What is the capital of Suriname

Structure and history of Dutch An introduction to Dutch linguistics

"Well drie weken Suriname weet ik less dan voor ik vertrok. Dat he ligt paradoxaal genoeg ook aan dat de mensen Nederlands spreken en je op de kaart Nederlandse en Duitse plaatsname terugvindt - weliswaar zijn ze eerst nimble door elkaar geschud en vervolgens over a tropical country uitgestrooid. Daardoor is het kader waarin ik de nieuwe indrukken wil verwerken veel te Nederlands. " Jaap Grave in 'Olifanten in Suriname' (IVN-krant 2007 (3))

Suriname is a country in South America surrounded by Guyana, Brazil and French Guiana. However, with an area of ​​163,820 km2, it only has 492,829 inhabitants (2004 census). 242,946 of them live in the capital Paramaribo. Most of Suriname is from tropical jungle covered. The largest cities of Suriname (Paramaribo, Nieuw Nickerie, Lelydorp) are located in the narrow, fertile one Coastal strip. The hinterland of Suriname can only be reached by boat or plane.

Suriname received 1975 independence from the Netherlands. After independence and even more after the so-called December murders (during the military dictatorship under Desi Bouterse), many Surinamans moved to the Netherlands. It is estimated that almost as many are alive Surinamese Dutch in the Netherlands how Surinam has inhabitants. The (kinship) relations with the Netherlands are therefore extremely strong. Suriname therefore also has the best transport connections with the Netherlands and not, for example, with its direct neighbors.

"We speak a lot of languages!" This is what two market traders in Paramaribo tell us.

Even after independence is Dutch the official language of Suriname remained. One reason is that Suriname is in many ways a heterogeneous country is: the only 500,000 inhabitants are divided into more than 20 ethnic groups, speak no less than 20 languages ​​and belong to different religious communities.

history

Beschryving van Guiana,
of de wilde kust in
Zuid-America (Jan Jacob
Hartsinck, 1770) on dbnl

The Dutch WIC (West India Company) was one of the European trading companies (besides mainly English and French), which in the 17th century traded at the so-called 'Wild Coast' (today's coast of the two Guyanas and Surinams) developed. In the beginning, the focus of the Dutch traders was mainly in the area that is today Guyana: Merchants from Zeeland, for example, founded this Fort Kijkoveral on an island at the junction of the three rivers Essequibo, Mazaruni and Cayuni. Also along the Berbice river Dutch merchants traded. The use of the area for the Netherlands finally ended in 1796 when the English took over the administration of the Berbice region. The Creole language Berbice Dutch was the contact language of the region, but today it is practically extinct. The current lingua franca in Guyana is English. The Dutch expression 'naar de barbiesjes', which means 'broken, lost', testifies to the fact that the area along the Berbice has an unhealthy climate for Europeans.

The area of ​​today's Suriname received the WIC in 1667 in exchange for the colony of Nieuw-Amsterdam (today's New York). At that time, a pidgin language was already in use in Suriname, which had arisen from the contact between English contract workers and the African slaves of the English plantation owners. Under Dutch administration, new slaves were brought from Africa who had learned a Portuguese pidgin language in slave depots on the west coast of Africa. It developed from this communication situation Sranan Tongo (Other names were 'Negro Engels' and 'Takitaki'), which is still the colloquial language of the Creoles, the descendants of former slaves, and also functions as the general colloquial language of Suriname.

Slaves who were able to escape from the Dutch plantations (called 'bosnegers' or 'Maroons', from the Spanish cimarrón (savage, refugee)), moved inland. Today's Surinamese languages ​​emerged from their pidgin, which is based on Portuguese Saramakkan and Aukan.

After the WIC went bankrupt in 1792, Suriname first fell to the English (until 1825) and then became a colony of the Netherlands (until 1975).


