What are the characteristics of the Greek people

Zeitbilder 5/6, textbook

2. The Greek Polis Since the 8th century BC In the Greek world, the polis (= municipality or city-state) developed into a characteristic form of political organization: its center was always a village or urban settlement around which the surrounding area was of different sizes. Athens as one of the largest poleis had around 2,500 km 2, some small ones only had a few km 2 with a few hundred inhabitants. The Greek historian Thucydides reported in the 5th century BC About the emergence of his home polis Athens: L Under Kekrops and the first kings up to Theseus, people lived in Attica in individual villages that had their own town halls and officials. But when Theseus became king, who was not only wise but also powerful, he ordered the entire country, abolished council and authority in all localities and united them into the present one city with only one council for all. Everyone stayed on their property as before; he only forced them to see their state in this one city to which everyone now belonged. (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War II, 15) Summarize in your own words the measures with which King Theseus reorganized the administration of Athens. The geographical peculiarity of Greece was essential for the development of these city-states. The small landscapes, separated by the mountains and the sea, encouraged the formation of local rulers and prevented the formation of larger territorial states. According to the ideal concept of the Greek philosopher Aristotle, decisive characteristics of the polis were: –– the self-government: each polis had its own constitution with different forms of rule - the aristocracy (rule of the nobility), the oligarchy (rule of the few), tyranny (sole rule) or democracy (popular rule); –– external independence, although the poleis often formed alliances with one another; –– economic independence. Depending on their size, these poleis also developed into religious, cultural and economic centers. There were hundreds of such municipal states, mostly with a few hundred to just over a thousand inhabitants. In very few cases, however, one can compare these communities with today's cities. The archaeologist John Camp describes the appearance and function of the center of a polis: L The city was basically divided into three spaces: a public, a private and a religious one. Public space was always available in the form of an agora, the large central square of the city. The square itself could offer space for a wide variety of activities: meetings, elections, markets, festivals, sports competitions, processes, theater performances, military exercises and the like. [...] The private houses encompass a wide range of sizes and features [...]. Religious spaces could be found all over the city as well as on the Acropolis. Sanctuaries could vary in size, from altars that took up no more than a modest square to huge temples with huge columned enclosures that took up several blocks. (Camp and Fisher, Götter, Helden, Philosophen, 2003, p. 78 f.) Compare the function and characteristics of a polis (a polis center) with those of a modern city. The two largest cities in the classical Greek world, Athens and Syracuse, had 40,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. Corinth and Agrigento followed with almost 20,000 people. The formation of the Hellenistic empires (at the end of the 4th century BC) also meant the end of the polis typical of Aristotle: They lost their independence from the outside world. Until the 8th century BC Chr .: Kingdom rule (monarchy) Monarch as the highest authority: Army commander, legislator, judge, highest priest plus: Council of Elders - Army Assembly Since the 8th century BC Chr .: Repulsion of the monarchy by aristocracy (aristocracy) Elimination of the army assembly Power is based on: Land and mounted warriors Since the 7th century BC Chr .: Repulsion of the nobility by free (large) peasants and (large) traders. Power is based on: military performance (heavily armed foot fighters) and money. Chr .: In some Poleis tyrannical rule Power is based on: Military and mass of the people or rule of a few nobles (oligarchy) Power is based on: Military, landed property or development to rule by the people (Athens) The development of rule in Greece ➞ ➞ ➞ 14 Go ahead Test purposes - property of the publisher öbv

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