What is your school bully doing these days

Bullying in school

Bullying in school is a big problem. You will find out more about it here shortly.

Read the whole article on www.mobbing-in-der-schule.info.

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Article 1: Bullying at School (Family Guide)

Preliminary remark

Bullying is not a new phenomenon. It is also widespread in schools, although it should not be confused with brief conflicts, quarrels, aggressive arguments or marginalization among children and adults. Bullying can affect a variety of situations such as: B .:

  • A teacher speaks disparagingly in front of the class about a student because she doesn't come along or is sick again and again.
  • Or the classmates whisper, giggle or make insulting comments when a certain student speaks up.
  • Girls in a 7th grade tease a foreign classmate because of her appearance and bad language.
  • Fourth grade boys lie in wait for a shy, somewhat skinny classmate on the way to school and extort money or clothes from him.
  • A mother is marginalized by other parents and the teacher with mocking looks at parents' meetings.
  • Teacher colleagues in the staff room turn away and stop talking when a certain colleague walks in.

Often the adults are at a loss or look the other way, while the victims, whether children or adults, look to themselves to blame and become increasingly socially isolated. Teachers are usually surprised when asked about bullying in a class. Because the harassment often happens too subtle and mostly outside of class, during breaks or on the way to school.

The longer the bullying, the more difficult it is to find a solution and the more certain the physical or mental impairment of the children or adults concerned.

In the following post, the focus is on bullying among students, but this can reduce the impact e.g. B. should not be played down in the case of bullying by teachers towards students and vice versa, as well as within the teaching staff or among parents.

definition

The term mobbing comes from English and means to abuse, to finish (mob = mob, mobbish = mob-like). Bullying is a form of open and / or subtle violence against people over a long period of time with the aim of social exclusion. It can be verbal and / or physical violence. Student bullying refers to any malicious act that has no other aim than to beat down a classmate. This includes

  • as direct bullying: teasing, threatening, devaluing, insulting, belittling, exposing, bullying
  • as indirect bullying: marginalization, damage to reputation, "cold spots" by withholding information and damaging the property of the bullied person, etc.

A distinction is made between bullying, the physical violence practiced among young people, with which certain victims are tortured by their physically superior classmates.

Effects

First of all, bullying is also effective in that the victims first look for the "problem" in themselves, often over a long period of time. Seldom does a student inform a teacher or tell parents what happens every day. The consequences have an impact on the entire personality: A loss of self-confidence (not only in the performance area) can lead to sleep disorders and concentration problems. The perceived isolation and loneliness develop depressive tendencies and passivity. The motivation to learn decreases to reluctance to learn and avoidance of school.

The following areas can be affected:

  • Physical damage (injuries)
  • Psychological damage (e.g. destruction of self-confidence)
  • Psychosomatic reactions (e.g. loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nightmares, insomnia)
  • Other reactions (e.g. lack of concentration, decline in performance, days off due to "sick days" or truancy, withdrawal from social relations, fears, depression, up to suicide attempts or committed suicide)

The following behaviors may be signs of bullying in young people:

  • You don't want to go to school anymore.
  • You want to be driven to school.
  • Your academic performance is deteriorating.
  • You lose money (the money is extorted from the perpetrators).
  • They cannot or do not want to give a conclusive explanation for their behavior.
  • You start to stutter.
  • They withdraw.
  • You have nightmares.
  • You are attempting suicide.

Personality traits in victims and perpetrators

Basically, bullying is not an individual problem of the victims or perpetrators, but a structural group phenomenon that has escalated because there were no timely and adequate interventions. However, certain personality traits in victims appear to encourage bullying: it may affect students who are anxious, overadapted and have low self-esteem. A conspicuous or different appearance, clumsiness, helplessness or low tolerance for frustration can also predestine this. Sometimes potential victims also come from families with markedly violence-sensitive or violent behavioral norms, or it affects students who approach their classmates with particularly good faith and trust. Ultimately, they do not have the necessary social agility to stand up to the attacks of the perpetrators on their own.

In the case of perpetrators, d. H. The following tendencies can often be observed among pupils who actively bully: Demonstration of strength / power (often physical, less often mental superiority), increase in (lack of) self-esteem, compensation of weaknesses, leadership behavior (they often have followers / followers in cliques ). They think they are better, show it loudly and want to boast in front of the others.

frequency

Bullying occurs at all ages:

  • In the lower grades, bullying seems to occur more often than exclusion when classmates (less athletic, clumsy, "good" looking) show physical "inadequacies".
  • In middle school, fashion norms (branded clothing), behavioral norms in class ("nerd!") And the beginning of friendships against the sexes (jealousy, rivalry) determine the bullying.
  • In the upper school, the pressure of competition in the form of the hunt for points also seems to play a role.