A service of the
Evangelical Brethren Congregation
(Herrnhutter) in Paramaribo
Photo: I. Hausmann

Dutch was the de facto official language of the area and it was the language of the white elite. Slaves were forbidden to speak Dutch, let alone learn to write it. Came in the 19th century Moravian missionaries to Suriname to Christianize the slaves. They learned Sranan and put together a dictionary and grammar for Sranan.






1863 was in the Dutch colonies the Abolished slavery (in the English colonies this happened in 1833, in the French in 1848). It is believed that over 300,000 slaves were brought to Suriname from Africa, but Suriname ultimately had only 53,000 inhabitants in 1863. From 1863 to 1873 the (former) slaves were under 'state supervision' - they were obliged to work against payment. The plantation owners also brought in new ones cheap labor - Chinese, Javanese and Indian - in the country. Today they form the Chinese, Surinamese-Javanese and Sarnami language communities.

After 1873 the Dutch authorities went to one Policy of the Netherlands to make the country 'governable' and to bind it more closely to the Netherlands. In 1876, compulsory schooling was introduced in Suriname and all children had to be taught Dutch. The Dutchization of the school system was accompanied by a fanatical fight against the Sranan. The result was that although Dutch acquired a strong position as the language of public life and teaching, Sranan remained the dominant vernacular in the country despite all attempts at extermination. After Surinam gained independence in 1975, tens of thousands of Surinamans went to the Netherlands. The distribution of roles between languages ​​in Suriname (Dutch for official purposes, Sranan as a colloquial language) persisted even after independence.

population

Remains of the Beracha Ve Shalom Synagogue in Jodensavanne; Bauxitweg near Jodensavanne; Jewish cemetery of Jodensavanne; Funerary inscription in Portuguese
Photos: U. Vogl

Suriname was 125 years long under management of the WIC and 160 years a Dutch colony (the last 20 years of which a part of the territory within the Kingdom of the Netherlands). The English people were the second important colonial power in Suriname. In the first half of the 17th century and from 1792 to 1815 they claimed or administered the area. However, only a small part of the current population of Surinam is of Dutch or British origin.

Although Suriname was officially 'Dutch' for centuries, they came Colonists (e.g. plantation owners) themselves from different European countries (also Germans, Danes, etc.). In the figure above, next to Englishmen (from the British Isles or from English overseas holdings) and the Dutch in particular also the Sephardic Jews called, which came to Suriname from northeastern Brazil. Between 1630 and 1644 part of northeastern Brazil was in the hands of the WIC; between 1637 and 1644 the area was ruled by von Nassau, with Mauritsstad (today's Recife) as the most important city. Under the Maurits, freedom of belief prevailed in northeastern Brazil. However, when the area fell back into the hands of the Portuguese, the Jewish population moved back to Europe or emigrated to Suriname. A group of Sephardic Jews established the plantation Iodine savannah, 35 km inland on the Suriname River. Today there are still remnants of the Beracha Ve Shalom-Synagogue, which was built in 1685, and also the Beth Haim-Cemetery has been preserved. In Surinam there is still a small Jewish community with a synagogue in the Keizerstraat in Paramaribo.

Children at Holi Phagwa, the
hindu spring festival,
sprinkled according to tradition
with colored powder
Photo: S. Schwitzke

The largest population group today form the Hindustanswho have favourited late 19th century as Contract workers came to Suriname. After the abolition of slavery, it was decided - following the British model - to employ contract workers in North India to recruit who had to undertake to work on a plantation in Suriname for five years for a fee. A total of around 180,000 Hindustans live in Suriname today (around 27% of the total population).

Later (late 19th, early 20th century) contract workers also came out China (mainly from Guangdong Province in southeast China) and from Java (then Dutch East Indies) to Suriname. That came with the Javans islamic belief to Suriname. Today Suriname is the only South American country with a substantial Islamic community (approx. 13%). In Paramaribo, the mosque is right next to the synagogue.


