Why was television called television
Moving Images: The History of Television
Television is part of everyday life for most people: one press of the power button and you can choose between countless TV programs. But who invented television? How did television become a mass medium and since when have the images been broadcast in color? Facts about the history of television.
Who Invented Television?
The technical requirements for television were created back in the 19th century. In 1884 Paul Nipkow invented a spirally perforated disc that split images during rotation and put them back together in the receiver in the opposite way. In doing so, he laid the foundations for mechanical image transmission. At first there was little to do with his invention.
Several patents for television systems were filed in the 1920s. The first moving images probably date back to 1924. In that year the Leipzig physicist and electrical engineer August Karolus acquired a patent for the lighting control for television image transmission. In 1928 television was presented at the Berlin radio exhibition. The technology was continuously refined in the following years. In the 1930s, the Ikonoskop, an electron beam splitter, replaced the so-called Nipkow disk. The "Braunsche tube" (cathode ray oscilloscope tube) invented by Ferdinand Braun in 1897 was used, which replaced mechanical image scanning with an electronic process. On August 22, 1931, the Hamburg inventor Manfred von Ardenne showed the first electronic television set at the Berlin radio exhibition.
How were the beginnings of television as a mass medium?
In the 1930s, the National Socialists recognized the propaganda potential of television technology and quickly pushed the development forward. As early as 1935 there was the world's first regular program operation in so-called television rooms. The 1936 Olympic Games were the first major event to be broadcast live on television by Reichsrundfunk. The Second World War then stopped the National Socialists' plans to develop television into a popular medium.
After the Second World War, the Allies laid the foundations for the regional structure and the public service organization of broadcasting. In the post-war period, radio was initially the most important medium. Several state broadcasting corporations began broadcasting operations, which, after initial control measures, were gradually passed into the hands of the German employees. In 1950 the state broadcasting corporations in West Germany merged to form the working group of public broadcasting corporations of the Federal Republic of Germany (ARD). On December 25, 1952, the Northwest German Broadcasting Corporation (NWDR) started its television program in its broadcasting area, which included Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony as well as North Rhine-Westphalia. The first daily news was broadcast just one day later.
How did television develop in the former GDR?
On December 21, 1952 - four days before the first daily news - in honor of Stalin's 73rd birthday, the news program "Current Camera" was broadcast on GDR television for the first time. On January 3, 1956, the official broadcasting of the German Television (DFF) started in the television center Berlin-Adlershof.
How did television become a mass medium?
While television initially only had three hours of broadcasting time a day, by the end of the 1950s it was already five hours. Television was primarily an educational medium that was only intended to entertain to a very limited extent. Live broadcasts were rarely on the program at first, they were very complex to produce. Important major events, which were shown live and lured the masses in front of the television, were the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 and the football World Cup in 1954. In the 1960s, the range of programs was expanded and varied in both the East and the West. Among other things, the third programs with cultural, educational and regional broadcasts were added. Some crime novels developed into street sweepers, and there were also series bought from the USA.
How long has color television been around?
Until 1967 the television world was only available in black and white. For years, however, engineers had been working on bringing colorful images onto the screen. At Telefunken in Hanover, a team led by Walter Bruch presented their results to experts from the European Broadcasting Union on January 3, 1963: color television based on the PAL system. However, more than four years passed before color television was introduced in Germany. On August 25, 1967, the then Vice Chancellor Willy Brandt officially started color television in Germany at the international radio exhibition in Berlin. There was a small glitch: a nervous technician gave the signal for the colored pictures a little too early. The television was colored a few seconds before the public press of a button. At that time, only about 6,000 households had a television set. The final breakthrough for color television in Germany was not achieved until the 1974 World Cup, which many Germans took as an opportunity to buy a color television set.
How long has ZDF existed?
The Second German Television (ZDF) was launched on April 1, 1963 as the central television company supported by all federal states and brought momentum to the German media landscape. As early as the 1950s, the government under Konrad Adenauer wanted a second program that would be subordinate to the federal government. In 1961, however, the Federal Constitutional Court forbade the establishment of a station under the influence of the federal government in its "First Television Judgment". The ZDF was finally founded on the initiative of the Prime Ministers of the federal states through a state treaty as a program alternative to the broadcasters of the ARD.
The NDR and the second ARD program
June 1, 1961: Against the background of the dispute over the so-called Adenauer television, ARD begins broadcasting a second television program. As agreed, it was discontinued when ZDF went live in 1963. more
How long has private television been around?
The so-called dual broadcasting system has existed in Germany since 1984: RTL and Sat.1 were the first commercial broadcasters to start their programs and competed with public broadcasters. This was followed by other private channels such as Pro 7, Vox and RTL 2. In February 1991, the Premiere channel launched its paid program.
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