Was Thiruvalluvar a Shaivit or a Buddhist
South Indian culture
South Indian culture refers to the culture of the southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. However, the South Indian culture with its visible differences is an important part of Indian culture. South Indian culture is essentially the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body and femininity. Examples of this are the dance, clothing and sculptures.
South Indian women traditionally wear the sari, while the men wear a kind of sarong, which can be either a white dhoti or a colorful lungi with typical batik patterns. The saree is an unembroidered cloth and improves the shape of the wearer while only partially covering the diaphragm. In Indian philosophy, the navel of the Supreme Being is viewed as the source of life and creativity. Therefore, the stomach and navel are traditionally not to be hidden, although the philosophy behind the costume has largely been forgotten. This leads to the realization of the Sharira mandala, where in Angikam Bhuvanam Yasya (the body is your world) connects with the Shaarira mandala (the entire universe) as expressed in Natyashastra. These principles of the sari also apply to other forms of curtains, such as the lungi or mundu or panchey (a white lungi with colorful silk edges in
Traditionally, South Indian men do not cover their upper body. In a formal situation, sometimes a piece of cloth can cover the torso. Certain temples in South India even prohibit men from wearing upper body clothing while in the temple. In Andhra and parts of northern Karnataka, men wear kachche panchey, where it is tied at the back by placing it between their legs. A similar pattern can be seen in women. All over the coastal region of the peninsula, men wear colored lungs and women wear saris to tie at the back.
The araimudi (araimuti) (Tamil: அரைமுடி, araimūḍi) is a small silver metal plate, shaped like a heart or a fig leaf, formerly worn on their genitals by young Tamil girls. "Arai" means loin and "Mudi" means cover. The araimudi is also known as the "genital shield" and an araimudi was mentioned in the "Guide to the Main Exhibitions at the Pudukkottai Government Museum" by MS Chandrasekhar, published in 1966 as an exhibit at the Madras Government Museum. "A Handbook of the Salem District in the Madras Presidency, Volume 1," said "The children are sometimes in a state of nudity by the age of ten or more, which may be relieved by a piece of string around their waist that they hold wears the "araimudi" or heart-shaped piece of silver that draws attention to what it claims to be hiding. "The Madras District Gazetteers, Volume 1, Part 1" said, "Little girls, up to about 3 years of age , wear nothing but the small heart-shaped piece of silver that is hung on a waist string (araimudi). " Attention to what it is pretending to be hiding. "Percival's Tamil-English Dictionary", edited by P. Percival, defined Araimudi as "ra arai múḍi", a small plate of gold or silver that is attached to the belt of female children for the sake of female children ". Miron Winslow's Dictionary "A Comprehensive Tamil and English Dictionary for High and Low Damil" defined araimudi as "அரைமுடி, s. A small metal plate that little girls carry over the private parts." The Abbe Dubois book "Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies, "translated from French and edited by Henry King Beauchamp, explained:" Children's private parts also have their own special decorations. Little girls wear a gold or silver shield or codpiece with an indecent image engraved on it; while that A boy's ornament, also made of gold or silver, is an exact copy of the item that is to adorn it. "" Description of the character, manners and customs of the Indian people and their religious and civil institutions, "also written by Dubois, said: "The children of both sexes are also adorned with different pieces of jewelry of the same shape, albeit k lesser than that of adults. They also have some that are peculiar. Since all children in India are completely naked by the age of six or seven, the parents naturally match the decorations to the natural parts of the body. Girls have hung a metal plate to hide their nudity to some extent. The boys, on the other hand, have hung around them little bells or some similar device made of silver or gold, which is attached to the little belt with which they are girt. Among the others, a certain piece of jewelry appears in front that resembles the boy's sexual part. "Until the 1960s, girls in the Ampara District of Sri Lanka wore the araimudi.
The eating habits also differ from region to region and are largely based on traditions. Rice is the staple food. Coconut is an important ingredient in Kerala and in the coastal area of Karnataka in southern India. Hyderabadi biryani is also very special in Telangana and other neighboring countries, while the cuisine in Andhra Pradesh is characterized by the cucumbers, spicy aromatic curries and the generous use of chili powder. Dosa, Idli, Uttapam, etc. are popular across the region. Coastal areas such as the state of Kerala and the city of Mangalore are known for their seafood. South Indian coffee is generally quite robust, and coffee is a drink of choice throughout the Malabar region. Tamil Nadu is known for its Idli, Dosa, Pongal, Sambhar, Vada, Puri, which are the usual breakfast in Tamil families. Among the Malayalees, appam, puttu, upamav, malabar biriyani are some of the common dishes. In Karnataka, Bisibele-Bad, Kara-Bad, Kesari-Bad, Raggi-Mudda, Udin Vada, Bene Masala Dosa and Paper Dosa are some of the common dishes.