The original inhabitants of the Surinamese area are generally divided into two main groups: the Arawaks and the Caribs. These are in turn divided into 8 ethnic groups, each with its own language: Arawak (see below), Mawayana, Kar'ina, Trio, Wayana, Akuriyo, Sikiïyana and Tunayana. Kar'ina en Arawak villages are mainly located in the savannah area, the other tribes have their villages on the upper reaches of the great rivers, deep in the interior of Suriname. Total live today (according to estimates) approx. 10,000 members from one of the named tribes in Suriname. The native population introduced it for centuries marginal existence in Suriname: the government (whatever) never really showed any interest in the fate of the local population. The hinterland of Suriname has always been difficult to reach (and still is).

Still in the year 1968 met members of the Wayana tribe for the first time on the Akuriyo tribe, of whose existence nothing was known up to this point. The Akuriyo, who had lived as hunters and gatherers, were forced by missionaries to live in Tëpu, one of the trio villages. After only two years, only 25% of the Akuriyos were still alive. (see Carlin & Arends, 2002).

In general, the contact with 'western customs' among the indigenous communities came mainly through the work of Missionaries: in earlier centuries it was the Moravian brothers, later mainly American ones missions, like for example Door-to-life mission. They took care of a large part of the education in the villages in the hinterland. In the 80s that was over, too: by the 'Hinterland War In the course of the power dispute between Desi Bouterse and the jungle command, there was no education for a good 10 years, which resulted in a whole generation illiterate stayed. Many tribes fled to neighboring countries (Wayanas to French Guiana and the whole village of Tëpu to Brazil). Until today are the inhabitants of the interior (Indian villages and Maroon villages) are disadvantaged compared to the rest of the country in terms of education, infrastructure and medical care.

The descendants of former slaves are in Suriname Creoles called. They mainly settled in the cities and are therefore also known as city creoles. The creoles form the second largest population group of Surinam with a share of 17.7 percent. Within the Creole group, it is important whether the ancestors were released during slavery or were only released after slavery was abolished. Descendants of freed slaves are generally of higher socio-economic status and are part of the Surinamese elite. The main holiday of the Surinamese Creoles is July 1, the day slavery was abolished in 1863. Officially, this day is called 'Dag der Vrijheden' (Day of Freedoms), but it is more common Keti Koti ('broken laces').

Suriname population overview (2004 census)
Hindustans27,4%
Creoles17,7%
Maroons14,7%
Javanese14,6%
mixed race12,6%
Boeroes, Brazilians, Chinese, Indians, Lebanese, Sephardic Jews6,5%

They form a completely different ethnic group Descendants of refugee slaves, the Maroons who established branches along the major rivers in the interior of Suriname since the 17th century. The largest group is formed by them Saramakkans and the Aukaner. Each Maroon tribe has its own language and traditions. Often it was still slaves from the first generation who fled into the jungle in order to build a new existence. Out West Africa handed down traditions therefore play a central role in the maroon communities. Also hers Religion, winti, has African roots (and shows similarities with other African-influenced worship services in Latin America such as Candomblé in Brazil or Santeria in Cuba). The memory of the fear and deprivation of the ancestors who fled is also very decisive for the life of the Maroon communities. Maroon villages in what is now Suriname are for example Brownsweg, Pokigron and Afobaka. But more and more young Maroons are moving to Paramaribo in search of work.

Two other population groups of Suriname that need to be mentioned are on the one hand the so-called Boeroes and on the other hand the Lebanese. The Boeroes descend from white colonists who emigrated from Groningen or Gelderland to Surinam in the mid-19th century. As Lebanese is the name given to the Surinamans who come from the Middle East, above all from Lebanon, but also from Syria and Palestine. Most of them are Christians.