Boys are more prone to open aggression and physically or verbally attack their counterparts, while girls tend to use more subtle forms such as manipulation, spreading rumors or social exclusion; this is also known as relationship aggression.

Causes of Bullying

According to studies from the world of work, the following causes of bullying can also be named in schools:

  • Bullying as failure of the manager: In the school sector, this means that the teacher or school management does not deal with this problem competently, and is sometimes even actively involved in the bullying process. The interpretation of behavior as bullying is often rejected: The victim is "exaggerating", is "too sensitive" or "it's their own fault" due to their own behavior. To many teachers the behavior appears to be "normal" according to the age group ("It was the same in our time!").
  • Group dynamic aspects play an important role: A newly thrown together class, the “new” in a class, but also personal aspects of the perpetrator (need for revenge, jealousy, competition, etc.) form the motive background.
  • In general, bullying is a symptom of disturbed communication: the victims are isolated, the perpetrators receive no feedback on the effects of their harassment, and the passive "bystanders" are at a loss, are afraid or also behave in a certain way voyeuristic.

Measures against bullying

Those affected by bullying situations need outside support, because bullying victims can usually no longer defend themselves.

Students should have the courage to turn to someone who can help (teacher, school psychologist, parents, friends, outsiders, advice center). Many victims are ashamed of being bullied and suffer in silence. However, it is important that they tell adults they trust about incidents of bullying. Contact with those affected on the Internet can also help to regain self-confidence and to find ways out of the spiral of victims.

Teachers should take a clear stand and try to enable at least the "watching" classmates, but if possible also the perpetrators, to change their perspective and to make clear to them the psychological consequences for the victims in such a situation. They are designed to encourage students to report incidents of bullying. Victims must be protected and supported, perpetrators must be brought to justice and actively involved in the solution. Class rules should be agreed as preventive measures against bullying.

In individual cases, you can also work with the youth welfare office, the educational counseling center or another counseling facility (by discussing cases or looking after affected families or children / adolescents).

parents should know the warning signs of bullying. You should take the child seriously if, for example, B. no longer wants to go to school, has stomach pain in the morning, has nightmares, is sick a lot or brings school supplies home damaged. If you suspect bullying, you should not contact the perpetrator too quickly, but inform the school and demand that action be taken. If necessary, you can also contact the school management, the parents' council or an advice center.

In general, preventive measures against violence and bullying should be carried out in schools and projects should be supported that improve the school climate and enable an open atmosphere and a fair, constructive culture of discussion and debate. This can be done in projects, parents' evenings, conferences, lectures, etc.

Taken from: Bullying in School (family handbook)

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Article 2: Bullying at School (Stangl-Taller)

General definition of bullying

Bullying comes from the English "mob" for pack, rampaging bunch; "to mob" means to mob. But not every row, argument, harassment or injustice is bullying.

The term "bullying" denotes a type Psychological terror, so one Process of systematic exclusion and serious humiliation of another person, by one or more people continually operate, which is usually also under the heading "Abuse of power". These hostile acts happen with a certain regularity, i.e. at least once a week and over a certain period, i.e. at least half a year.

The term bullying was coined in behavioral research, then in school psychology (the Swedish doctor Heinemann) and later generally used. Today the term bullying is mainly used to characterize psychological group violence in working life. In 1997 there was an article in Spiegel magazine entitled "What is going on is extreme" and dealt with the problem of bullying at school.

The problem

For years it has been claimed that "violence" in school "is constantly increasing", "becoming more and more brutal", "more unrestrained" or "less regulated" (Krumm & Lamberger-Baumann, 1996). In the empirical literature, on the other hand, there are more "all-clears" than confirmations of this claim. In the past it was called "chasing", "bullying" or "finishing up". Today it is called "bullying" and this term has penetrated people's awareness of the problem more strongly. Discussion forums are offered on television, there are lots of advice and self-help groups, contact points and advice centers for people who are bullied.

Bullying in school therefore stands for malicious and deliberate actions that aim to "finish off" the classmate. It is believed by professionals that one in ten students at school is seriously bullied, i.e., severely bullied. H. is bullied and more than one in ten bullies themselves. This picture certainly reflects the harsh reality in school, whereby, according to an article in "Spiegel", different types of bullying can be shown:

  • Physical violence bullying such as beating, property damage, extortion, or coercion.
  • Verbal bullying: Schoolchildren because of their behavior, their appearance, their not being up-to-date with fashion, their school performance, mostly given very snappy remarks. This happens in the school yard, as well as in the classroom itself. This happens by classmates as well as by teachers. The mildest method of this bullying is gossiping behind the back, but a lot also happens directly and loudly. Statements from teachers like: "You will never become anything! You are as stupid as bean straw!" are just as much a part of such verbal bullying as the whispering and exasperated groans when someone does not understand something and can be explained several times.
  • The silent bullying: Silent contempt, neglect, disregard to contempt and exclusion from the community, etc. is quite normal in the classes and courses. This form is humiliating and hurtful.

