Why do the British call studded boots
öee tfd) en flīufeafoemnee - Upper Austrian ...
© Upper Austrian Museum Association - Society for Regional Studies; download from www.biologiezentrum.at
Lllb ^ anMungen
© Upper Austrian Museum Association - Society for Regional Studies; download from www.biologiezentrum.at
© Upper Austrian Museum Association - Society for Regional Studies; download from www.biologiezentrum.at
The association report and the reports on the wisseneconomic activity and homeland care
published in Upper Austriaen self-employed as:
Yearbook of the Upper Austrianen Museum association
Part II. Reports
Printed with the support of the Upper Austrianen State government
Editor: Hon. Prof. Dr. Kurt Hoher, Wels, Maria-Theresia-Strasse 3
Natural scienceenscientific treatiseen: Dr. Gertrud Th. Mayer, Linz
Oö. State Museum, Museumstrasse 14
Published by Oberösterreichischer Musealverein, Linz
Total production: Welsermühl, Wels
Table of Contents
Erwin M. Ruprechtsberger: The tombstone CIL III 13529 of the Christian
VRSA from Ovilava / Wels, Upper Austria. A linguistic interpretation p. 9
R.enate Κ u χ - J ü 1 g: A late Roman grave find from Linz-Zizlau II p. 25
Vlasta Tovornik: Slavic grave finds on the northen Danube bank at
Windegg, Gem. Steyregg, Pol. Ident. Urfahr area p. 33
Manfred Pertlwieser: To the ethnicen Affiliation of the enclosedenleadenden
9th century burial grounds in the easten Upper Austria p. 61
Alfred H ö 11 h u b e r: The realmenSteiner pottery pulpencollection p. 83
Brigitte H e i η ζ 1: The porcelain collection of the kunsthistorischen Department
of the Upper Austria. State Museum in Linz p. 121
Gernot Κ in ζ: The water boots of the fishermen and the water construction ship people from
between the river area of the Traunen Traunfall and the mouth of the Traun-Danube
Wilhelm Klaus: To determine and interpret the pollendensity in
Sedimenten, using claystone as an exampleen from the Hallstatt salt mountain
and the peat bog on the Walserberg shown on p. 171
Roland Schmidt: To the late glacialen Vegetationendevelopment in the
Area (Bavarian Forest-Bohemian Forest) p. 183
Viktor J e η i s c h and Gottfried Τ i c h y: New finds from mastodontsen-
Molaren from den Gravel of the southen Kobernaußerwaldes (Upper Austria) p. 193
Reinhart Schuster and Wolfgang Hack: Commentenvaluable finds of the
bodeninhabitenden Fly Aptilotus paradoxus MIK (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae)
in Upper Austria p. 201
The Lappendivers (Podicipidae) as winter guests
on den Salzkammergutseen 1967/68 to 1975/76 p. 207
Gerald Mayer: Arrivalen of migratory birds in Upper Austria p. 223
Gertrud Th. Mayer: Raubmöwen in Upper Austria p. 255
Georg Ε r 1 i η g e r: Nest finds and nest shapeen the bag tit (Remiz pendulinus)
in Upper Austria p. 263
Petra Wo 1 ff: The hunting and domestic animal fauna of the late Neolithicen Pile dwellingen
des Mondsces p. 269
meetingen and displayen P. 349
Georg Ε r 1 i η g e r, Dietfurt 61, 5280 Braunau / Inn
Wolfgang Hack, Zoological Institute of the University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010 Graz
Dr. phil. Brigitte H e i η ζ 1, Upper Austria. Landesmuseum, Museumstrasse 14, 4020 Linz
Elementary school director Alfred Η ö 11 h u b e r, Reichenstein 30, 4230 Pregarten
Dr. Viktor J e n i s c h, Institute for Geology and Paleontology at the University of Salzburg, Akademiestraße
26, 5020 Salzburg
Gernot Κ i η z, chemical laboratory assistant at Chemie Linz AG., Member of the Upper Austria. State Hunting Association,
Haid 57, 4063 Hörsching
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Wilhelm Klaus, Paleontological Institute of the University of Wien, Universitätsstrasse
7, 1010 Wien
Dr. phil. R.enate Κ u x-J ü 1 g, goodenbergstrasse 28, 4020 Linz / Danube
Dr. phil. Gerald Mayer, Croatianengasse 14, 4020 Linz
Dr. phil. Gertrud Th. Mayer, Department of Zoology / Vertebrates on Upper Austria. State Museum, Museumstrasse
14, 4020 Linz
Satoristraße 35, 4810 Gmunden
Manfred Pertlwieser, Upper Austria. Landesmuseum Linz, Museumstrasse 14, 4020 Linz
Dr. phil. Erwin Maria Ruprechtsberger, 4484 Kronstorf 96, Upper Austria.