The youngest and also the fastest growing population group in Suriname are the Brazilians. According to estimates, approx. 40,000 Brazilians in Suriname. They are generally Brazilians from North and Northeast Brazil who are prospectors (porknokkers or garimpeiros called) came to Suriname. The Garimpeiros mostly live in gold prospector camps on one of the rivers. But a significant number of Brazilians also live in Paramaribo, especially in the north of Paramaribo. They call their district themselves Klein-Belém, named after Belém, the capital of the Brazilian state Pará, from which many Brazilian Surinamers come. Klein-Belém has a good Brazilian infrastructure with its own supermarkets, restaurants, hairdressers and laundromats.

The 'new migrants' also include the (new groups of) Chinese, of which a large part - like the Chinese migrant workers during the 19th and 20th centuries - came from the Guangdong Province originates in southeast China. In many cases, the new migrants are themselves members of the same families who have lived in Suriname for decades.

languages

Rachim from Surinam says: "At home we never spoke Javanese."

Dutch is the official language of Suriname. It is the language of education, government, newspapers, official signs and tourism. But it is not the dominant colloquial language of Suriname, as only one small part the Surinamer only (Surinamese) Dutch speaks. In most households, Dutch is spoken alongside Sranan Tongo, Javanese or Sarnami.

Colloquial languages ​​in Suriname (per household with approx. 6 people each)
Dutch3320
Sranan1903
Javanese2808
Sarnami5724
Dutch + Sranan + other language4343
Dutch + Sranan20148
Dutch + Sranan + Javanese5429
Dutch + Sranan + Sarnami6439

Source: Taalunieversum (p. 16)

In other families it is Colloquial language (only) Sranan or Javanese or Sarnami. According to the Numbers in the table on the right this applies to 10,435 households (approx. 6 people per household are assumed). In this overview (based on the 1980 census!) The domestic languages ​​are not taken into account. Arawak, Cariben or Maroon communities are often characterized by a homogeneous use of the language - a certain colloquial language is spoken in each village (Arawaks, Saramakkan etc.). Dutch is only in these cases in school as a second language acquired.

In the table above, only those are used most spoken languages ​​of Suriname in front: Dutch, Sranan Tongo, Javanese and Sarnami. Sarnami (or Sarnami Hindi) is used by the Surinamese Hindustans spoken. It is in all likelihood based on eastern Hindi and varieties of Bihari. Standard Hindi and Urdu (as religious languages) also influenced the emergence of Sarnami. Come in addition intensive language contact with other languages ​​in Suriname, especially Dutch and Sranan. Javanese (Colloquial language of the Javanese Surinamans) differs in terms of vocabulary from Javanese, which is spoken today in Java in Indonesia. While Javanese in Indonesia has borrowed many loan words from the official language Bahasa Indonesia since independence in 1947, Javanese in Suriname contains a large number Loan words from Sranan or Dutch.

The languages ​​of Suriname
(in alphabetic order)

Akuriyo, Arawak, Aukan, Boni, Brazilian Portuguese, Hakka, Kar'ina, Kwinti, Matuwari, Mawayana, Dutch, Paramakkan, Saramakkan, Sarnami Hindi, Sikiïyana, Sranan Tongo, Javanese, Trio, Tunayana & Wayana.

Sranan Tongo ('the language of Surinam') was originally the language of the Surinamese Creoles. It is one Creole languagewhich developed from the contact between Surinamese slaves and between slaves and plantation owners. Since the first Konlonisten were English-speaking, the basis of Sranan is (in all probability) a Creole language with English as a lexifier language. Portuguese colonists (Sephardic Jews from northeast Brazil) contributed to a strong Portuguese influenceon the later Sranan. In addition, slaves brought to Suriname from West Africa used a Portuguese-based pidgin. That is also very strong Influence of the various West African mother tongues on the Sranan. Sranan, on the other hand, was influenced by Dutch only from the 19th century: as a result, the remains Dutch influence limited to vocabulary of Sranan. Until the 19th century, Dutch was deliberately kept out of the reach of slaves; partly because it was seen as the language of the elite. today is the use of the Sranan no longer limited to the Creole group, it is that group most important lingua franca of Surinamewith which members of different language communities communicate with one another. The new migrants (Chinese and Brazilians) also speak Sranan rather than Dutch.

