What happened on June 26, 1949

The way to unity

November 28 - December 1, 1943 In Tehran, Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt discuss a possible division of Germany after the war

June 5, 1945 Berlin Declaration: The four victorious powers (France, USA, Great Britain, USSR) take over the "supreme governmental power in Germany", division of Germany into four zones of occupation and Berlin into four sectors

July 17 - August 2, 1945 conference of Potsdam

June 5, 1947 The USA announces an aid program for Europe ("Marshall Plan")

June 20, 1948 Currency reform through the introduction of the DM in the western occupation zones

June 23, 1948 Currency reform in the Soviet Zone

June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949 Berlin blockade; British-American airlift to supply West Berlin with goods and food

May 23, 1949 Foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany

October 7, 1949 Foundation of the German Democratic Republic

July 6, 1950 Görlitz Agreement on the Oder-Neisse border between Poland and GDR

September 29, 1950 Admission of the GDR to the Eastern European Council for Mutual Economic Aid

April 18, 1951 Foundation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) (Benelux countries, France, Italy and the Federal Republic) in Paris

20th September 1951 Berlin Agreement: Signing of the interzonal trade agreement between the Federal Republic and the GDR

May 26, 1952 "Treaty on Relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Three Western Powers" (also called Germany or General Treaty)

June 17, 1953 Workers' protests and popular uprising in the GDR, crackdown by Soviet soldiers and GDR people's police

March 25, 1954 The USSR extends the sovereignty rights of the GDR

October 23, 1954 Paris Treaties between the Federal Republic and the Western Powers (The Federal Republic becomes conditionally sovereign on May 5, 1955)

May 9, 1955 NATO accession of the Federal Republic

May 14, 1955 Formation of the "Warsaw Pact" (GDR, Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and USSR)

July 26, 1955 Khrushchev (General Secretary of the CPSU) proclaims the Soviet two-state theory, which assumes the division of Germany

September 22, 1955 Hallstein Doctrine: The Federal Government has no diplomatic relations with states that recognize the GDR (with the exception of the USSR)

March 25, 1957 Treaty of Rome: European integration of the Federal Republic

November 27, 1958 Berlin ultimatum: Khrushchev's demand for a demilitarized "Free City of Berlin" fails due to Western resistance

September 8, 1960 GDR decision that German citizens are generally only allowed to enter East Berlin with a residence permit; the Federal Republic reacts to this by terminating the interzone agreement

August 13, 1961 Beginning of the construction of the wall

February 20, 1967 Proclamation of its own GDR state nation by the People's Chamber of the GDR

March 19, 1970 First inner-German summit: Federal Chancellor Brandt and the chairman of the GDR Council of Ministers, Willi Stoph, meet in Erfurt

August 12, 1970 German-Soviet treaty renouncing violence and recognizing the existing borders in Europe (so-called Moscow Treaty)

7th December 1970 Warsaw Treaty between the Federal Republic and Poland (normalization of relations and recognition of the Oder-Neisse line)

3rd September 1971 Four-Power Agreement on Berlin by the USA, Great Britain, France and the USSR (securing the western access routes and recognizing the existing political conditions)

December 21, 1972 Basic treaty between the Federal Republic and the GDR

18th September 1973 The Federal Republic and the GDR become members of the UN

May 2nd 1974 GDR and Federal Republic open "permanent representations" in Bonn and East Berlin, respectively

August 1, 1975 Signing of the CSCE Final Act by 35 Heads of State in Helsinki

October 30, 1980 Government in East Berlin cancels visa-free traffic between the GDR and Poland

July 1984 First "embassy occupation" in the permanent representation of the Federal Republic in East Berlin<>

7-11 September 1987 Erich Honecker in Bonn

from April 18, 1989 Dismantling of the fortifications on the Hungarian-Austrian border

May 7, 1989 Local elections in the GDR: For the first time, members of the opposition detect election fraud and make them public

July 7, 1989 Before the Council of Europe, Gorbachev declared interference in the internal affairs of friends and allies as inadmissible