Dr. phil. Roland Schmidt, Limnological Institute of the Austrianen Academy of Sciencesenshaften,
Berggasse 18/19, 1010 Wien
Univ.-Prof. Dr. Reinhart Schuster, Zoological Institute of the University of Graz, Universitätsplatz
2, 8010 Graz
Dr. Gottfried Ti c h y, Institute for Geology and Paleontology at the University of Salzburg, Akademiestraße
26, 5020 Salzburg
Dipl.-Rest. Vlasta Το ν ο r n i k, Oö. Landesmuseum Linz, Museumstrasse 14, 4020 Linz
Dr. phil. Petra Wolff, 1st Zoological Department at Naturhistorischen Museum Wien, Burgring
7, 1014 Wien
For den The content of the essays is the authoren responsible.
The imageen woulden from Den authoren provided.
Chalkboard Illustration Directoryen
To: Ruprechtsberg r, tombstone CIL III 13529:
Plate I, Fig. 1: Grave inscription for VRSA from Wels after p. 16
To: Kux-Jülg, late Roman grave find from Linz-Zizlau II:
Plate II, Fig. 1: Glass beaker in front of p. 17
Fig. 2: Onion button primer
To: Tovornik, Slavic grave finds:
Plate III, Fig. 1: The site on the streetenroad no. 3 betweenen
Plesching and Steyregg, hard on the northen Danube bank according to p. 48
Fig. 2: Womanengrave 11 with knife and stone neckensupport
Plate IV, Fig. 3: Two parallel graves: womanengrave 8 and children's grave 13, with the resten
of the woodenen Grave installation
Fig. 4: Detail: the steng stored in parallelen woodenen sinceenwalls
Plate V, Fig. 5: Lead necklace with cross pendants, from the girlengrab 1
To: Pertlwieser, grave fields:
Plate VI, Fig. 1: Type of a Slavicen Mrsengrabes with wooden bucket, boneen an addition of meat
as well as mrsenknife in front of p. 49
Fig. 2: Type of a Slavicen Children's grave (male) with knife and boneen
the addition of meat
To: H e i η ζ 1, porcelain collection:
Plate VII, Fig. 1: Inv.-No. Ρ 363, Kume, China, period K'ang-hsi (1662-1722) after p. 128
Fig. 2: Inv.-No. Ρ 20, basketen, Japan (18th century)
Plate VIII, Fig. 3: Inv.-No. Ρ 5, Kume, China, Wan-Li period (1573-1619)
Fig. 4: Inv.-No. Ρ 14, saucer, China, Chia-ch'ing period (1796-1820)
Fig. 5: Inv.-No. Ρ 81, Kume, Meißen (1774-1813)
Fig. 6: Inv.-No. Ρ 26, Kume, Meißen (before 1725)
Fig. 7: Inv.-No. Ρ 26, saucer, chiselen (before 1725)
Fig. 8: Inv.-No. Ρ 28, Kume, Wien (before 1744)
Plate IX, Fig. 9: Inv.-No. Ρ 347, vase, China, K'ang-hsi period (1662-1722)
Fig. 10: Inv.-Nr.-P 49, insert cup, Wien (before 1744)
Fig. 11: Inv.-No. Ρ 391, Johann Laberschitz, Obertasse, Wien (1767-1783)
Fig. 12: Inv.-No. Ρ 230, Anton Hauser, Kume, Wien (1772-1783)
Plate X, Fig. 13: Inv.-No. Ρ 69, Crucible, Wien (1749-1783)
Fig. 14: Inv.-No. Ρ 55, Franz Schmied, Saucer, Wien (1779-1783)
Fig. 15: Inv.-No. Ρ 71, Niklas Fuchs, Teller, Wien (1762-1783)
Fig. 16: Inv.-No. Ρ 65, plate, wien (1749-1783)
Plate XI, Fig. 17: Inv.-No. Ρ 134, Dionysius Pollion, Apollo, Wien (1749-1783)
Fig. 18: Inv.-No. Ρ 128, hunter and shepherdess, Wien (1744-1749)
Fig. 19: Inv.-No. Ρ 150, Allegory of Autumn, Berlin (2nd half of the 18th century)
Fig. 20: Inv.-No. Ρ 164, Anton Payer, strawberry seller, Wien (4th century 18th century)
Plate XII, Fig. 21: Inv.-No. Ρ 133, dog, Wien ,1749-1783)
Fig. 22: Inv.-No. Ρ 339, bowl, Volkstedt-Rudolstadt (3rd V. 18th century)
Plate XIII, Fig. 23: Inv.-No. Ρ 118, cup and saucer, Wien (1829)
Fig. 24: Inv.-No. Ρ 151, cup and saucer, Berlin (around 1800)
Plate XIV, Fig. 25: Inv.-No. Ρ 113, cup and saucer, Wien (1800) before p. 129
Fig. 26: Inv.-No. Ρ 114, cup and saucer, Wien (1827)
Fig. 27: Inv.-No. Ρ 119, cup and saucer, Wien (1829)
Fig. 28: Inv.-No. Ρ 183-197, Karl Herzer, Franz Schulz, Josef Claas, coffee service
(Cup and saucer), Wien (1826)
Fig. 29: Inv.-No. Ρ 183-197, Karl Herzer, Franz Schulz, Josef Claas, coffee service
(Sugar bowl), Wien (1826).