In addition to the four 'big' languages ​​of Suriname, a large number of other languages ​​are spoken: first of all, the 'native' languagesArawak, Mawayana, Kar'ina, Trio, Wayana, Akuriyo, Sikiïyana en Tunayana. Furthermore the Maroon languages Saramakkan, Matuwari, Aukan, Paramakkan, Boni and Kwinti (Creole languages ​​as well as Sranan Tongo). Finally, the languages ​​of (new) migrant workers: Chinese (more precisely: a Surinamese form of Hakkaspoken in the southeast of China) and Brazilian Portuguese.

The following four paragraphs are specific features highlighted by four Surinamese languages: From Arawaks, Sranan Tongo, Saramakkan and at the end of Surinamese Dutch.

Arawaks

Arawaks is a so-called polysynthetic or incorporating language. Polysynthetic languages ​​are an 'extreme' form of synthetic languages. In the language typology, it refers to languages ​​that express grammatical relations preferentially through structural changes in the word. In polysynthetic languages, whole sentences are often expressed with just one word, whereby objects are also incorporated into the verb form, for example. In other words, so are long words and one-word sentences characteristic of the Arawaks (see the examples below from Carlin & Arends, 2002).

wandabothe ('we are arriving here')
w (= 1.P.Pl.)
anda (= to arrive))
bo (= progressive)
the (= directional)

mataatonoakoa ('having not yet moved far away')
ma (= privative, without anything)) taa (= far away)) t (= verbalizer) onoa (= shows that the action is 'self-oriented') koa (= continuing action)

Willy Alberga in conversation with Eddy van der Hilst about Sranan Tongo (9 min)

Sranan Tongo

Sranan Tongo is - like many Creole languages ​​- one analytical language. In the language typology, it refers to languages ​​that express grammatical relations through word order and intonation. The most words in analytic languages ​​are therefore not complex. To illustrate, a sample sentence in Sranan:

Tide-neti wi no e go na cinema, bikasi papa friyari.
We're not going to the movies tonight because it's dad's birthday.

The Sranan has a large number of so-called Tense-Mood-Aspect (TMA) particles and auxiliary verbs (see list below):

Sranan Tongo: words borrowed from Dutch

ferfi - verven (stain)
kamra - kamer (room)
kantoro - kantoor (office)
kasi - kaas, kast (cheese, cupboard)
kerki - kerk (church)
klari - klaar, gereed (done)
kowsu - sok, kous (socks, stocking)
kroisi - kruis (cross)
kumakriki - gemakkelijk (easy)
spikri - spijkeren (nailing)
spoiti - spuit (syringe)

(from: Sordam / Eersel, 1985)

e (Action not yet completed or habit))
O (Future tense, unrealis)
ben (Past)
sa (ndl.'zullen '; future)
can (can, may, be allowed)
sabi (know how)
mu (see below) (have to)
wani (want)
k (a) ba (done with)

Josta Vaseur is of the opinion that Sranan Tongo is not a real language.

To illustrate some Example sentences with TMA particles and auxiliary verbs:

A ferfi a oso. (He painted the house)
A. e ferfi a oso. (He is painting the house / He is painting the house)
A. O ferfi a oso. (He will paint the house)
A. ben ferfi a oso. (He had painted the house)
A. ben e ferfi a oso. (He was about to paint the house)
A. sa ferfi a oso. (He will paint the house)
Wed no can meki a bangi tapu Bun Freida. Wed no wani spikri Yesus baka na a kroisi. (I can't do the bench on Good Friday because I don't want to nail Jesus to the cross again.)
Wed no sabi fa yu e meki boyo. (I don't know how to do boyo.)
Ala the mama mus tyari den pikin fu go teki spoiti. (All mothers must have their children vaccinated.)
A no kba wroko ete. (He's not done with work yet.)