Schoolchildren and schoolchildren are equally affected by bullying. The origin does not play a decisive role, neither does the level of education. Psychological studies did not reveal any uniform personality structures, neither in the bulled nor in the bullied. A school initiative describes on the Internet:

"Actually, the school should be a place where you feel comfortable. Unfortunately, this does not apply to all students. Some people feel queasy on the weekend or in the morning when they think about the next lesson. The reason for this is not always Bad grades, individual students are often first peeked out by their classmates and then harassed. Most of the time they are all alone because no one helps them and other children do not dare to intervene. Teachers often do not notice these processes or do not want to interfere. "

As particularly vulnerable people apply to pupils who stand out from the class due to one or more characteristics, e.g. a disability, the language, a different social status, external abnormalities such as clothing, hair, behavior e.g. a non-smoker among smokers or vice versa or ideological views. The particularly committed and performance-oriented as well as the more introverted are often included.

But for the perpetrators, considerations must be made, because these develop with continued active bullying with a four-fold increased chance of later delinquency (Olweus 1993), because the strategies acquired at an early stage or conditioned to achieve one's own goals with aggressive means are continuously strengthened unless a clear and consistently pursued system of rules or sanctions is opposed. Anyone who, as an adult, restricts his activity to assigning responsibility to others must consequently live with the consequences of growing aggressiveness.

If you ask young people, they often feel more psychologically threatened by teachers than by classmates. In retrospect, many adults also tell less about bullying or aggressive classmates than about the teachers they have suffered from. Quite a few, even after years, remember with discomfort, fear or anger how they suffered from school humiliation. Some even report how emotional injuries permanently affected them, so that school can become a fate for some children.Young people tell of the power of those teachers who embarrass them with unsuccessful work in front of the whole class, make them scornful in front of their classmates, laugh at them, publicly triumphantly announce their grades, insult children with ironic remarks, call them on (accept) them without being asked to to put an embarrassing situation, to express disparagingly about the "stupidity" of individual children.

However, parents and teachers often lack the courage to interfere, much more is tolerated in order to avoid the feared conflict. Some adults find it particularly difficult to stand up for schoolchildren with courage because the fear of authority from their own school days is deeply rooted in many of them.

What is bullying?

To the active and physical Acts of bullying

  • physical violence to varying degrees,
  • the extortion of so-called protection money,
  • theft or damage to the victim's property,
  • destroying the materials worked out in the classroom,
  • damaging and stealing clothing and school supplies,
  • the knocking and beating in the playground and in the corridors,
  • sexual harassment.

To the passive and psychological Include acts of bullying

  • the exclusion of pupils from the school community,
  • withholding important information,
  • laughing at
  • hurtful remarks,
  • unjustified allegations,
  • inventing rumors and stories about the person concerned (initially behind the back of the discrimination, later all the more openly),
  • telling
  • the threat of physical violence,
  • ignoring and cutting the victim (silent bullying).

Esther Lauper (2001) provides a detailed list of the possible Forms of appearance

starting from students

  • Someone is bad talking behind their backs
  • You regularly inflict damage on someone (e.g. make staples disappear, take your bike apart ...)
  • Someone is made ridiculous in front of others, exposed
  • Exclusion from social connections and occasions, e.g. B. someone is never invited to a party, is not allowed to play, not to participate in group work ...
  • False rumors are spread about a person
  • Rumors are spread about parents, origin and the like
  • You don't let someone have their say
  • You make fun of something personal (nose, hairstyle, disability, body shape, ...)
  • Hints are made
  • Constant criticism creates pressure
  • Classmates are peed on or forced to drink someone else's urine
  • Classmates are prevented from going home.
  • Classmates' shoes or clothing are hidden or destroyed
  • The school supplies are damaged or destroyed (e.g. glue pages together, tear off pages ...)
  • The school supplies, among other things. are smeared with poop
  • Children who show solidarity with the victim of bullying are put under pressure
  • A child and their concerns are not taken seriously
  • When a child is absent, say they are truant
  • Letter humiliation with words and drawings
  • Sexual defamation, slander, allusions and provocations. Also sexual assault as a means of humiliation
  • Other physical assaults such as pushing, hitting, pinching, punching, kicking, tripping, stroking, patting ...
  • Secrets are being told systematically
  • Other children are incited to act aggressively against the victim of bullying
  • Gleeful laughter and laughter
  • Someone is constantly portrayed as stupid
  • Someone is insulted and insulted
  • Spread pseudo-truths or embarrassments, carry them to class
  • Ridicule
  • Extortion (of money, silence, other services such as mid-morning snack ...)
  • Threat, threat of violence (with and without weapons)
  • Injuries
  • deliberately inflicting as a means of humiliation

