The bond angle of CH4 is
As Bond angle In chemistry and molecular physics, one describes the angle between covalent bonds of an atom to two neighboring atoms. It essentially depends on the atomic orbitals involved in the bonds, but can be influenced to a certain extent by steric interactions. The bond angles and thus the geometric structures of a molecule can be explained with the help of the VSEPR model. For compounds that contain elements from the subgroups, however, the VSEPR model usually fails.
For the bond angles between atoms in molecules whose orbitals are hydrided, there are specific theoretical angles (pseudostructure):
- sp3-Hybrid orbitals in molecules align with each other at a tetrahedral angle of 109.5 °.
- sp2-Hybrid orbitals are planar-trigonal to one another and form an angle of 120 °.
- sp hybrid orbitals align themselves linearly, resulting in a bond angle of 180 °.
The actual bond angles (real structure) in many molecules that have a tetrahedral, trigonal or linear structure, however, deviate to different degrees from the angles mentioned above (pseudo structure). The actual bond angle in the water molecule is not 109.5 °, but 104.45 °, since the non-bonding electron pairs slightly repel the bonding ones. There is also an angle deviating from 107 ° in the ammonia molecule. The deviation is smaller than in the water molecule, since ammonia only has one free electron pair.
One method for measuring bond angles is NMR spectroscopy. Molecular vibrations usually involve a periodic deformation of bond angles.
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