To: Κ i η z, water boots:
Plate XV, Fig. 1: Traunfischer with leatheren Water boots with the robot fishen in drainenen
Kretzelmüller pond in Hagenberg, Gem. Lambach. Photo taken around 1905 after p. 144
Fig. 2: ArchwayenKeystone made of marble from the Lederer House in the Welser
Schwimmschulgasse No. 3, with the relief representation of a tannery barrel and
crossed overen Depilatory and scraperen «
Plate XVI, Fig. 3: Shoemaker's tools from the Krendl and wimmer workshop
Plate XVII, Fig. 4: Shoemaker's tools from Johann Krendl (f 1971)
Plate XVIII, Fig. 5: Stollenboots (hip boots) with erected shaft tube from Freindorf, Gem. Ansfelden
Fig. 6: Stollenboots with attached shaft tube from Oberharrern, Gem. Schlau
Plate XIX, Fig. 7: Stollenboots with lowered shaft tube (1 Stollen) from the sheep meadowen,
Gem. Catfish. Producer: Johann Reder (t 1930)
Fig. 8: Stollenboots with lowered shaft tube (2 Stollen) from Freindorf,
According to Ansfelden. Producer: Johann Krendl (| 1971)
Fig. 9: Stollenboots with put downen Shaft tubeen (left 1 tunnelen, right 2 studsen).
Producer: Johann Krendl (f 1971)
Fig. 10: Stollenboots with lowered shaft tube (2 Stollen).
Producer: Johann Krendl (| 1971)
Fig. 11: Medium foggingenhe Boden of a Stollenboots from Freindorf,
According to Ansfelden. Producer: Johann Krendl (f 1971)
Fig. 12: Heavily fogged upenhe Boden of a Stollenboots from the Fischerau, Gem. Lambach
Fig. 13: Heavily fogged upenhe Boden of a Stollenboots from the Fischerau, Gem. Lambach
Fig. 14: One with a double wing jointen edged outsoleenedge (excerpt)
of a Stollenboots from Gunskirchen. Producer: Johann Wimmer (f 1941)
Plate XXI, Fig. 15: A simple bootjack from an aggression fisherman's house in Au, Gem. Redlham
Fig. 16: Simple boot jack from a mill in Sammersdorf, Gem. Pucking
Fig. 17: Quadruple boot jack from a Traun fisherman's house in Waidhausen, Gem. Wels
Fig. 18: Heel of a Stollenboots from the sheep meadowen, Gem. Wels.
Producer: Johann Reder (f 1930)
Plate XXII, Fig. 19: Hand protection leather and finger protection sleeveen
Fig. 20: Knocking sticks (length 330 and 400 mm), tools of the water boot shoemaker
Johann Krendl (f 1971) from Fischdorf, Gem. Ebelsberg
Fig. 21: Boot ledgeen with raisedenhe insole and upenagelten Eutzen
Fig. 22: Roughly overhauled upper part (illustrative example) before p. 145
Natural scienceeneconomic part
To: S c h m i d t, Vegetationsentweaking:
Plate I, Fig. 1-8: An «s-Pollen After p. 196
To: Jenisch and Tichy, mastodonten-Molaren:
Plate II, Fig. 1: Tetralophodon longirostris, M3 inf. dext. of occlusal
Fig. 2: Tetralophodon longirostris, M3 inf. dext. of lingual
Plate III, Fig. 3: Tetralophodon longirostris, M3 inf. dext. from distal
Fig. 4: Tetralophodon longirostris, M3 inf. dext. by buccal
Plate IV, Fig. 5: Tetralophodon longirostris, M 2 sup. sin. of occlusal
Fig. 6: Tetralophodon longirostris, M 2 sup. sin. from lingual before p. 197
To: Wolff, hunting and domestic animals:
Plate V, Fig. 1: Sus scrofa, skull after p. 288
Fig. 2: Sus scrofa f. Domestica, Occiputfragment
Fig. 3: Sus scrofa, skull fragmentent
Fig. 4: Sus scrofa f. Domestica, Occiputfragment
Plate VI, Fig. 5: Cervus elaphus, Metapodium
Fig. 6: Rupicapra rupicapra, Hornzapfen
Fig. 7: Capra aegagrus, horn coneen
Fig. 8-10: Ovis ammon f. Aries, Hornzapfen
Fig. 11: Ursus arctos, canine tooth
Fig. 12-14: Capra aegagrus f. Hirsuta, Hornzapfen
Plate VIII, Fig. 15: Bos primigenius, skull
Fig. 16: Auerhenno, humerus