starting from teachers

  • A following teacher is negatively influenced ("pre-informed") before the transfer is made
  • The teacher repeatedly exposes a student
  • Disparaging gestures, disparaging looks
  • The teacher jokes about a student
  • The teacher gives a nickname
  • A teacher always asks for an answer when they know that the student cannot give an answer
  • The student is regularly ignored if she reports herself
  • Hints are made about the parents
  • Humiliations in words and in relation to required actions
  • Private matters are drawn in front of the class, privacy is violated
  • You don't let someone have their say
  • Problems are ignored, talked away, presented as non-existent
  • Assigning blame to the victim of bullying
  • Constant criticism creates pressure
  • A person is never praised
  • A person gets grades that are inconsistent with performance
  • A student is forced to do work that is self-conscious or humiliating in front of the class
  • Exaggerated penalties without relation to the other criminal behavior of the teacher
  • Inappropriate threats with consequences
  • The praise the child deserves is passed on to others
  • Verbal abuse (e.g. you are a half-dead fly)
  • False or massively exaggerated statements are made about the child to the parents
  • Making inadmissible or harassing comparisons, combined with an attitude of reproach
  • Refuse help
  • Don't take schoolgirl seriously
  • Give nicknames, also adopt nicknames that the students give themselves
  • Deny protection
  • Refuse protection zone
  • Physical assaults such as kicking, pushing, pinching, hitting, touching, knocking

Unpleasant experiences with teachers

Whether students feel 'offended' or 'hurt' by an act of another depends on their interpretation of the situation, their relationship to the attacker, their sensitivity and the like. Nevertheless, the expressed grief or pain caused by the attack must first of all be accepted, regardless of whether it came from a classmate or a teacher, and regardless of the motives of the perpetrators. Even if a teacher's action is in response to an attack, insolence, or 'challenge', the hurt experienced must be accepted. It is then an expression of the fact that the teacher did not succeed in making the pupil understand that he reacted with 'violence' to a violation of the norm by the pupil.

The offenses that have been expressed are not just those that are quickly forgotten. The 'generation comparisons' by Karazman-Morawetz & Steinert (1995b) show it. The authors asked the three age groups nine questions:

Table: Unpleasant experiences with teachers in primary school (GS) and in secondary schools (WS) by age group and gender. Approvals in percent

male

Female

youth

Adults up to 40 years

Adults up to 60 years

youth

Adults up to 40 years

Adults up to 60 years

GS

WS

GS

WS

GS

WS

GS

WS

GS

WS

GS

WS

offended by the teacher

54

47

53

27

41

25

48

49

47

29

49

26

insulted and yelled at by the teacher

62

46

56

32

49

21

47

40

34

17

43

20

ridiculed by the teacher, exposed

36

31

32

15

20

13

26

27

23

12

23

12

beaten by the teacher

16

5

23

3

36

6

5

2

10

1

18

3

treated unfairly by the teacher

58

60

66

38

42

23

57

63

50

36

54

33

Teacher physically intrusive

4

2

1

1

1

2

3

1

3

4

3

constantly ignored by the teacher

22

14

14

11

11

7

16

21

10

9

13

6

made guilty by the teacher

29

23

19

13

14

8

20

19

13

11

18

12

bullied by the teacher

28

22

24

11

15

9

21

18

13

8

19

10

all no

23

25

13

45

24

58

27

23

36

55

28

57

A large part of the respondents remembered offenses by teachers also from their primary school years, i.e. offenses that were on average 10, 22 and 40 years ago. With the distance from school, the numbers decrease: The less bad experiences are probably forgotten - but there are experiences with 'violence', bullying or harassment by teachers that will never be forgotten!

Consequences of bullying

Experts estimate that about 20% of the annual Suicide cases triggered by bullying. Bullying at school can therefore have very negative consequences for the future lives of the students concerned, not only for the victims, but also for the perpetrators. It often happens that the perpetrators are even less popular in the community than the victims, that only fear of them prevents their exclusion from the group.

In the majority of cases of bullying, children and adolescents do not speak up parents still with Teachers about the problem. The victims are afraid of standing there as traitors and snappers and then being exposed to even more reprisals. The perpetrators are afraid of punishment.

Bullying can occur in any class, although the frequency of occurrence depends on the phenomenon of social violence and the Social climate in the class. If the social climate in the class is right, "bullying" occurs only in rare individual cases. In other words, the more open a class, teachers and students are about the topic, the lower the climate for "bullying".