There is a wide variety of music. It ranges from rural folk music to the refined Indian classical music in South India known as Carnatic Music (after Carnatic, the name that South India was known by in the earlier colonial days, Sarang Dev coined South Indian classical music as Karnatic Music. It contains melodious , mostly devoted, rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasaru, Tyagaraja, Dikshathar, Shyama Sasthri and Swati Tirunal. It is difficult to discuss the culture and music of the four states of South India in one breath. In Tamil Nadu there is Tamil Pann, sung by Oduvars in temples, they sing the works of famous Tamil poets like Sambandar etc. in different pots (another word for raagas).
Hindu temple music
The main instrument used in South Indian Hindu temples is the (Nadaswaram). It is said to have been created when the very first temple was built in South India. The Nadaswaram and the (Thavil) were played together in South Indian temples to create a Periya Melam ensemble. Because of its harsh tone, Periya Melam is not preferred by many Europeans, but for South India it is a sound of pride and majesty. For many temple traditions, Periya Melam is necessary for worshipers to feel a spiritual presence. Periya Melam is used to play for daily rituals inside the temples and annual rituals outside and around the temples. Terada, Yoshitaka. "Temple Music Traditions in Hindu South India:" Periya Melam "and its Performance Practice." Asian Music 39.2 (2009): 108- 51. ProQuest. Network. September 24, 2013.
South Indian culture is celebrated in the elaborate dance forms of South India: Koodiyattam, Bharatanatyam, Oyilattam, Karakattam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Thirayattam, Theyyam, Bhuta Kola, Ottamthullal, Oppana, Kerala Natanam, Mohiniaattam and Yakshagana. Thirayattam is a ritual performing art from the South Malabar region in the state of Kerala. The Bharatanatyam is the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the body. This is done through the principles of a perfectly upright posture, a straight and pouting, curved stomach, a well-rounded body mass appropriate to the body structure, very long hair and curvy hips. These principles bring to life the philosophy of Natyashastra, 'Angikam bhuvanam yasya' (The body is your world). This is worked out in the araimandi posture, in which the performer takes a half-seated position with knees turned sideways, with a very upright posture. In this basic position of the Bharatanatyam dance, the distance between head and navel becomes the same as that between earth and navel. Similarly, the distance between the outstretched right arm and the outstretched left arm becomes equal to the distance between the head and feet and thus represents the "Natyapurusha", the embodiment of life and creation.
Architecture and paintings
There are two charming styles of rock architecture in South India, the pure Dravida style of Tamil Nadu and the Vesara style (also called the Karnata Dravida style) in Karnataka. The inspiring temple sculptures of Mahabalipuram, Tanjore, Hampi, Badami, Pattadakal, Aihole, Belur, Halebidu, Lakkundi, Shravanabelagola, Madurai and the wall paintings of Travancore and Lepakshi temples are also evidence of the South Indian culture. The paintings by Raja Ravi Varma are considered to be classic depictions of many subjects of South Indian life and mythology. There are several examples of Kerala murals at Mattancherry Palace and Shiva kshetram in Ettamanoor. As of April 2006, 5 of the 26 world heritage sites in India are located in South India.
Sculptures and figures
Sculpture became one of the best mediums of South Indian expression after the human dance form. In this medium it was possible to etch the three-dimensional shape over time. The traditional South Indian sculptor begins his sculpture of the deities from the navel, which is always represented by the sari without clothes. A koshta or grid of the sculpture would show that the navel is right in the center of the sculpture and is the source of the union of the finite body and the infinite universe. Sculptures adorn many of the temples around and within the complexes. They also represent dance steps of various stylizations and have served to preserve and revive dance forms.
Literature and philosophy
South India has a literary tradition that goes back over two thousand years. The first known literature in South India are the poetic sangams, which were written in Tamil about two to one and a half thousand years ago. The Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, written 850 AD by King Amoghavarsha I, references the Kannada literature of King Durvinita in the early 6th century AD Nemrinatham, Tamil Buddhist commentators of the 10th century AD, Refers to 4th century AD Kannada literature. Various Malayalam and Telugu literary traditions developed over the centuries that followed. The artistic expressions of the South Indian people show their admiration for the splendor of nature and its rhythms. Some of the works include Silappadhikaram by Ilango Adigal, Tholkappiam, written by Tholkappiar, Thiruvalluvars Thirukural, Kumaravyasa's Karnata Bharata Katamanjari, Pampas Vikramarjuna Vijaya, Andhra Maha Bharatamu by the three poets Shanaadana Vana, Tikkaniva, and Erranana Akanna. In South Indian literature and philosophy, women are considered to be very powerful. A married woman is considered to be auspicious, her Shakti or feminine power protects and strengthens her husband and children. Contemporary Kannada writers have received eight Jnanapith Awards. This is the highest price for any Indian language.
Communities and traditions
The main spiritual traditions of South India include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist and Jain philosophies had influence several centuries earlier (Recent studies suggest that at least the Shaivite branch of Hinduism existed in South India before the arrival of Buddhism and Jainism as
References and bibliography
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