Fig. 17: Woodcock, ulna
Fig. 18: Common raven, Carpometacarpus
Fig. 19: Goosander, Corpometacarpus
Fig. 20: Goosander, tibiotarsus in front of p. 289
THE TOMBSTONE CIL III 13529 OF THE CHRISTIAN VRSA
FROM OVILAVA / WELS, UPPER AUSTRIA
A linguistic interpretation
By Erwin M. Ruprechtsberger
(With 1 ill. On plate I)
In which recently adapteden Museum of the city of Wels is located below
other jenhe of the Wissentombstone 1 of the Christian woman is often mentioned
VRSA, followed byende inscription stands (Fig. 1):
FL (AVIVS) IANVARIVS MIL (ES) VIWS FECIT
CONDITA SEPVLCRO HIC PAVSAT VRSA
CRESTIANA FIDELIS TO (NORVM) XXXVIII PER PARTVM
SVBITO DVCENTE INPIO FATO EST TRADITA TARTARIS
5 IMIS ET ME SVBITO LINQVIT SIBI CONIVGEM PRO TEMPO
RE IVNCTVM QVEM AMBVLO ET QVERO MISER QVEM IPSE
AETERNA CONDIDI TERRA Ο QVIT TRIBVAT GENESIS
QVI SEPARATELY CONVIRGINIOS DVLCIS VT NON LICVIT
NOBIS IVGITER SVPERNAM FRVNISCI CARITATEM
1 CIL III 13529; CLE 1992; CLE 240 (Ε η g s t r ö m); ILCV 1336;
Α. Β e t ζ, ÖJh 29, 1935, Beibl 326 η 477; d e r s., The labeleden Romanen Stoneenmilestones
in urbanen Museum von Wels, JbMV Weis 1954, 12 f. And Fig. 1.
E. Polaschek, Ovilavis, RE 18, 1942, 1993, 13ff.
R. Noll, Eugippius, Das Leben of St. Severin, Linz 1947, 199f .;
d e r s., Early Christianentum in Austria by den Beginningen until around AD 600, Wien 1954,
45/7; 85f .; Fig. 2.
D e r s., Eugippius. . ., Berlin 1963, 12.
R. E g g e r, Upper Austria in Roman times, JbOÖMV 95, 1950, 160.
K. Hotter, Wels in the transition from late antiquity to the Middle Ages, culture zs Oö. 22/2,
1972/73, 63 ills.
J. R e i t i η g e r, Upper Austria in Prehistory and Early History, Linz 1969, 269 Fig.
G. W i η k 1 e r, Die Römer in Oberösterreich, Linz 1975, 159f., Fig. 39.
The Romans on the Danube, Noricum and Pannomen, Exhibition Petronell 1973, No. 1146.
Stadtmuseum Wels - Collection of Prehistory to the Early Middle Ages [information sheet 1976],
G. A1 f ö 1 d y, Noricum, London and Boston 1974, 281.
10 Erwin Maria Ruprechtsberger
10 HOC DICO LEGENTIBVS ET LACRIMIS PROSEQVOR VERBA
CONIVNCTI AMANTIS SEMPER SE BENEDICERE DEBENT
QVIA NIHIL ERIT DVLCIVS QVAM PRIMA IWENTVS.
About the meaning of this lineen for the early Christianen4th century
AD, to which the tombstone is generally believed to be dated 2
togetherenbarrelend and meetenwritten by R. NOLLen 3. An investigation in
in this direction the well-known would be repeateden and therefore needs here
not starteden to becomeen. But what remains to be done 4 is an attempt at analysis
of the present to usenden Text. We haveen so to askenwhether the literaryen statement
the inscription has a certain value, whether it is original and dignifiedene
Expression of a linguistically educateden late antiquity understooden, or if
them one longen Incorporated a chain of formulaic and common vocabulary
willen can. With that in combinationenhang standen Feeling for language and ownenNessen
grammatical and syntactic structureento go intoen
will be; However, this must be taken into accountenthat an inscription almost
always stereotypical speechenmanureen and fortuneen underlyingen 5 and therefore
one of the modernen Reader attempted judgment that remains entirely objective.
Despite this limitation, I want toen we the inscription genexcept treat as you
on the »only completely preservedenen Austria's tombstone from early Christian
Time «6 is handed down and thus to den meaningendsten Cultureenstruggle
our homeland counts.