Since bullying often results from interpersonal problems and bullying is their consequence, bullying often forms the starting point for a criminal career. This is particularly the case when the interpersonal problems cannot be addressed and solved differently.

Obvious warning sign for children being bullied can be:

  • The children no longer go to school alone (most of the physical bullying takes place on the way to school).
  • The children no longer want to go to school.
  • Frequent complaints of headaches.
  • The services decrease rapidly.
  • psychosomatic symptoms
  • increasing isolation
  • vanishing self-esteem and lowering of self-esteem

Studies have shown that, in terms of long-term effects, girls suffer from bullying at school than boys. Re-integration into the community is easier for girls, male victims of bullying often no longer find any social support at school. They are afraid of physical abuse and suffer from fearful or lacking social skills in adulthood.

Criminal careers are not uncommon for the perpetrators, who often have a faulty awareness of justice, if this awareness cannot be corrected.

In a Swedish study, a variety of psychosomatic complaints were found in victims of bullying, which should be listed once for information:

  • Brooding thought processes, such as memory disorders, difficulty concentrating, depression, apathy, lack of initiative, irritability, perplexity, aggression, feelings of insecurity, over-sensitivity
  • psychosomatic symptoms such as nightmares, stomach pain, stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, loss of appetite, lump in the throat, crying, loneliness, lack of contact
  • Frightening symptoms such as pressure on the chest, sweating, dry mouth, palpitations, shortness of breath with asthma, flushing of blood
  • Back, neck and muscle pain
  • post-traumatic disorders, especially sleep disorders

The causes of bullying

The Causes of School Bullying are diverse. The bullying (to be bullied) usually lie Conflicts which can have different triggers: excessive demand, insufficient demand, excessive performance behavior, loss of identification, disturbed climate at school / in the class.

In school classes where disturbed teacher-student relationships rule, the relationship between the students will soon deteriorate, too, says Ferdinand Eder, Lecturer at the Linz Institute for Education and Psychology. A teacher who teaches students e.g. B. exposes them, often exposes them to the malice of the class community. Pressure to perform is also paired with poor social relationships. However, it is of little use here to simply reproach the bad teacher, who is usually integrated into a complex school system. (e.g. excessive demands on the teacher due to a lack of staff). Bullying is

  • a relief valve for aggression when the relief cannot be otherwise or the aggression cannot be prevented.
  • getting recognition when it cannot be given otherwise (at home, at school).
  • Abuse of power (teachers and parents, politicians and athletes can be role models for this)
  • Fear of failing in school
  • important for some who have a false sense of community ("all against one", "together we are strong")
  • trying to take out one's feelings of inferiority on others.
  • is more likely if the perpetrators were victims of bullying themselves.

The family situation of children can - as shown - also be important for school bullying. A example:

"Clothing, not as a cause, but as a trigger, can play an important role. The age threshold for brand awareness has fallen noticeably in recent years. Brand names must be on trousers, rucksacks or sneakers by the 5th or 6th grade at the latest." vote ", otherwise you are no longer" hip ". If it is consistent, you are" cool ". However, clothing is increasingly also becoming a social indicator of equality and uniformity. The same appearance creates solidarity and gives the individual the feeling of strength. Who If you do not belong to this group, those who do not meet the requirements become an outsider. Here the circle closes again: Since many parents cannot buy the usually expensive clothes for their children for financial reasons, the socio-economic family status may quickly become to the bullying basis. "

Also "the foreign" or "the other" belongs to the complex of causes for bullying at school. Differences in comparison to the majority of the respective group play a role: The different nationality, the different culture, the different religion, the different language or the different clothing can encourage bullying behavior. The clothing is playing an increasingly important role and the age threshold for brand awareness has fallen in recent years, so that it can even be observed in kindergarten, but at the latest from secondary school the brand names have to be on pants, backpacks, sneakers, jackets, sweaters and others Garments are "right", otherwise you are no longer "hip" or "cool". Clothing is increasingly becoming a social indicator, a distinguishing mark among one another. Uniformity of the outside among like-minded people creates solidarity, gives the individual the feeling of strength. Certain "group aesthetics" are formed; those who do not meet them quickly become outsiders.

The family situation, the social situation, the origin, certain behaviors or characteristics, social indicators and an often non-verbalized code of conduct, All of this and a greater variety of facets can determine whether a student maneuvers on the sunny side or on the sacrificial side.

Solutions and advice

The possible solutions are as diverse as the causes, the symptoms and the consequences of bullying at school. Solutions can be found on the one hand in strengthening the personality and strengthening the social skills of children, within the family, in the school class, in the school itself, in the school system and in society.

