The soil was used increasingly intensively and the production methods were continuously improved: irrigation, drainage, green manuring with clover and lupine, two-harvest management, use of new types of equipment, etc.
At Finished goods exported Etruria and then increasinglyCampania Lots of bronze and iron tools and ceramics. Metal, ceramic and, a little later, the glass industry Campania to the largest metropolitan area and industrial center of antiquity.
Italy mainly imported grain from Egypt and North Africa, as well as those coveted by the imperial court and the upper class Luxury goods such as pearls, precious stones, spices, perfumes from India, silk from China. Caviar, furs and honey were bought from the Black Sea.
For all essential everyday products, however, agricultural and artisanal production for the local market far outweighed imports. - The Imperium Romanum under the Principat did not have any standardization in the economic sector in the sense of a systematically coordinated large economic area. There was no binding agreement between the individual sub-rooms (for example, in which sub-room which product is to be created). There is also no consistent state economic policy.
The Roman state guaranteed a previously unknown within its borders security, a relative uniform legal systemthat protected private property and prevented arbitrariness. The currency remained stable for a long time. A uniform system of measurement ensured that goods produced in one area of the empire could easily get to another. A Network of solid roads made the transport possible.
Creation of large economic areas: In addition to Italy (with Sardinia, Corsica and Sicily) also Germania, Gaul, Spain, Africa
The brisk export and import activity brought the Provinces economic boom, but at the same time undermined Italy's central position as early as the end of the first century AD. In the south of Gaul, for example, large ceramic factories emerged whose products were exported to almost all parts of the empire.
New sales markets in the provinces usually resulted in the production facilities moving closer to them. The better location conditions often spoke in favor of production in the provinces. Economic exploitation by Rome declined. It was an important trading center Colonia Ulpia Traiana, the largest Roman city on the Lower Rhine (in the area of today's Xanten)
The provinces began more and more to produce their own supplies, so that from the end of the 1st century AD Italy's economy was able to export less and less, stagnated and the cities slowly began to shrink BC was the heyday of most provinces, in many places agriculture was intensified, its products refined, industries built up. During the political and economic crisis of the Roman Empire in the third century, the large economic areas began to develop completely independently.
Egypt and Cyrenaica: especially wheat and linen textiles, as well as cotton, glass, ivory, precious stone goods, ammonia, papyrus, beer
Syria: purple-dyed textiles (also made of cotton and silk), perfumes, ointments.
Asia Minor: wool, linen textiles, marble, caviar
Greece: textiles, marble from Attica, resin, wood, horses, works of art, also export of slaves from Thessaly and Macedonia.
North Africa: especially wheat and olive oil, as well as pearls, sponges, purple, sandarac wood, marble, horses, wild animals for the arenas.
Britain: metals, wool, animal skins
Gaul and Rhineland: woolen fabrics, pottery (terra sigillata), glass and bronze goods, brass utensils, pigs
Spain: wine, oil, cork, metal, also export of slaves
Raetia and Noricum: iron, gold, wood, furs, animal skins, also export of slaves
Germania: wood, hides, cattle
Also inGerman southwest concerned wholesalers and long-distance traders those goods in the local production could not be established. During excavations, amphorae for wine, olive oil, pickled olives, pickled dates and fish sauce from Italy, Spain and southern France were found.
With the heyday of the Roman Empire and its expansion policy, the wine growing extended to large parts of Europe. The Roman legions initially had their wine brought over long distances from their homeland. Only gradually did they begin to grow wine in the occupied regions. Also in the Germanic provinces the Romans operated viticulture. After the Romans left, the cultivation of vines was stopped by the Monasteries accepted. Centuries later, the first German emperor, Charlemagne, create large areas of vineyards.
The Romans started growing wine on the Moselle in the middle of the third century. However, wine continued to be imported from the Mediterranean region. Numerous amphorae in which the wine was transported were found in Trier and the surrounding area. In AD 98, the Roman chronicler had Tacitus in its "Germania" the drinking habits of the Germanic tribes are described as follows: "The drink used is a liquid made from barley or wheat, falsified into a certain resemblance to wine".
The main exports from southwest Germany were hides, agricultural products, cattle and honey. As compensation The Germanic peoples liked metal vessels, fine ceramics, jewelry and tools, which is also suggested by the archaeological finds.
- The economic crisis of the Roman Empire in the third century
At the Late 2nd century began general decline in the economy in the empire. The already steadily growing pressure of the marginalized peoples, especially the Germanic peoples andPersian, increased considerably. The custom practiced by Rome of making payments to marginalized peoples - to appease them, to instigate strife among them, to buy prisoners of war free - now assumed great proportions. That meant oneOutflow of precious metals, which are becoming scarce. Since the mostly Germanic mercenaries also returned home with their saved wages and booty after their retirement from Roman service, the necessity became theRaise taxes, Always stronger. Also caused the Defense of the empirean increased tax requirement. The crippling control pressure hit one through Epidemics andBarbarian incursions decimated population. TheLack of manpower led to a shortage of agricultural and industrial products. This in turn led to a decline in trade.