The grave poem begins with line 2; it can be followedende sections
1st N.enthe burialen (Z2-3)
2nd cause of death (Z3)
3. Lament of the husbanden (Z4-9)
4. Reminder to the Lebenden (Z 10-12)
Line 2 is replaced by den Expression condita sepulcro introduced metrically: buried
in the grave. The formulation has a long tradition that extends down to the Homeric
καλύπτειν (hideen, veilen) goes back: there it's the heroesen,
theen Augen Darkness envelops 7 or thoseen Wrap opponents in a dark nighten,
kill himen 8th . With PINDAR, the expression is converted into enspeakenden
Compenten Earth-body 9, durend about Antigone in the same
2 See Α. Β et ζ (oA l), JbMV Wels 1954, 13.- R. Egg er (ο Α 1) shows den Stone the earlyen
4th century too.
3 R. Ν ο 11, Early Christianentum, 45/7.
4 Individual characteristics ^ becameen z. B. by R. Noll or Α. Β e t ζ touched (oA 2f.).
5 About the formulaic rally on inscriptionen is about H. R a h n, morphology of the
antiqueen Literature - an introduction, Darmstadt 1969, 115/9.
6 R. Ν ο 11, Eugippius. . . (1963), 12.
7 Ζ. Β. HOM. Il 4, 461: τον δε σκότος δσσε κάλνψεν.
8 HOM. Il 13, 424f .: 'Ιδομενεύς. . . ϊετο δ 'αιεί \ ήε τίνα Τρώων έρεβενντ} νύκτι καλυψαι.
9 PIND.Nem8,40 (based on the edition by O. Werner, München 1967) and 8, 65 (after F. G.
The tombstone CIL III 13529 of the Christian VRSA 11
nameden SOPHOCLES 'drama complains that no one is allowed to do so, den
Buried the body of her brother Polynices in the graveen 10: τάφω καλύπτειν
ent corresponds to sepulcro condere, which in Latinen Literature occurs 11. The
enge connection betweenen Earth and body are made clear to us by CICERO, the den
Body returned to earthen and him, as it were, in theen Protection sees 12. In
in this sense is also jene grave inscription to understandenin which the reader pointed outen
becomes that the body - from the earth endiden - falls back to earth
13th This ancient conception of the earth, Gaia, characterized as mother goddess
W. F. OTTO meetend 14: »Your rule over that ent standende Leben
connects to the one above den Death, denn everything that she gives birth returns to
youen Mother's lap back. ”So it's no wonder wenn on christianen
Tombstoneen this theme sounds, desen Tradition we can trace back to Homeren
canen, and as a literary topos on inscriptionen the easten Half of the empire,
for example in Athen (4th or 5th century AD) 15, as well as in
westen encountered. The formula follows: hie pausat, which like others (e.g. hie iacet,
hic quiescit, hiepositus est) to the fixedenden Introductory vocabulary of epitaphsen
counts, but differs in that it is based on suchen from Heiden
does not occur 16. The useendung of hie pausat predominates on inscriptionen
Triers, theen sixteen 17 the number of times in Belgica (Maastricht) 18,
the Germania Superior 19, the Lugdunensis 20, in Aquitanien 21 and Noricum 22
and twice in the Narbonensis 23 attested with this formulaen surpassen.
Schneidewin, BT 1858; or O. S c h r ο e d e r, BT 1914): εγώ δ 'αστοίς άδών και
χϋονί γν'ια καλύψαι (W e r η e r) [καλνψαιμι coni. Wackernagel].
See also AISCH. Prom. 582: πνρΐ με φλέξον ή χΰονϊ κάλνψον. . .
10 SOPH. Ant 27f .: άστοϊσί φασιν εκκεκηρνχυαι το μη \ τάφω καλύψαι. . .
11 Ζ. Β. VERG. A.en3, 67f .: animam sepulcro condimus.
OV. Met. 7, 618 ... me quoque conde sepulcro.
12 CIC de leg 2, 56: redditur enin the terrae corpus, et ita locatum ac situm quasi operimento matris
graduation. eodemque ritu in eo sepulcro. . . regem nostrum Numam conditum accepimus. . .
13 See e.g. EpGr 156/1 f .:
[Γ] αΙα μεν εις φάος ήρε, Σιβύρτιε, γαία δε κενϋει
σώμα, πνοιήν δ 'αίϋήρ ελαβεν πάλιν, δσπερ εδωκεν
14 W. F. Ο 11 o, The Gods Greekenlands- The image of the divineen in the mirror of the greeken
Geistes, Frankfurt a. M. S 1961, 152.
15 Ep Gr 175 / 3-5: γή σώμα κρύπτει τήδέ y, ... See also CIG 9535 / 13-16: και χουν μεν
αυτής ενΰάδε κρύπτει τάφος (but 1149 AD!).
16 Κ. Kraemer, The early Christianen Epitaphen Triers - investigationen to form,
Chronology and place of discovery and with an epigraphicen Addendum, Trier excavationen and
Forsch. 8, Mainz am Rhein 1974, 33.