The first steps towards a solution should be that various myths are resolved. Belinda Mettauer and Christopher Szaday from the Integrative Training Center in the canton of St. Gallen (CH) joined in with a poster campaign on the subject of "Bullying: Look and Act" 3 myths deals:

  1. There is no bullying at our school. Cases of bullying that are known are not isolated and the belief that bullying does not occur among students is wrong. Research in different countries shows that a significant proportion of students experience or observe bullying directly.
  2. Bullying may happen in our school, but it's harmless. Students solve bullying situations themselves. Bullying is not harmless. School utensils are constantly being destroyed, glasses are being taken away and hidden, threats are being voiced and even rooms at home are being vandalized. Victims of bullying experience physical and / or emotional injuries and social isolation. Children in bullying situations need outside support, the bullying victims can usually no longer defend themselves.
  3. As a teacher, I can't do anything about bullying. The solution, however, is: look and act. Schools need preventive anti-bullying strategies and effective solutions in dealing with specific incidents of bullying. The joint action in the whole school is more effective than the individual action in the different classes. However, the main concern should not only be to react, but also to effectively prevent violence in various forms.

According to Mettauer and Szaday you can Victim do the following:

  • Contact someone who can help. Lots Victim are ashamed of being bullied and suffer in silence.
  • Classmates: Students must tell adults about bullying and this person should be a person they trust. They should be strong enough not to give up until someone listens to them.
  • Teachers): You can encourage students to report bullying incidents. Victims must be protected and supported, perpetrators must be brought to justice and actively included in the solution. Class rules should be agreed as preventive measures against bullying.
  • parents should know the warning signs of bullying. Take you seriously, e.g. B. if the child no longer wants to go to school, often feels sick, has nightmares or brings school supplies home damaged. If they suspect bullying, they should inform the school and demand that action be taken. If you do not act, you should always make representations and also turn to the next higher authority. However, parents should not contact the perpetrators directly.
  • Schools and communities: Anti-bullying strategies should be developed in cooperation with children and parents. Students must be monitored more carefully and incidents of bullying must be documented. Schools must never stop fighting bullying.

In many schools these are increasing social skills training and training for personality development, communication training and conflict management training. The behavior is learned in groups. This also includes preventive measures against bullying and harassment. However, there is a risk that the training courses just mentioned - important as they are - will be given an alibi function and the schools will consider no further measures necessary. It is to be demanded that the social and educational life within the school is freed from all violence, that violence is prevented, communication is taught and "social learning" becomes an integral part of the curriculum.

Meanwhile, numerous schools also offer Anti-aggression training at. Here perpetrators can be more confronted with their victims and the injustice that they have inflicted on them. The training, which has already proven itself in the penal system, will be used more in schools, which on the one hand deprives the perpetrators of the desire for acts of violence, on the other hand arouses their compassion for the victims. Open and fair confrontation and a constructive way of arguing should also be learned. Tolerance is learned and to get involved with other people who might fit into your own thought pattern. The courage to change and overcome clichés are evidence of strength, of emotional as well as social intelligence.

In school, the topics of the class climate, violence in the class, bullying and social learning can be the subject of parenting evenings and lectures, class conferences, project days and as treatment of topics in specialist lessons.

Once bullying problems have been identified, it is of little help to admonish perpetrators or even to take victims out of school. Bullying needs to be an issue in the class and in the school. The conflict must be resolved.

Specific information for schoolchildren and their parents:

  • Seek moral and human support from allies in the class or in other classes.
  • Record every attack (bullying diary).
  • Requesting classmates or teachers in writing to refrain from the undesirable behavior.
  • If that does not help, contact the trust teacher or the school management, then there is no point in calling in the school supervisory authority.
  • If necessary seek professional help yourself (see below)

Creating a warmer school climate, that is how the "Spiegel" article mentioned at the beginning ends, has a special value in view of the coming social ice age.

In www.kidsmobbing.de/kids, students propose to offer opportunities for discussion in student co-administration meetings, in conferences, on "Pedagogical Day", in the classroom, on parents 'evenings, in the teachers' room and on project days. In cases of bullying, it should be checked what actually happened, whether similar situations had previously existed, whether there was someone with the same experience. And joint actions and measures against bullying at school should be considered. School agreements are available as well as events at which this problem can be discussed. The "kids": "Most people have a pronounced sense of justice that you can appeal to, because it applies to everyone. You should treat your counterpart as you would like to be treated yourself. But if you don't know what to do next, then call - us, because we are here for you. "

Taken from: Mobbing at school (Stangl-Taller)

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Article 3: Bullying at School (Wikipedia)

definition

According to Dan Olweus, bullying means that "one or more individuals are repeatedly exposed to negative actions by one or more individuals over a period of time". Negative actions are when an individual causes or tries to cause harm or inconvenience to another. Such actions can be verbal (threatening, mocking, insulting, ...), physical (hitting, pushing, kicking, pinching, holding on, ...) or non-verbal (making faces, angry gestures, turning back, ...) take place. Olweus also regards individual harassing incidents as bullying if they are very serious. Bullying requires that there is an imbalance of forces between the victim and the perpetrator (or group of perpetrators), which can be related to physical or psychological strength. According to Olweus, it is not a question of bullying when two equally strong students argue with each other.