TheEconomic system of the Roman Empire was disrupted at all levels, from smallholders in the country to urban handicrafts to supraregional trade. At that time, the economic downturn could not be compensated for by the introduction of new, more efficient technologies. There was therefore no new phase of the upswing during this period. The golden age of the Roman Empire was over. The decline of Westrom was initiated.
The American Ancient historian Robert Knapp estimates that only 0.5 percent of the 50 to 60 million inhabitants of the Roman Empire controlled "probably 80 percent or more of the total wealth". A quarter probably belonged to the middle class, which was characterized by relatively secure incomes. These were traders, tradespeople, artisans, larger farmers and the lavishly paid legionnaires. All the rest led a precarious, often unfree life.
Economy Table of contents Römer Back to the top of the page
The Roman coin system
- History of Roman coinage up to the end of the republic (31 BC)
The oldest Rome only knew barter. Cattle (pecus), sheep and cattle served as a measure of value. The word 'pecunia' (= wealth in cattle) remained the name for money. From the 5th century BC The payment was also made in bronze. A law determined the equation: 1 cattle = 10 sheep = 100 pounds of bronze. The metal was chopped up and weighed according to the agreed price ('Pendere' means both 'to weigh' and 'to pay', 'Aes-timare' originally means 'to cut the ore' = to determine the bronze value of a thing, aestimare = to estimate ).
The bronze ingot currency is as "aes rude" (raw ore), "aes signatum" (stamped ore) and "aes grave" (heavy ore) known. The stamped, standardized bronze bars (aes signatum) came against 300 BC Chr. on. The central unit of value was the "As". With the stamping, the state not only guaranteed the purity of the metal, but also the weight through a value number. As with the "aes grave", the central unit of value for weight was an ace. However, this type of money was too heavy to be able to oust barter in central and northern Italy.
They were the model for the first Roman coinage Greek cities in southern Italy. This applies to the technical process of minting, the production of the embossing stamp and also for the coin images
With the introduction of the silver currency in 268 BC Was one at the temple of Juno Moneta on the Capitol Mint for coins decorated of gold, silver and copper. She was under the supervision of 3 minters. The first attempts at minting silver coins were made as early as 289 BC. Given. The value ratio of gold, silver and copper was 100: 10: 1. The unit of account remained the copper as until the time of C. Gracchus (123-121 BC).
The First Punic War (264 - 241 BC) accelerated the development of the money economy. A lot of money had been needed to equip the fleet. Conversely, a lot of precious metal flowed from Sicily to Rome through looting and contributions. After 241 BC The influx of precious metals continued through the tribute payments of Carthage. Most of the money was put into circulation immediately: to pay for loans taken out and government contracts.
Around 217 BC Chr., one year after the beginning of the Second Punic War (218 - 201 BC), the Roman Senate abandoned the old, unusable coin system and created one instead ordered single currency. Systematically and in larger editions, coins made of bronze, silver and occasionally gold emerged only afterwards approx. 211 BC Chr. This was when the defeated Syracuse provided Rome with the precious metal supplies it needed to bring the coin reform to life.
The weight for an ace has been significantly reduced. The ace was divided into five smaller denominations: Semis, Triens, Quadrans, Sextans and Uncia, which, however, soon lost their importance.
Three Silver coins were introduced: the Denarius from Latin denarius (containing ten aces), der Quinars from Latin quinarius (containing five aces), der Sesterce von von semis tertius (half the third, in other words two and a half As and the Victoriat (Derived from its depiction on the reverse, which shows a Victoria wreath a trophy. The denarius became the most common silver coin, but - unlike the ace and sesterce - the denarius was not counted. Originally worth 10 aces , a little later to the value of 16 aces, so that the denarius always corresponded to 4 sesterces.The sesterce, originally two and a half aces, a little later corresponded to 4 aces. This relation then remained unchanged. From C. Gracchus (123-121 BC) until well into the imperial era, larger amounts of money were given in sesterces. The Victoriat was intended exclusively for the Greek world. With its identical fine silver content, it was intended to replace the drachma commonly used in southern Italy and Sicily.
After the defeat of the southern Italian cities in the Second Punic War had put against Rome, became theirs local coinage discontinued and melted down the existing silver money. Then the Roman coin system was introduced. With the introduction of the denarius, the silver minting of those cities that - like Metapont or Syracuse - had issued their own coins ended. When the citizens of southern Italy got used to the denarius, it was used as early as 170 BC. The expression of the Victoriats set.