17 K. Kraemer aO divides it into the cemeteries St. Matthias (6 times) and Trier-Nord (8 times).
To two interpreted uncertainlyen see below p. 12 and A 26.
18 ILCV 3301 = K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 33 A 479.
19 ILCV 3417 = CIL XIII 5256 = Κ. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 33 A 481 (dating 6th / 7th century
20 CIL XIII 3175a = K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 33 A 482.
21 ILCV 2361 = Κ. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 33 A 483.
22 oA 1.
23 ILCV 431 = K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 34 A 485.
12 Erwin Maria Ruprechtsberger
E. DIEHL 24 saw in den possibleen shapeen from here pausare a »dictio Gallica«
- a designation based on the name given by K. KRAEMERen Locations
theenspeakend to be expandeden is. Compareden with den leften introductionen
is rare here except in Trieren and almost uncommon 25. From Den There
knownen Epitaphen I have a break hereen all but two, not the last
Interpreted securityen 26, the coincidence in pace thereby making the introduction
is extended. Without in pace, K. KRAEMER only found three (!) In the empire,
from Denen the one 27 differenten, namely from 6.-9. century
AD, and the other 28 ebenif later, dated to the 6th or 7th century
is. The adverb here remains important for dating (always as an introduction
before iacet, pausat, quiescit, positus est, requiescit!), which has existed in Rome for approx.
400n. BC, in Gallien Found entry at the beginning of the 5th centuryen has 29.
After it is encountered on the epitaph from Wels, it is used for dating
Genauso to useen his 30 as that follows himende pausat, dessen late adenmanure
- it could also be from den forehandenen literaryen Sourceen evident
willen 31 - the time shift to oben obviousen seems. Togetherenbarrelend
can be saidenthat pausat predominated hereend to den Gallic-Germanicen
Space remains limited and there from the beginning of the 5th century
AD usedendet turns 32. Often in the area around Trieren Useenmanure
accordingly it would not be unlikely to have an influence from there that in others
Regarding Noricum to be determined earlieren is 33, sameen in the inscription vocabulary
accepten to wantenso that the previous dating of the tombstone
the VRSA later, in the first quarter of the 5th century AD.
24 quoted in Κ. Κ r a e m e r, aO 34 A 490.
25 W. Boppert, The early Christianen inscriptionen of the Middle Rhine region, Mainz 1971, 156
finds the formula “extraordinaryentlich often «, which is not the case (cf. the Bern. K. Kraemers,
loc. 34 A 491).
26 E. G o s e, catalog of the early Christianen inscriptionen in Trier, Berlin 1958, 56, 58.
See K. Kraemer, op. Cit. 34. No. 58 says pausat both without and with in pace.
27 ILCV 3417 = CIL XIII 6256-W. Boppert, loc. Cit., 58 = K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 34 A 501.
28 ILCV 431 = K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 34 A 503.
29 That is the general one, first represented by Le Β 1 a η t (quoted in K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 9)ene
30 The Bedenken K. Kraemer s, loc. Cit. 34 A 484, which is called the meter awayen usedendet sees
parten we are not. For metric problems see below, p. 21 f.
31 C. T. L e w i s - C. S h ο r t, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford M879 (several ed.), 1319 quoted.
CAEL aur tard 1, 1, 16; acut 3, 21, 212; WLG Esdr 2, 24; VEG vet. 1, 38 (ARN, 5, 16?), The
earliestens to be set at the end of the 4th centuryen are. -A. Forcellini, Lexicon totius Latinitatis,
3, 602. - The verb belongs to the colloquial language: J. P. Krebs, Antibarbarus der
Latinen Language, Basel
7 1905 arr. by J. H. Schmalz, reprint Darmstadt
1962, 262f. s.v. pause.
32 see K. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 36f.