Saramakkan

The Maroon languages ​​of Suriname - Saramakkan, Matuwari, Aukan, Paramakkan, Boni and Kwinti - can be divided into two groups based on your lexifier language (s). The vocabulary of the Aukan, Paramakkan, Boni or Kwinti clearly shows English features, while in Saramakkan and Matuwari stronger the Portuguese element comes to the fore.

The difference between the two groups is often measured by Time at which the flight from the plantations took place. Saramakkan and Matuwari are spoken by Surinamers whose ancestors fled relatively early (1690-1710). The slaves who fled between 1710 and 1863 laid the foundation for the English-based Creole languages ​​(Aukan, Paramakkan, Boni and Kwinti).

To illustrate: im Saramakkan come 50 percent of the core vocabulary from English, 35 percent from Portuguese, 10 percent from Dutch and 5 percent from African languages. In Aukanian, 77 percent come from English, 5 percent from Portuguese, 16 percent from Dutch and 3 percent from African languages. (See Smith & Veenstra 2002).

Here are a few Example sentences in Saramakkan:

A. tá bebé. (He is drinking / Ele está bebendo / Hij is aan het drink)
Sèmbè bi bebé dí daán. (Someone had drunk the rum / Alguém tinha bebido o rum / someone had drunk the rum)
dóò jabí. (The door opened / A porta abriu / De deur opende)
Dí dí gánia kíi, dí onkoókukái. (At the same time the chicken was killed, misfortune started to happen / Quando a galinha foi morta, começou ('caiu') a má sorte / Toen de kip vermoord werd, begon het ongeluk)

Surinamese Dutch

Documentary on Dutch in Surinamese schools. Source: Taalunieversum

Dutch in Suriname can be seen as a separate variant of Dutch. In the meantime, this has also been officially confirmed: since Surinam has been a member of the Nederlandse Taalunie (since 2005), you get that too Surinamese Dutch (in addition to Dutch in the Netherlands and Flanders) as a separate variety of Dutch attention. A characteristic of Surinamese Dutch is that it is in vocabulary, pronunciation and grammar of other languages ​​spoken in Suriname, especially from Sranan Tongo.

Typical for the vocabulary of the Surinamese Dutch are on the one hand words from a older level of Dutch and on the other hand Neologisms: a 'wasteil' (basin) is a Surinamese one beckon, a 'suitcase' valies and societies means taking a lunch break; the dutch 'pajama', on the other hand, is a slaappak and the Dutch 'roman' verhaalboek. Typical of the Surinamese are Dutch Loan words or loan translations for example from English (iets korts (something short) for 'borrel', English 'short drink') and the (Sarnami) Hindi (roti is a pancake with a hearty filling), but mainly from the sranan (braf from Sranan brafu means 'soep' (soup)).

In the new Woordenlijst Nederlandse Taal (Dutch language dictionary), the Groene Boekje (published October 15, 2005), some Surinamese-Dutch words have also been added. On Taalunieversum there are some examples with a brief description of the meaning.
Surinamese Dutchtranslationorigin
cassavemaniocnative language
kousenbandvery long thin beans
slijsensliceEnglish (to slice)
massesstampSranan (masi)
alesiriceSranan
zoetoliaSalad oilAngel (sweet oil)
nagrikruidnagelen (carnations)Sranan
lont'aipimentoSranan (= rond oog ')
kasriposyrupy liquid made from cassavanative language
pesiBeans / peasSranan

(The words in bold are in the Big buoy.)


Jessica from Belgium tells what her favorite word is in Surinamese Dutch.

