What is scientifically the best breakfast

How important is breakfast? Why scientists argue

A study comes to the result: a rich breakfast and a modest dinner protect better against obesity.

In the morning the metabolism runs almost twice as fast as in the evening, the energy can be broken down more quickly.

Andreas Michalsen, Charité professor and author, on the other hand, believes that in the long term it will be healthier to listen to your biorhythm - and your own appetite.

Have a quick breakfast before going to work? Better to eat a lot tonight! But doesn't the rule apply: Eat after ten o'clock in the evening? Eating healthy is not that easy. Depending on the study and the experts, the advice is different: With intermittent fasting, for example, breakfast is considered completely dispensable. A small current study now shows, however, that this may not be the case.

For the study by the University of Lübeck, 16 men of normal weight came to the laboratory twice for three days. At the first appointment, they received a very substantial breakfast in the morning with 69 percent of the daily amount of calories; then 20 percent of the calories at lunch. And in the evening, their food contained only 11 percent of the total daily calories. At the second lab appointment there were the same amount of calories - just in reverse order. The researchers observed that the metabolism was more than twice as active in the morning as in the evening.

About 30 to 40 percent of your daily calories should be consumed in the morning

"Our results clearly show (...) that a rich breakfast and a modest dinner (...) protect against obesity better than the other way round," explains Juliane Richter from the Section for Psychoneurobiology at the University of Lübeck. That means: around 30 to 40 percent of the daily calories should be consumed in the morning, when the metabolism is most active. Dinner, on the other hand, should contain less than 30 percent of the calories consumed daily.

The study is small, but another recent study from Vanderbilt University in the USA comes to very similar results: The researchers there examined four men and two women in two different groups. Both groups got lunch and dinner at the same time. A third meal was given at different times: in one group for breakfast in the morning at eight o'clock, in the other group as a late evening snack at ten o'clock. After the last meal, neither group received any further food for the same period. The result: Those who got breakfast instead of a late-night snack burned more fat.

Both study results call into question a widely divided view among nutritionists. According to this, it does not matter what time of day you consume the available calories. It is only a matter of adhering to the specified amount of calories in order to reach your target weight.

"Basically, breakfast is cheaper in terms of metabolism processing than dinner"

Andreas Michalsen, Charité professor, chief physician and author of the bestseller "Healing with Nutrition" doesn't believe that the time you eat doesn't matter at all. In fact, the production of digestive enzymes decreases towards evening. There would be less saliva and the body would prepare for the resting phase by shutting down the metabolism.

He assesses the small study by the University of Lübeck as follows: “Basically, breakfast is cheaper than dinner in terms of metabolic processing. But if you think scientifically precisely, then you have to individualize it. There are people who are early risers or night owls, and the study does not work out enough. "

But: "In addition to all scientific measurements, appetite is the most important sign"

What he means is: In the study, it appears that the metabolism of all people is highest in the morning. The metabolism also depends largely on whether people tend to get up early or not. In the so-called larks, the metabolism becomes active earlier than in the night owls. Both have a different original biorhythm.

To listen to him, Professor Michalsen recommends: People who have no appetite in the morning shouldn't force themselves to have breakfast. Conversely, people should not work off their morning appetite either.

“In addition to all scientific measurements, appetite is the most important sign,” he says. “It is generated by metabolic hormones and shows us when the body is ready to process food.” He considers the rule of the Indian nutritionist Satchidananda Panda to be the most important. It says: You shouldn't eat again in the first hour after you've eaten - and not three hours before going to bed.

The author of the bestseller “The Nutrition Compass” has a similar approach. The science journalist Bas Kast explains in an interview with the Mainpost: “There are many studies which suggest that most calories should be consumed in the first half of the day. I am one of those people who are simply not hungry in the morning and don't have breakfast at first. "