Victim

According to school researcher Wolfgang Melzer, bullying cannot be traced back to specific perpetrators and victims, but to the school climate [5]. The psychologist and bullying researcher Olweus distinguishes between two ideal types of bullying victims in schools:

  • Passive victim
  • Provocative victim

The passive victims are generally more fearful and insecure. They are sensitive, cautious, and silent, and very often reject violence. According to Olweus, the behavior of the victims signals to those around them that they are afraid and do not dare to defend themselves against the troublemaker if they are attacked. Conversations with the parents of harassed children indicate that they were cautious and sensitive at an earlier age.

The provocative bullying victim, who is generally unfocused and nervous, is less common. His behavior creates anger and a tense relationship. This can trigger negative reactions in his environment.

The situation for the victim is usually as follows:

  • The victim's reputation is deliberately damaged.
  • Communication with the other children / students is impeded and prevented.
  • The victim's social relationships become the target of the attack.
  • Physical assault on the victim.

Children are particularly at risk

  • that are smaller or weaker than the average.
  • who are afraid or shy.
  • which have socially unacceptable characteristics (no branded clothing, looking poor, etc.)
  • who like to "hand out" themselves.

A UK government study in 2008 found that ethnic minority people are more likely to be bullied. In addition, boys and girls are equally likely to be victims, while 80% of all disabled children stated that they had suffered severely from their peers in their school in the past three years.

The problem with the victim is very often that he or she leaves or changes school in order to avoid the bullying. In fact, the victim is negatively sanctioned, while the bully is indirectly rewarded. The solidarity of the teachers with the victim is not very pronounced according to previous experience. But there are also schools that do not tolerate bullying.

Perpetrator

School bullies are more positive about violence than the average high school student. Their potential for violence is often directed not only against students, but also against teachers and parents. The bullies are often characterized by impulsiveness and a strong need to dominate others. You have average or relatively high self-confidence. Several analyzes using different methods (including examination of stress hormones and projective tests) have refuted that the aggressions and brutal behavior could be a sign of fear and lack of trust (“hard shell - soft core”). The empirical results of Olweus rather indicate the opposite. The bullies would therefore be less fearful and insecure. More insecure and fearful individuals usually do not take the initiative. They tend to be followers or spectators. Schäfer and Korn characterize bullying students as socially competent to a certain extent. They are influential but unpopular and use their social skills to harm their victims.

Taken from: Bullying in School (Wikipedia)

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4th article: Bullying at school (Stangl)

1. What is bullying

Bullying comes from the English "mob", which translates as "pack, rampaging bunch". The verb "to mob" means mobbing and is a pretty good match for the word mobbing. Originally, this term was picked up by the Swedish doctor Peter Paus Heinemann. He used it to describe group attacks against a person who behaved differently from the norm.

"He sees it as group behavior that occurs suddenly and subsides suddenly, bringing everything back to normal again" (cf. Munthe 1989, p. 68). In the English-speaking world, the word bullying is also often used, which means something like bullying.

Bullying is therefore a form of overt and / or subtle violence that regularly takes place over a long period with the aim of social exclusion of the victim. It can be verbal and / or physical violence. In the workplace, bullying is a conflict-laden communication that can take place among colleagues as well as between colleagues and superiors, and is characterized by persistent, systematic and targeted harassment.

In the world of work, bullying not only causes harm to the victim, but is also a problem on a business level. But not only in the workplace, but also in school, bullying has become a significant problem for many young people. The only goal is to “kill” the victim by harassing, verbally abusing or isolating them.

2. Forms of bullying

Bullying through physical violence: This includes actions such as beating, property damage, blackmail, coercion, etc.

Verbal bullying: Students are because of their behavior, appearance, origin, school performance, etc. insulted and verbally attacked. This can happen directly in front of the victim but also behind their back.

Silent bullying: This form is noticeable through despising, “leaving it aside”, being excluded from the class community or group. There are no direct physical or psychological attacks.

Active physical acts of bullying

  • Physical violence
  • Objects belonging to the victim are damaged
  • Items belonging to the victim are stolen
  • Damage to the victim's clothing
  • Physical violence during breaks or outside of school (e.g. bus stop, school yard)
  • Sexual harassment

Mental bullying acts

  • Exclusion from the school community
  • important information is withheld from the victim
  • laughing at
  • accusations
  • inventing rumors and stories about the person concerned
  • "Telling off"
  • Threat of physical violence

3. History of bullying

Bullying in school, but also in the workplace, always happens the same way. The bullying process can be divided into four phases, which can be specified as the underlying structure for bullying.