Summer 1989 GDR citizens occupy western diplomatic missions in Budapest, Warsaw, East Berlin and Prague

4th September 1989 First "Monday demonstration" in Leipzig after a prayer for peace in the Nikolaikirche: demands for freedom of travel and assembly

September 11, 1989 GDR refugees are officially allowed to leave Hungary

September / October 1989 Foundation of the New Forum, the SPD, Democratic Awakening and Democracy Now

October 1, 1989 First special trains from Warsaw and Prague with approx. 6800 GDR refugees cross the GDR; GDR citizens wishing to leave the country try to jump on the trains

October 6, 1989 The celebrations for the 40th anniversary of the GDR are accompanied by public demonstrations and activities by opposition groups

October 16, 1989 Leipzig Monday demonstration with 120,000 participants ("We are the majority! We are the people!")

17th October 1989 Fall of Erich Honecker; Egon Krenz becomes the new General Secretary of the SED

October 27, 1989 Enactment of an amnesty for emigrants or refugees and demonstrators

November 1, 1989 Lifting of travel restrictions vis-à-vis Czechoslovakia and declaration by the GDR government that its citizens could travel directly from the CˇSSR to the Federal Republic of Germany

1st week of November 1989 The demonstration movement reaches its climax

November 7th and 8th, 1989 The government of the GDR and the Politburo of the SED resign as one

November 9, 1989 The Central Committee Secretary for Information, Günter Schabowski, announced that the GDR had opened its borders; Mass influx at the border crossings; Border guards finally open the Berlin Wall after 28 years

November 13, 1989 Hans Modrow is elected as the new Prime Minister of the GDR

November 15, 1989 General Secretary Gorbachev casually speaks in Moscow of a "reunification" of Germany

November 17, 1989 In his government statement, Modrow proposes a "contractual community" between the two German states

November 28, 1989 Chancellor Kohl presents a "ten-point program to overcome the division of Germany and Europe"

3rd December 1989 Change of power: Resignation of the Politburo and Central Committee of the SED

7th December 1989 GDR government and opposition groups meet for the first time at the central "round table" to talk about the future of the GDR

December 11, 1989 For the first time, the call for reunification is loud during the Monday demonstrations in the GDR ("We are one people")

December 19, 1989 Kohl visits Dresden and meets Modrow

December 24, 1989 Introduction of visa-free traffic between the two German states

January 1, 1990 Beginning of negotiations at ministerial level on the formation of a contractual community between the Federal Republic and the GDR

January 30, 1990 Modrow in Moscow; The USSR signals to respect the right of the German people to self-determination

February 7, 1990 Start of negotiations on the introduction of economic and monetary union

March 1, 1990 Establishment of the trust

March 18, 1990 First free Volkskammer election in the GDR: Alliance for Germany becomes the strongest force

April 12, 1990 Election of Lothar de Maizières as the new Prime Minister of the GDR

May 5th 1990 Two-plus-four negotiations: first round of negotiations at foreign ministerial level

May 18, 1990 "Treaty on the creation of a currency, economic and social union between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic"

June 18, 1990 Loan agreement between the Federal Republic and the USSR in Moscow

July 1, 1990 Entry into force of economic, monetary and social union

July 5th and 6th, 1990 Summit conference of the heads of state and government of the NATO member states in London: Declaration regarding a fundamental change in the Atlantic Alliance

14.-16. July 1990 Kohl visits Gorbachev in the Caucasus: Soviet concession that Germany can remain a member of NATO

23rd August 1990 The East German parliament votes with 294 to 62 votes for accession to the Federal Republic of Germany according to Article 23 of the Basic Law

August 31, 1990 "Treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic on the establishment of the unity of Germany - Unification Treaty"

September 12, 1990 Two-plus-four negotiations: "Treaty on the final settlement with regard to Germany" in Moscow

October 3, 1990 Accession of the five eastern German states to the scope of the Basic Law

2nd December 1990 First all-German federal elections

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