The new coin system with his rich selection of changemade it possible for the Roman citizens who did not own a farm to do the daily need for food to acquire in the market. A loaf of bread was now available for 1 As, an amphora of wine cost 20 As. Since the middle of the 2nd century BC The circulation of money increased sharply. Daily shopping became normal in Rome and other urban settlements. In rural areas, too, barter was replaced by the money economy. The sufficient supply of money was in the hands of the Roman Senate until the imperial era. Every year he decided how many coins and which types should be minted.
The new coin system also provided a basis for that Italian allies To tie (allies) closer to Rome economically. The taxes required to finance the war could also be determined and collected more efficiently.
The coins in the republican era mostly bore the head of the goddess Roma and the image of the mythological Dioscuri Castor and Pollux or a ship's beak.
A real golden Kurant coin, the aureus, with a weight of 7.7 g appears under Caesar. It has the value of 25 silver denars, the standard weight of which was between 3.9 g and 3.4 g. For 1 denarius there are now 4 sesterces, which are no longer made of silver, but of brass.
With Caesar begins the great series of Portraits of rulers and emperorsin which the Roman coin image reached the peak of its artistic design. Images and texts were placed on the front and back that were targeted spread political messages. In AD 71, for example, after their victory over the Batavians, the soldiers on the Rhine received mostly coins depicting Victoria (victory) and Securitas (security). In Italy, on the other hand, coins depicting Concordia (concord) were particularly numerous in the same year. Society there was torn by the civil war. At the end of the republic, the Roman currency clearly dominated over all other local currencies still in existence - at least as far as precious metal issues were concerned.
Almost every area that Rome adds to its territory has the Roman coin system in place. However, the conditions varied locally and depended on political, social and economic circumstances.
Around 120 ADWhen the Roman Empire was at its greatest expansion, one could travel from Britannia to Asia Minor and from North Africa to the Rhine without having to change money. At the time, minting was largely centralized in Rome. Only in the east of the empire were there still cities. who made their own bronze coins.
There was a real one within a financial district Money cycle. The taxes collected were used as pay for the troops stationed there. The soldiers used it to pay for products on the market. The local traders and farmers used these coins to pay their taxes. If the taxes were insufficient for the wages or special payments were made, the coins were delivered from Rome.
- Minting from Caesar until the 3rd century AD.
- Value relationships of the coin metals
- Gold: silver = 12.5: 1
Silver: copper = 60: 1
- from AD 60 onwards increasing coin deterioration due to weight reduction and changes in the fineness of the coins
From the beginning, the denarius was made of almost pure silver. So that the state could mint more coins, the silver content was reduced in small steps from the 1st century onwards. From a metallurgical point of view, brass was also used as an alloy of copper and zinc.
From the middle of the 2nd century onwards, the zinc content decreased rapidly, while lead and tin as alloy components increased sharply. Around 180 AD, the sesterces, which are still the most common unit of account, are no longer made of brass, but of bronze. The same applies to the content of silver coins: while the silver content was between 90 and 95 percent at the time of Augustus, it sank far below 50 percent after the year 180. - Around 160 AD, the valuable gold coins begin to disappear from circulation and to migrate to the money socks.
Emperor Aurelian (270 - 275) closed all municipal mints except for Alexandreia and ensured that the common, lightly silvered copper coins were brought out with their full weight in the state mints. Previously, the main mint in Rome had put a huge number of light coins into circulation independently, i.e. with an appropriate privilege.
However, Emperor Aurelian did not succeed in giving the double denarius created during the reign of Caracalla (211-217) with the name "Antonian" a value that would have ensured stable prices. The original silver coin was turned into a bilon coin. Bilon is an alloy containing only small traces of silver and made from a large proportion of copper and other base metals. The silver color of the coin could often only be achieved by pickling it in a solution of tartar and table salt.
Around AD 274/274 prices exploded. From then on, the denarius was only accepted for the value of its metal content. This broke the whole Roman coin system after almost 500 years together.
With theCoin reform ofEmperor Diocletian (284-305) in 294 the previous nominal order of the Roman coinage disappeared. In the year 301 the Value relations of the new coin types introduced seven years earlier, of which the 'Nummus', a large copper coin with silver coating, as well as the 'Argenteus', a pure silver coin, were most important to circulation. The'Aureus' corresponded to 1/60 of the 'Argenteus' 1/96 of the Roman pound. The most important unit in base metal was now the follis, a bronze coin with a thin silver coating. In contrast to the early imperial era, the stock of images and legends of the coins was limited to a few types, with which the four rulers presented their own image together with scenes such as state sacrifices, coin goddesses (monetae), encampments and 'genius populi romani'. Diocletian issued an edict that set minimum wages on the one hand and maximum prices on the other. This source gives some insight into the wage-price structure (see below).