33 Man denke on the typical Moselle motif of cloth tying (cf. ζ. Β.
E. Will, The Art in the Romanen Gallien, 109 in: Celten and Germanen in pagan times
bathen-Bathen 1964, reprint 1975), which is also the easternmost point in Juvavum / Salzburg
finds again: see N. Heger, Salzburg in Roman times, JSM 19, 1973, Salzburg 1974, 116
and fig. = d e r s., the sculptureen of the urban area of luvavum, CSIR 3/1, Wien 1975,
The tombstone CIL III 13529 of the Christian VRSA 13
followen has 34. Finally, in line 2, the name VRSA is mentioned, which differs from the
sanskriten"" rksas via the Greek άρκτος, Latin ursus (* urcsus) to the Celticen
arto endevelops and in the Rhineland and den Danube Provinceen occurs
35. From Ovilava / Wels kennen we an ORGETIA VRSA thaten Epitaph
dates from the 3rd century AD 36. The apposition CRE-
STIANA FIDELIS (line 3) reads after den translationen mostly: devout Christian
37. We haveen now to checkenwhether fidelis really translates as "believing"
willen can, or whether one does not first come to the basic meaning 38 and only then
a semasiological shift to denken Has. To this end been
both pagan and Christian inscriptionen useden: On one
Tombstone of a paganenwho died in Aquileia in the 5th century AD 39,
it says in the introduction 40: here iacet Restutus peleger in pace fidelis; fidelis enspeaks
here the fidus on an inscription from Delminium 41 and is probably faithful to
reliable to translateen. It becomes with it the straightness and constancy
in the lifeenleadership and character expressed what also the
enge connection of the adjective with vita 42 or custos 43 suggests, fides togetheren
with otheren Nouns z. B.: amor, sensus, pudor, sanetitas 44 or fidelis
with den Adjectives castus, pius 45, sanetus, tenax, insons, etc. 46 are part of it
of the tugendkataloges on a loten Epitaphen den Readers to the
Virtues of the deaden should remember. Straightforwardness and durabilityen character
signen jenen Christianen Doctor from who in its reliableen and imperturbableen
Disposition (mente fideli) 47 den laudibus aetheriis (heavenly praise) gedient has;
its admirationenworthy art (of salvationens) raised the reliability (fidem) and
the ornament of his reliability the art (boastend) protruding 48; through the fides
34 Cf. on the other handen oA 2.
35 See L.Weisgerber, Sprachwisseneconomic contributions to the early Rhinelanden Settlement and
Kulturgeschichte I, RhM 84, 1935, 289ff. (quoted in K. Kraemer, loc. cit. 28, 35; cf. also
ders., TrZ39, 1976, 177).
36 CIL III 5630 = ILS 7112 = Α. Β e t ζ, JbMV Wels 1954, 19f. and Fig. 2.
37 R. Noll, Early Christianentum, 46. R. Egg er (oA 1), 160. G. Winkler (oAl), 159f.,
which takes Noll's translation literally.
38 Literally translated Κ. Η ο 11 e r (oA 1), 63 fidelis mit treu.
39 Κ. Kraemer, loc. Cit. 21 rightly dates to the 5th and not the 4th century AD.
40 CLE 2199 / 1-5 = ILCV 4813 A.
41 CLE 1536/1 f .: hunc titulum posuit tibi fidus amicus: ultima quae potui débita persolvi. The
So the friend's fides consisted in deathen - insofar as it was possible - the ultimate debt
The equation of fidelis and fidus is made possible by CLE 2299/1 f .: custos fidelis and CLE
562/8 (Rome): fidissima custos proveden.
42 CLE 491 (faventia).
43 CLE 2299/1 f. (See above 41) and 562/8 (see above 41).
44 CLE 81/1 f. (Rome, Augustan period).
45 CIL X, 1909 (Puteoli): The adjectives are always in the superlative!
46 CLE 562/8 (see above 41).
47 CLE 1414 (Rome: 4th century AD): mente fideli (V 9) summarizes the previously genannten Wellen
Propenshaften of the doctor Dionysius togetheren.
48 aO V 13: ars veneranda fidem, fidei decus extulit artem:
14 Erwin Maria Ruprechtsberger
he gets a reputationen and shine that his mindset and Denk wise
boastend concreteen 49. Different Christian inscriptionen shorten Contents 50, in denen
fidelis appears as the epithet ornans, impliesen by no means the assumption
that it is at den Burieden each to a believing Christianen have acteden
would have to. The formulaic epithet fidelis 51 seems to me primarily to be the sum of all jenhe
Wellen Characteristicenshaften, the Aen M.enschen duringend his lifeens excellent
haveen, too comprehensiveen, to denen of course including the
Faith and religiosity are counteden have toen. The rendering of fidelis
through a single German adjective such as reliable, loyal, constant, etc.
always only partially den meaningfulen Aspect that underlies the word
lies; denbut in my opinion it would still be reliable, consistent, faithful to the translation
believing that emphasizes the religious sphere too much and too eng is determined to be preferableen.
In the seconden Section indicates the cause of deathen, a very common topical
Element 52. As a result of childbirth, VRSA became the deepesten Tartarus
delivered: per 53 partum est tradita tartaris imis. Heard the verb tradere
again to the grave inscription vocabulary 54 and becomes tartaris with the dative case
imis 55 networken. The Nenning of the underworld to Christianen inscriptionen
not surprisingly, there are certain pagan languagesente and imaginationen
take overen woulden: Tartarus can be of importance in mythology and
Jenside presentation after also on christianen inscriptionen im originallyen
Senseen 56; that this idea is the author of the grave poem
Wels may have floated in front of it, but it cannot be made bindingen,
but would not be unlikely, especially since it was only recently shown again
that in Lauriacum, for example, a pagan mythological theme, namely the Hesperidenfromenexpensive
of Heracles on a stone sarcophagus - he was in the
thereen Christianen Basilica II - represented in plastic form 57; from-
49 aO V 14: haec studii titulos, altéra mentis have.
