Is the Indonesian education system bad

DAAD regional information

The following introduction to the higher education system, supplemented by a chapter on the topic of "Internationalization and educational cooperation" and the DAAD activities in Indonesia, can be found in. A more comprehensive analysis of the Indonesian higher education system offers a compact compilation of data on one page.

You can find all available DAAD country status, DAAD educational system analyzes and DAAD data sheets sorted alphabetically by country under

With currently 4,621 private and state institutions in the field of tertiary education Indonesia has one of the largest and most divergent higher education systems in the world (Higher Education Statistics 2019, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education, as of December 2018, p. 4). 633 of these universities are classified as universities (Universitas). Fully academic training with the qualifications S 1, S 2 and S 3, which correspond to a bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree, is also offered at subject-oriented universities: at 238 institutes (institute) and at around 2,500 so-called high schools (Sekolah Tinggi). At the latter, degrees D 1 to D 4 can be obtained. These “Diploma” degrees - not to be confused with the German diploma - are awarded in application-oriented courses; they are not recognized as academic degrees in Germany. The highest D degree, the Diploma 4, concludes a four-year course and can be equated with the Bachelor (S 1) in Indonesia, but with the addition of "Bachelor of Applied Science".

In addition to the Sekolah Tinggi, the diploma can also be obtained at the 909 so-called academies (Akademi) and at 304 vocational schools (Politeknik). In order to meet the need for qualified personnel in regions with high industrial or labor market-relevant potential, but which do not have any universities, the establishment of 36 so-called Akademi Komunitas started offering one and two-year vocational courses leading to degrees D 1 and D 2, respectively.

The vast majority of state universities are administered and financed by the DIKTI (Directorate for Universities in the Ministry of Education and Culture). In contrast, the Ministry of Religions is responsible for the large number of denominational universities. But there are also higher education institutions that are administered and financed by other ministries, for example the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Defense. The private university sector is anchored in DIKTI with regionally organized so-called KOPERTIS networks.

The University entrance As far as state universities are concerned, it takes place via national university tests (SBMPTN) after graduation from an SMA, a general education school, or an SMK, where the focus is on vocational subjects. The university can reduce the tuition fees in the case of good academic performance or students with poor financial resources. In addition, some universities in demand conduct their own exams or issue invitations directly to particularly well-qualified school leavers. Private universities have their own admission procedures. The graduation in Indonesia takes place after twelve years and does not allow direct access to a German university.

Less than 10 percent of all tertiary educational institutions are state sponsored, more than 90 percent are private universities. Both private and state-sponsored universities charge tuition fees; the state universities are generally considered to be particularly qualified and also have most of the current 739 doctoral programs in the country.

At most colleges there is still a lack of university lecturers with a doctorate. Of the more than 308,600 statistically recorded lecturers, only around 47,625 have a doctorate. About 72 percent of university teachers have a master’s degree as their highest degree; all others teach with bachelor, diploma or other degrees. Most of the qualified university professors are to be found on Java, a long way from the other islands, where around 26,000 have a doctorate and a good 108,700 have a master’s degree. More than 60 percent of all PhD lecturers work at universities on Java. The number of those who have a bachelor's degree as their highest degree has fallen significantly in recent years. (Source: Higher Education Statistics 2019)

Applied Sciences in Indonesia

Various scholarship programs have been developed to qualify university teachers through advanced master’s and doctoral programs. As part of the BUDI (Beasiswa Unggulan Dosen Indonesia) program, which is implemented by the Ministry of Research and Technology (RISTEK) together with the Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education (LPDP), 273 lecturers received according to the last LPDP annual report in 2018 A grant to support master’s studies and doctoral projects, 50 of them abroad. (Source: LPDP Annual Report 2018)

The most important scholarship organization is the Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education, which reports directly to the Ministry of Finance and has continuously expanded its scope of funding. 20,225 scholarships have been awarded since 2013; in 2018 there were 1,789 scholarships, most of them for master’s and doctoral studies in Germany and abroad. The main destination countries for scholarship holders include Great Britain, Australia, the Netherlands and the USA.

BAN-PT, the state accreditation authority, accredits at the program and system level. Around 52 percent of the institutions in the tertiary system are system-accredited, of which only 104 (2.2 percent) have the best grade A. 4 They are considered the best universities in the country. Within Indonesia, it is now allowed to gain further qualifications in academic S-programs through professional D-degrees (D 1 to D 4), which are awarded to Polytechnics.

As with the US Tenure track system Young scientists go through a four-stage career process: The young lecturer, the Asisten Ahli, who should have at least a master’s degree, is expected to do a doctorate and make a name for himself with research projects, publications and non-university engagement. Then he can apply for the status of Lektor, later for the position of Lektor Kepala (Senior Lecturer), finally for that of Guru Besar Madya, comparable to Associate Professor, and finally for that of Guru Besar, comparable to Full Professor. Theoretically this way is in eight to ten years to accomplish.

Measured at scientific publications comparatively little research is carried out at Indonesia's universities. Only 38 current Indonesian research publications (journals) are currently listed on Scopus (whereas 133 from Singapore and 95 from Malaysia). Although the number of scientific publications in Scopus-indexed journals has increased in recent years, Indonesian publications are cited less frequently than comparable publications on a global average (field-weighted citation index below 1.0). If you look at the areas in which a lot is published in Indonesia, the sectors play a role Medicine, social sciences, environmental and life sciences, and engineering the greatest role. Art, culture and humanities, on the other hand, are of little importance.

Author: Christian Rabl, based on preliminary work by Dr. Irene Jansen, Jakarta Branch Office

The DAAD is currently represented in Indonesia with a branch in Jakarta. In addition, there are two lectureships at Universitas Indonesia and one each at Universitas Padjadjaran in Bandung and one at Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta.

Individual advice on scientific cooperation with Indonesia

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As an employee of a German university, KIWi advises you on how to identify suitable cooperation partners in Indonesia and supports you with information on funding instruments and financing options for your cooperation project. There are also tips on how to successfully manage and develop existing collaborations.

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