- In 301 Diocletian issued the so-called Price edict (edictum de pretiis rerum venalium), with which maximum prices were set for a catalog of more than 1,000 goods and services, which could not be exceeded when the death penalty was threatened. However, he found no way to effectively monitor compliance with the edict.
The new coin system was also subject to rapid changes. The Argenteus disappeared as early as 310 AD, the weight of the follis was reduced more and more: While it weighed 9 to 11 g when it was first introduced, it had dropped to 1.5 g in 335.
Gold: silver = 18: 1
Silver: copper = 125: 1
- early imperial period (until 60 AD)
Daily wages of a worker: 1 denarius = 4 sesterces = 16 aces
A simple legionnaire received an annual salary of 225 deniers; a lightly armed soldier in an auxiliary force received only 185 denarii a year.
Annual salary of an experienced centurion (leader of a hundred): 3,375 denarii
Annual salary of a primipulus (leader of the first centurie of the first cohort of a legion): up to 13,500 denarii
Senior staff officers received around 30,000 denarii per year
The top salaries in the imperial administration at this time were a good 75,000 denarii per year
Dismissal payment for a legionnaire after 25 years of service: 3000 denarii
What is striking is the big difference in pay between soldiers and officers.
Two sesterces per day and person were enough to cover the immediate needs of life
A simple main meal: 2 aces
1/2 liter of wine, 100 g of wool, lamp: 1-2 aces each
Weekly requirement of an adult for grain: 12 aces
Work clothes: 10 denarii, fine tunic: 50 denarii
Clay bowl: 2 aces
1 pound of figs or dates: 3 aces
1 kg of beef: 8 aces, 1 kg of pork: 1 denarius
Entrance fee for a bath: 1/4 As
Price for 1 beef: 200 denarii
Pay one teacher per year: 180 denars for each student
1 pound of silk imported from China: 12,000 denarii
Price for a slave: 200 - 1000 denarii (a pretty slave cost from 2000 denarii)
1 sqm building land on the Palatine: 1 aureus
Sources: Roman museum Haltern, textbook Iter Romanum, Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier and others. (See Bibliography)
- under Emperor Commodus (180 - 192 AD)
- under Emperor Diocletian (284-305 AD)
Daily wages: Shepherd 20 denarii, skilled workers, bricklayer, carpenter, blacksmith, locksmith, baker, lime burner 50 denari each, sea cat 60 denarii, whitewater, wall painter 75 denarii, picture painter 150 denarii.
Monthly salaries: Middle school teacher (statistics and arithmetic) 50 denarii per pupil, engineer teacher 100 denarii per pupil, foreign language teacher 200 denarii per pupil
Some prices (in denarii): 1 Roman pound (approx. 357 grams) pork 12, 1 kg goat meat 8, 1 kg cheese 24-36, an egg 1, 1 pair of men's sandals 120, 1 simple oil bottle 100, a chicken 30, 1 Sextar (about 0.56 liters) Salern wine 30, 25 figs 4
Prices for services (in denarii): porter 2, haircutting 2, maker's fee for a pair of trousers 20, lawyer for an application to the court 250, lawyer for attending a court hearing 1000
Syme, Ronald: The Roman Revolution (This book describes in an exciting way the power struggle that the Roman oligarchy waged from 60 BC to 14 AD)
Greiner, Wilfried / Pelzl, Bernhard: Telling Ruins. Everyday life in ancient Rome. Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 1998 (information on areas of everyday Roman culture: games, "Roman nights", culinary arts, theater, fashion, medicine, trade and commerce, death and burial).
Eck, Werner: Augustus and his time. Munich 1998 (description of the Roman administration in the provinces and the administrative basis of the Roman Empire).
Bleicken, Jochen: Augustus. A biography. Berlin 1998 (description and comprehensive explanation of the principle. Depiction of the awareness of the times, the Reich administration and the army, the legislation, etc.)
Flaig, Egon: Ritualized Politics. Signs, Gestures, and Dominion in Ancient Rome. Goettingen 2003
Overbeck, B .: Rome and the Teutons. The testimony of the coins
Müller, Armin (ed.): The world of the Romans. Munster 1999
Kampmann, Ursula: Reserve currency for half a millennium. In: DAMALS, the magazine for history, issue 10/2014
Pleticha / Schönberger: The Romans, History and Culture from A-Z, Munich 1977
Spectrum special, issue 2-2016: Living and Dying in Ancient Rome
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