Belize joined the UN

globalization

On October 24, 1945, the United Nations (UN) Charter came into force. Since 2011, 193 states and thus almost all states in the world have belonged to the UN. Despite the problem that many governments are not democratically legitimized, the UN is the only organization that can claim universal acceptance. Among other things, the UN has codified human rights and fundamental freedoms in a global context, carried out numerous peace operations and addressed various global problems. While the General Assembly, to which all member states belong, as the central advisory body can only issue resolutions that are not binding under international law, the Security Council is the only body that can make binding decisions for all UN members. The Security Council has 15 members - five permanent members who have the right to veto and ten members who are elected for a two-year term.

Facts

The League of Nations, founded in 1920, was the first attempt to create a world political organization. Since the USA did not participate in the League of Nations and other important states left, it remained insignificant. During the Second World War, the British Prime Minister Churchill and the American President Roosevelt revived the idea of ​​a world peace organization. However, this time the world community should organize itself in such a way that it is both legitimized and capable of acting. In early 1942, after the USA, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and China, 22 other nations signed the "United Nations Declaration". On June 25, 1945, 50 states unanimously adopted the United Nations (UN) Charter in San Francisco - Poland followed as the 51st founding member on October 15, 1945. On October 24, 1945 the UN Charter came into force.

Even if the UN system has been criticized in many ways and there are numerous suggestions for improvement, in the past the UN ensured communication during the Cold War and accompanied the transition from the colonial era to the era of independent nation-states. The UN has codified human rights and fundamental freedoms in a global context, carried out numerous peace operations and addressed various global problems. After all, the UN promotes dialogue between economically strong and weak states.

The UN consists of 193 states and thus almost all states in the world (as of March 2017). In the UN, the member states are represented by their respective governments. Despite the problem that many governments are not democratically legitimized, the UN is the only organization that can claim universal acceptance.

The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Trustee Council, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General. The UN system includes a large number of sub-organs, commissions, specialized agencies, programs and other intergovernmental institutions, most of which have only been established over the years.

All 193 member states of the UN belong to the General Assembly. The Security Council has 15 members. In addition to the five permanent members China, France, Russia, the USA and the United Kingdom, the General Assembly elects the other ten members for a two-year term. Five non-permanent members change every year. While the General Assembly, as the central advisory body, can only issue resolutions that are not binding under international law, the Security Council is the only body that can make binding decisions for all UN members. However, all five permanent members have a right of veto.

Article 17 of the UN Charter stipulates that the UN's expenses are to be borne by the members according to a distribution formula to be determined by the General Assembly. The contribution key for the compulsory contributions to the regular budget is based on the relative solvency of the member states. In principle, the gross national income serves as the basis, with the values ​​from the last six years being included in the calculation. For countries with high external debt and / or low per capita income, there are sometimes high discounts on the contribution rate; for economically strong countries, the calculations lead to surcharges. A cap of 22 percent of the total contributions was set for the contribution rate (which in fact only affects the USA), the minimum contribution rate is 0.001 percent. If a member is two years in arrears with the payment of their financial contributions, they lose their voting rights in the general assembly (exceptions are possible).

The current scale of contributions for the years 2016 to 2018 was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 2015: The five largest contributors are the USA (22.0 percent), Japan (9.7 percent), and China (7.9 percent) , Germany (6.4 percent) and France (4.9 percent). Together they finance a good half of the regular UN budget (50.8 percent), which for the 2016/2017 biennium, including all supplements, amounts to 5.6 billion US dollars (i.e. 2.8 billion US dollars per year ). If the United Kingdom (4.5 percent), Brazil (3.8 percent), Italy (3.7 percent), Russia (3.1 percent) and Canada (2.9 percent) are added, the top 10 have below contributors a share of 68.9 percent of the regular UN budget.

In addition to the regular UN budget, the member states make compulsory contributions to finance peace missions. A modified distribution key applies to these. The budgets of the individual peace missions are approved separately for one year from July to the following June. According to the Federal Foreign Office, the amount estimated for the 15 peace missions for the period July 2016 to June 2017 is around 7.9 billion US dollars. Germany currently contributes 6.4 percent of this (503 million US dollars). According to the German Society for the United Nations, the mandatory contributions to the financing of peace missions in the years 2000 to 2015 were higher than the contributions to the regular UN budget. The difference has increased over the years.

The International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and Rwanda (ICTR, was wound up in 2016) and the associated International Residual Mechanism (IRMCT) each have their own regular budgets. Finally, the numerous programs and funds of the UN (UNDP, UNEP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, etc.) are financed by voluntary contributions from the member states.

The complex organization of the UN is inevitable, but not without its problems. In view of the postponement of tasks and the growing number of institutions, coordination is difficult. In addition, the UN's political practice is based on the principles of consensus and compromise. Due to different political interests, traditions and forms of rule, the decision-making processes are often complicated and lengthy.

In order to increase the UN's ability to act, the UN member states would not only have to support the UN politically (among other things by strengthening international law) and meet its financial obligations, but also press ahead with UN reform. The focus is on the reform of the Security Council with regard to the number of members, the membership times and the exercise of the veto right of the five permanent members, as well as the question of expanding the Secretary-General's powers and changing the institutional structure of the UN. Even if the desire for reforms is widespread, the proposals that have been tabled from various quarters for years remain controversial. Correspondingly, the concrete implementation of far-reaching reforms has not yet materialized.

Data Source

United Nations (UN): www.un.org; United Nations Regional Information Center for Western Europe (UNRIC): www.unric.org; German Society for the United Nations (DGVN): http://www.dgvn.de; Foreign Office: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de

Terms, methodological notes or reading aids

The Gross National Income (GNI, formerly GNP) is calculated by subtracting the wages and profits flowing abroad (factor income) from the gross domestic product and adding the factor income flowing from abroad to the home accordingly.

The gross domestic product (BIP) measures the value of domestically produced goods and services (added value), insofar as these are not used as intermediate inputs for the production of other goods and services. GDP is currently the most important macroeconomic measure of production.