In the field of grammar The following usages can be found among others: (Example from De Vries (1994: 287-91) and De Ruiter (1991: 190-94)):

  • the use of 'gaan' as an auxiliary verb of the future
    Shirley gaat kwaad zijn. (= Shirley zal kwaad zijn./Shirley will be angry)
  • active verb forms with passive meaning
    Ik ga operation doen. (= Ik zal geopereerd has been. / I will be operated on.)
  • the omission of the reflexive pronoun
    Hij verbeeldt dat hij kan voetballen. (= Hij verbeeldt zich dat hij kan voetballen./ He imagines that he can play football.)
  • the transitive use of intransitive verbs
    somebody schreeuwen (= shout at someone / shout at someone)
  • the passive voice is formed in the perfect with 'become'
    de synagoog was built in 1685 (= de synagoog was built in 1685 / the synagogue was built in 1685)

Characteristic of the pronunciation of Surinamese are a Dutch bilabiales w (spoken with both lips), a Tips of the tongue - r (a rolling r) and no diphthongization of the long vowels [e:] and [o:] like (in the north of the) Netherlands.

The Surinamese Dutch is not a clearly delimited language variety. You can rather speak of a continuum with one at one end variety strongly influenced by other languages and one at the other end Variety that is pretty close to standard Dutch.

Ik vraag dus niet naar een suitcase, maar in goed Surinaams-Nederlands naar een valies.
'We don't lift.'
'En dat dan?' Ik wijs naar een stapel gloednieuwe reiskoffers op twee meter eight hair rug.
'Ze zijn geen valiezen, ze zijn Samsonites.'
Ik kijk niet gauw meer besides van op, maar dat een Samsonite niet onder het woord 'valies' zou vallen, verbaast me. Waar ik dan wel een valies kan vinden?
'Vraagt ​​u die heer daar.' Ze kneels in the direction of a gezette man in guayabera.
'U gaat het niet gaan vinden', zegt hij. [...]
'Waarom niet?'
'De Surinamer wil ze niet,' zegt hij. 'Kijk mijnheer, is zo thinks the Srananman; hij gaat op rice. Maar die hindoestaan ​​gaat zijn roti meenemen, toch? The masala van here ga je niet vinden in Holland. Dus dan what does the boyti-man do? Hij zet zijn masala in een pot en die pot zet hij niet in foam, dus cito breekt dat ding. Al die valiezen: naar de vaantjes, mijnheer! Want the masala: u gaat het niet schoon krijgen. The shirts from u: u kunt nog zo veel Witboi zetten, u blijft de hatelijke vlekken zien. Dus hoe ga je doen dan? Zuiver: liever koop je gelijk een real Samsonite. '
Michiel van Kempen, quoted in Van der Sijs, 2005: 112)

As an introduction to the different types of Overseas Dutch see chapters 14 and 15 in De Vries (1994). A detailed analysis of the History of the WIC gives Den Heijer (1994). A good overview of the History of Suriname offers Bakker (1993). A standard work on the time of the slavery in Suriname is De Kom (1981). Colonial and current Language policy in Suriname are explained in more detail in Groeneboer (1997) in the chapters 'De Surinaamse taalpolitiek: een historisches overzicht' by Hein Eersel and 'Suriname en het Nederlands' by Lila Gobardhan-Rambocus. A detailed study of theHistory of education policy in Suriname is Gobardhan-Rambocus (2001). More information about the Languages ​​of Suriname can be found in Carlin & Arends (2002), which among other things in a chapter the native languages Surinams ('The native population. Migration and identities' by Carlin and Boven), the Surinamese Dutch ('Surinamese Dutch' by Christa de Kleine) and the Creole languages Surinams ('The history of the Surinamese Creoles I. A sociohistorical survey' by Jacques Arends). Another option is Arends / Muysken & Smith (1995) with contributions about Sranan (by Adamson & Smith), Saramakkan (from Bakker, Smith and Veenstra) and Berbice Dutch (by Silvia Kouwenberg). The story of the Surinamese Dutch is also dealt with in Van der Sijs (2005). De Ruiter (1991) refers to the Languages ​​of Suriname in the context of the Netherlands.