Phase 1: increased tendency to conflict

Random conflicts, injustices, differences of opinion, the search for scapegoats for one's own mistakes, aggression, unethical communication, minorities and much more can lead to an increased tendency to conflict.

Phase 2: bullying

From this initial tendency to conflict, tangible arguments and psychological violence in the form of bullying develop. The victim of bullying gets more and more into a vicious circle in which the consequences of bullying (insecurity, nervousness, increased errors at work, illness) are considered to be the causes that a person is bullied. It is becoming increasingly easier for the attacker to bully the victim (cf. Leymann 1993, p.58).

Phase 3: interference

Sooner or later, bullying will also be recognized by outsiders, because the behavior of the bully and the bullied are becoming more and more conspicuous. In this phase the waves could be smoothed out if there is targeted external intervention.

Phase 4: the end

If the opportunity to end the bullying by an outsider is not used, the picture is sad. Over time, the victim struggles with severe psychological problems and their personality is profoundly changed. In some particularly bad cases it can even lead to suicide (see Leymann 1993, p.58).

4. Causes of Bullying

The causes of bullying at school can be very different, because bullying is mostly based on conflicts that can have a wide variety of triggers (underchallenge, excessive demands, excessive performance, loss of identification, disturbed school or class climate).

Other causes of bullying can be:

The parents' financial situation: If certain branded clothing, shoes or other sporting goods cannot be bought by the parents due to the financial situation, this alone is often a reason that someone becomes an outsider and thus a victim of bullying.

To be different from the majority of the group (minorities): Another nationality, another language, another culture or another religion could increasingly become victims of bullying.

In summary, it can be said that the family situation, the social situation, the origin, certain behaviors or characteristics and much more determine whether a student must be afraid of becoming a victim of bullying himself.

5. Consequences of bullying

Experts estimate that about 20% of annual suicide cases are caused by bullying. Bullying at school can therefore have very serious consequences for the future of most young people.

The victim of bullying can be harmed in the following areas:

  • Physical damage (injuries)
  • Psychological damage (e.g. destruction of self-confidence)
  • Psychosomatic reactions (e.g. loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nightmares, sleep disorders)
  • Other reactions (e.g. lack of concentration, decline in performance, days of absence due to "sick days" or truancy, withdrawal from social relationships, fears, depression, up to suicide attempts or committed suicide.

Studies have shown that in terms of the long-term effects, girls suffer less from school bullying than boys. For girls, reintegration into the community is easier. Male victims of bullying often no longer find any social support at school.

6. Measures against bullying

Just as diverse as the causes, symptoms and consequences of bullying are the possible solutions to prevent bullying in general or to end it when it is already taking place. What can you do specifically to counteract bullying:

Students

Should have the courage to turn to someone who can help (teacher, school psychologist, parents, friends, outsiders, counseling center). Many victims are ashamed of being bullied and suffer in silence. However, it is important that they tell adults they trust about incidents of bullying.

Teachers

Should take a clear stand and try to enable at least the "watching" classmates, but if possible also the perpetrators, to change their perspective and to make clear to them the psychological consequences for the victims in such a situation. They are designed to encourage students to report incidents of bullying. Victims must be protected and supported, perpetrators must be brought to justice and actively involved in the solution.

parents

Should know the warning signs of bullying. You should take the child seriously if, for example, B. no longer wants to go to school, has stomach pain in the morning, has nightmares, is sick a lot or brings school supplies home damaged. If you suspect bullying, you should not contact the perpetrator too quickly, but inform the school and demand that action be taken.

In general, preventive measures against violence and bullying should be implemented in schools and communities. Possible solution approaches here would be, for example, social competence training and training for personal development, communication training and conflict management training

Taken from: Mobbing at school (Stangl)

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Read the whole article on www.mobbing-in-der-schule.info.

Further articles:
Bullying in general
Definition of bullying
Types of bullying
Group dynamics
The bullies
What's so bad about bullying
Psychological consequences
Physical consequences
Steps against bullying
parents
Teacher

Bullying in school
Bullying in school
Bullying in school
The daily terror
mobbing
Student bullying
Bullying in school
Bullying in school
school
Bullying in school

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Bullying in school

As mobbing or To bully is the systematic way of getting ready and harassing a person.

At the Bullying in school a student is exposed to the psychological and physical attacks of the classmates. In contrast to the Bullying at work When bullying at school, the perpetrators also use physical violence against the victim much more often.