50 cf. B. ILCV 4311 (Rome); CIL X 3309 (Puteoli).
51 Cf. for example the inscription from St. Matthias in Trier: E. G o s e (oA 26), 70: hic in pace fidelis
52 R. Lattimore, Themes in Greek and Latin Epitaphs, 111 Stud Lang Lit 28, Urbana / Illinois
1942 ( 2 1962), 142.
53 Grammatically correct is the Verwendung of the preposition leading to allen timeen
neben the instrumenvalleyen resulting from this enhave evolving causal significanceen can:
R. Kühner— C. Stegmann, Detailed grammar of the Latinen Language, Hanover
1878/79, reprint Darmstadt 1976, 2/1, 557.
54 cf. B. CLE 101 / 5f .; 104/1.
55 It was pointed outenthat "certain echoes of pagan imaginationen«Presenten are:
R. Noll, Early Christianentum, 47. Bring Tartarusen followende inscriptionen (in selection):
CLE 1535 b / 2 (Rome). 1109/19 (Rome); 1515/8 to Ammaedara; 434/11 (Pisaurum). ILCV 3453f.
(from AD 488).
56 R. Lattimore, loc. Cit. 314 f. Equating our word "hell" with Tartarusen to wanten, would
complete salesennen antique Denk wise.
57 L. E c k h a r t, The snake around den "Apple tree" - a late antique sarcophagus fragmentent off
Enns, ÖJh 51, 1976-77, 159/72.
The tombstone CIL III 13529 of the Christian VRSA 15
printing is jedenif in pagan antiquityen Language area familiar 58. In the same
Sphere indicates the ablative group ducente inpio fato, in which the absolute posited
Presenspartizip is noticeable in front of which one has a demonstrative pronounen in the
Accusative (feminine) supplemented denken must 59. Des ellipticalen Use of the
The author was probably no longer aware of verbums ducere 60, otherwise he would have
avoided such a bold constructionen and instead of this the Presenspartizip
in the ablative to a perfect participle passive in the nominative: ducta 61 (as a participle
coniunctum with VRSA and tradita est verbunden) reshaped, bringing him
a better sentence structure succeededen would. The word fatum - ειμαρμένη has one
long tradition ofen Beginnings in the olderen Roots of the stoa and those in KLEAN-
THES 'Hymn to Zeus and Fate 62 - aen shorten Cutout rendered
based on the model of CICERO who later livedende SENECA 63 - culminating. The
great importance of fatum - ειμαρμένη clearlyen not just philosophical
Texts, but also the Verwendung in epic 64 and den paganen 65
and christianen 66 epitaphenthat as late stuffen den classicen Influence
to the lastentimes reflect 67 and the word rather by devaluingende 68 than by positive
Adjectives 69 characterizingen.
Line 4 begins the main part of the poem, the lament - initially the content of the poem
Elegy, later adopted as Toposen 70, which is already in Greeken Stelen of
6th century BC To lesen is and passed away at any timeene form of expressionen
founden Has. The husband complains den suddenlyen Death 71 of the wife:
me subito linquit, which happened much too early 72; the deceasedene lets den Marriage-
58 See CLE 1386 (B.enpossiblyentum, 466 AD); 1404/11 f.
59 Cf. R. Kühne r-C. Stegmann, loc. Cit. 94f.
60 That about expressionen the military oneen Movement is absolutely needed. See ζ. Β.
LIV 1, 23, 5: ducit quam proxume ad hostem potest. 34, 14, 1: nocte media. . . praeter castra
hostium circumducit. . . CIC de div. 2, 65 ... cum (Sulla) in expeditionem educturus esset. . .
61 Such as B. on CLE 960 / 7f. (B.enpossiblyentum, time of Caesar): nunc data sum Diti longum mansura
per aeum / deducta et fatali igne et aqua Stygia.
62 See J. D a 1 f e n, The Prayer of Kleanthes to Zeus and Fate, Hermes 99, 1971,
63 SEN ep. 107, 11. Therefore to be mentioned hereenbecause those in Jamben re-sealing took place ebenso
as the grave inscription from Wels shows fatum and ducere (with accusative object!): ducunt volentem
fata, nolentem trahunt.
64 aen An overview of fatum at VERGIL was provided by W. Pötscher, Vergil-der Schicksalgedanke
in his poetry, lecture in Linz on November 24, 1976. From the sameen Author is expected
a book about Virgil is publisheden, in which this topic is dealt withen should.
65 e.g., CLE 1223/12; 495 / lOf .; 59 / 2f. (Caesar's time) all from Rome. 2199/8 (Aquileia).
66 CLE 701 / 1-5 (near Milan, 523 AD); 640/3 (Aquileia); 1409/8; ILCV 3428/3 (Rome);
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