Is nutmeg a nightshade
The nightshade family (Solanaceae) include several genera, most of which contain the nightshade drugs atropine or hyoscyamine as well as scopolamine, some of which have independent ingredients (nicotine in tobacco, solanine in nightshade and the green parts of the potato).
Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum)
A nightshade plant found in the Mediterranean countries. On the ground a rosette of oval, elongated leaves and purple flowers. The root is up to 60 cm long and contains up to 0.5% Solanaceae alkaloids (atropine or (R, S) -hyoscyamine, scopolamine). Magic drug of antiquity and the Middle Ages, sedative for painful conditions.
Henbane (hyoscyamus niger)
Highly poisonous, belongs to the nightshade family, 20-80 cm high annual herb with elongated serrated leaves and yellow flowers with purple veins, contains alkaloids in all parts of the plant, especially L-hyoscyamine (0.06 to 0.17%), which are already in small quantities can cause severe symptoms of poisoning or even death. In the Mediterranean countries, the white henbane, Hyoscyamus albus, is widespread, a 10-50 cm high herb with sulfur-yellow flowers that are deep purple on the inside and have the same effect as black henbane in our country. In the Middle Ages, "witches" are said to have made "flight ointments" from henbane in order to fly to Blocksberg.
Angel's Trumpet (Brugmansia)
Nightshade plant from South America with 20-30 cm long trumpet-like flowers, is now also planted as an ornamental plant in German gardens.
The chemical active ingredients are scopolamine and hyoscyamine. The dried leaves and flowers are smoked or taken orally as a tea. Half an hour after ingestion, there are visions and illusions that can turn into hallucinations. These hallucinogenic effects can last between 3 hours and 3 days, depending on the dose. Overdosing can lead to symptoms of poisoning (difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, dryness of the mucous membranes, urinary obstruction, rapid heartbeat) up to deaths from cardiac arrhythmias and ventricular fibrillation.
Nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.)
All parts of the 10-80cm high plant, with purple flowers, scarlet ripe berries, stems, leaves, unripe fruits are highly poisonous. The main toxin is solanine, which has a strong irritant effect on the mucous membranes (scratching and burning in the throat). Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating and headaches are all indicators of poisoning. In the event of an overdose, drowsiness, anxiety, convulsions, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, unconsciousness and shortness of breath occur. As little as 6-10 unripe berries can be fatal for an adult, death occurs from respiratory paralysis.
Thorn apple (Datura stramonium)
Nightshade plant originally from North America. 30-120cm high annual herb with 20 cm long toothed leaves, white or purple flowers and prickly fruits. It mainly contains (S) -hyoscyamine, young plants also contain scopolamine. As a result, the hallucinogenic effects predominate. Physical effects consist in dry mouth, visual disturbances, balance disorders, in the case of overdose in the worst case in cardiac arrhythmias and comatose states. Fatal complications can be expected from as little as 15 thorn apple seeds.
Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna)
50-150 cm high perennial with egg-shaped leaves, purple flowers and black berries when ripe. In addition to the black-fruited deadly nightshade, there is a yellow-fruited variant with pale yellow flowers. All parts of it contain (S) -hyoscyamine with the highest concentration in the leaves (up to 1.5%) and 0.7% in the fruits. (S) -hyoscyamine is also used today as an antidote (antidote) in the event of poisoning by pesticides or nerve gases.
Deadlyweed (Scopolia carniolica)
Perennial plant up to 60 cm high with red-brown, bell-shaped flowers. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid (S) -hyoscyamine, poisoning manifests itself in dry mouth, reddening of the skin and dilation of the pupils. The hallucinogenic effects lead to the urge to speak, hallucinations and epileptic seizures. High doses can cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Last update of this page: 02/08/2019 - IMPRINT - FAQ
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